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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131991, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461336

RESUMO

Cr contamination is frequently combined with organic pollution. Cr flocculation using flocculants results in difficulty in Cr recovery and increase of salinity. Moreover, the fates of coexisted organic pollutants are rarely attended. In this study, the Fenton-like reaction based on Cr redox reaction (Cr-Fenton-like reaction) coupled with Cr flocculation was established using H2O2 as additives, which gave the opportunity to realize simultaneous removal of Cr and organic matters sustainably. In the coupling system, Cr-Fenton-like reaction generated more OH- for Cr flocculation via the H2O2 decomposition, meanwhile, Cr flocculation provided heterogeneous catalytic regions for Cr-Fenton-like reaction. The formation of Cr flocs was the key to the coupling effect. They created partially alkaline regions, therefore Cr-Fenton-like reaction (reaction condition: pH > 5) and Cr flocculation (reaction condition: pH > 8) occurred in these heterogeneous regions, although the pH of the solutions was below 5. Besides, the Cr flocs in the coupling system tended to adsorb Cr(III) which also contributed to the coupling effect. Although Cr-Fenton-like reaction generated Cr(VI) inevitably, the dissolved Cr(VI) didn't accumulate due to the persistent acidic condition and the heterogeneous catalysis of Cr flocs in the coupling system. When the coupling effect was applied to a stimulated tannery wastewater with Cr and organic co-pollution, the simultaneous removal rates for Cr and total organic carbon were 81.2% and 41.34% respectively after an 8-h running. This study gives deep insights into the coupling effect and provides a sustainable and eco-friendly strategy for the remediation of wastewater with Cr and organic co-pollution.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Ferro , Floculação , Oxirredução , Águas Residuárias
2.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813711

RESUMO

Potato is an important crop in Shanxi province located in north-central China. During 2019-2020, 319 potato leaf samples were collected from eight locations distributed in three major potato production areas in Shanxi. Bio-chip detection kit revealed the presence of several potato viruses, and among them potato virus Y (PVY) was the most common one, reaching the incidence of 87.8% of all symptomatic samples. The immuno-captured multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to identify strains for all 280 PVY-positive samples, unveiling 242 samples infected with a single strain of PVY (86.4%) and 38 (13.6%) with a mixed infection. Of samples with a single-strain infection, PVY -SYR-II accounted for 102 (42.1%), followed by PVYN-Wi (33, 13.6%) , PVY -SYR-I (28, 11.6%), 261-4 (22, 9.1%), PVYNTNa (20, 8.3%), PVYNTNb (19, 7.9%), and PVY -SYR-III (18, 7.4%). Seven isolates representing different recombinants were selected for whole genome sequencing. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses confirmed the RT-PCR based strain typing for all seven strains of PVY found in Shanxi. SXKL-12 is the first SYR-III strain from potato reported from China. However, unlike that in other known SYR-III isolates, the region positioned from 1,764 to1,902 nt in SXKL-12 shared the highest sequence identity of 82.2% with an uncharacterized PVY isolate, JL-23, from China. Interestingly, the PVYN-Wi isolate SXZY-40 also possessed a more divergent sequence for the region positioned from 6,156 to 6,276 nt than other N-Wi isolates known to date, sharing the highest identity of 86.6% with an uncharacterized Chinese PVY isolate, JL-11. Pathogenicity analysis of dominant strains PVY -SYR-II and PVYN-Wi in six local popular potato cultivars revealed that Kexin 13, Helan 15 and Jizhangshu 12 were susceptible to these two strains with mild mottling or mosaic symptoms expression, while three cultivars, Jinshu 16, Qingshu 9, Xisen 6 were found fully resistant.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; : 127764, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799165

RESUMO

Antibiotics can be biodegraded in activated sludge via co-metabolism and metabolism. In this study, we investigated the biodegradation pathways of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and antibiotic resistant genes' (ARGs) fate in different autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms, by employing aerobic sludge, mixed sludge, and nitrifying sludge. A threshold concentration of SMX activating the degradation pathways in the initial stage of antibiotics degradation was found and proved in different activated sludge systems. Heterotrophic bacteria played an important role in SMX biodegradation. However, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) had a faster metabolic rate, which was about 15 times higher than heterotrophic bacteria, contributing much to SMX removal via co-metabolism. As SMX concentration increases, the amoA gene and AOB relative abundance decreased in aerobic sludge due to the enrichment of functional heterotrophic bacteria, while it increased in nitrifying sludge. Microbial community analysis showed that functional bacteria which possess the capacity of SMX removal and antibiotic resistance were selected by SMX pressure. Potential ARGs hosts could increase their resistance to the biotoxicity of SMX and maintain system performance. These findings are of practical significance to guide antibiotic biodegradation and ARGs control in wastewater treatment plants.

4.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 538, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macro-reentrant atrial tachycardias (MATs) are a common complication after cardiac valve surgery. The MAT types and the effectiveness of MAT ablation might differ after different valve surgery. Data comparing the electrophysiological characteristics and the ablation results of MAT post-tricuspid or mitral valve surgery are limited. METHODS: Forty-eight patients (29 males, age 56.1 ± 13.3 years) with MAT after valve surgery were assigned to tricuspid valve (TV) group (n = 18) and mitral valve (MV) group (n = 30). MATs were mapped and ablated guided by a three-dimensional navigation system. The one-year clinical effectiveness was compared in two groups. RESULTS: Nineteen MATs were documented in TV group, including 16 cavo-tricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent AFL and 3 other MATs at right atrial (RA) free wall, RA septum and left atrial (LA) roof. Thirty-nine MATs were identified in MV group, including15 CTI-dependent AFL, 8 RA free wall scar-related, 2 RA septum scar-related, 8 peri-mitral flutter, 3 LA roof-dependent, 2 LA anterior scar-related, and 1 right pulmonary vein-related MAT. Compared with TV group, MV group had significantly lower prevalence of CTI-dependent AFL (38.5% vs. 84.2%), higher prevalence of left atrial MAT (35.9 vs.5.3%) and higher proportion of patients with left atrial MAT (40 vs. 5.6%), P = 0.02, 0.01 and 0.01, respectively. The acute success rate of MAT ablation (100 vs. 93.3%) and the one-year freedom from atrial tachy-arrhythmias (72.2 vs. 76.5%) was comparable in TV and MV group. No predictor for recurrence was identified. CONCLUSION: Although the types of MATs differed significantly in patients with prior TV or MV surgery, the acute and mid-term effectiveness of MAT ablation was comparable in two groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered as a part of EARLY-MYO-AF clinical trial at the website ClinicalTrials. gov (NCT04512222).

5.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 477, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical features of KCNQ2-related disorders range from benign familial neonatal seizures 1 to early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 7. The genotype-phenotypic association is difficult to establish. OBJECTIVE: To explore potential factors in neonatal period that can predict the prognosis of neonates with KCNQ2-related disorder. METHODS: Infants with KCNQ2-related disorder were retrospectively enrolled in our study in Children's Hospital of Fudan University in China from Jan 2015 to Mar 2020. All infants were older than age of 12 months at time of follow-up, and assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (BSID-III) or Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence-fourth edition (WPPSI-IV), then divided into three groups based on scores of BSID-III or WPPSI-IV: normal group, mild impairment group, encephalopathy group. We collected demographic variables, clinical characteristics, neuroimaging data. Considered variables include gender, gestational age, birth weight, age of the initial seizures, early interictal VEEG, variant location, delivery type. Variables predicting prognosis were identified using multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 52 infants were selected in this study. Early interictal video-electro-encephalography (VEEG) (ß = 2.77, 1.20 to 4.34, P = 0.001), and variant location (ß = 2.77, 0.03 to 5.5, P = 0.048) were independent risk factors for prognosis. The worse the early interictal VEEG, the worse the prognosis. Patients with variants located in the pore-lining domain or S4 segment are more likely to have a poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of early initial VEEG and variant location can predict prognosis. An individual whose KCNQ2 variant located in voltage sensor, the pore domain, with worse early initial VEEG background, often had an adverse outcome.

7.
Cancer Biol Med ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and feasibility of the rituximab, fotemustine, pemetrexed, and dexamethasone (R-FPD) regimen followed by whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). METHODS: A prospective, single-center phase II clinical trial was conducted. Patients with PCNSL newly diagnosed at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between July 2018 and July 2020 were studied. The R-FPD regimen consisted of rituximab (375 mg/m2 i.v. on D0), fotemustine (100 mg/m2 i.v. on D1), pemetrexed (600 mg/m2 i.v. on D1), and dexamethasone (40 mg i.v. on D1-5). Patients 60 years or younger who showed a complete response (CR) were treated with 23.4 Gy of WBRT after the end of chemotherapy; those older than 60 years with CR were treated with a wait-and-see approach; and those who did not show CR after the 4th cycle of chemotherapy were given salvage WBRT 30 Gy + local tumor field irradiation up to 45 Gy, regardless of age. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients were included. After 2 cycles, the objective response rate (ORR) was 96.5% (28/29, 1 CR, 27 PR, 0 SD, and 1 PD). After 4 cycles, the ORR was 73.1% (19/26, 11 CR, 8 PR, 4 SD, and 3 PD). After WBRT, the ORR was 90.9% (10/11, 7 CR, 3 PR, and 1 SD). The grade III and IV toxicity responses were mainly leukopenia (20.0%), thrombocytopenia (23.3%), and anemia (10.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Fotemustine-based therapy in combination with rituximab chemotherapy followed by WBRT can improve outcomes, providing ORR benefits and favorable tolerability in patients newly diagnosed with PCNSL.

8.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127225, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600381

RESUMO

Biochar has been widely used in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for the decomposition of organic contaminants. However, the role of intrinsic metals in hyperaccumulator biomass in the physico-chemical properties and performance of peroxodisulfate (PDS) activation by biochar is still unclear. This work employed hyperaccumulator biomass containing Fe, Mn and Zn, respectively. Result showed that as the pyrolysis temperature of the biochar increased, Fe was gradually reduced to iron oxide and Fe0, and Zn was reduced and volatilized; however, Mn remained in biochar in the form of MnS and CaMnO3 with high valence states. These thermochemical behaviors of intrinsic metals also facilitated graphitized structure growth and pore development (for Zn) and persistent free radicals (PFRs) generation (for Mn and Zn) in biochar, and these processes were crucial for imidacloprid degradation in biochar/PDS systems. Moreover, Fe/Zn@PB9/PDS showed better imidacloprid degradation performance, while Mn species in Mn@PB were catalytically inert. In addition, the radical pathway depending on·SO4- and·OH was the dominant pathway for imidacloprid degradation in the Fe@PB9/PDS systems, while the·O2--mediated 1O2 pathway and 1O2-based nonradical pathway contributed more in the Zn@PB9/PDS systems. These results reveal the role of intrinsic metals in biochar-based catalysts and provide a reference for the preparation of green and efficient hyperaccumulator-derived biochar catalysts for AOPs.

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 694733, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485333

RESUMO

Background: Predicting the perioperative requirement for red blood cells (RBCs) transfusion in patients with the pelvic fracture may be challenging. In this study, we constructed a perioperative RBCs transfusion predictive model (ternary classifications) based on a machine learning algorithm. Materials and Methods: This study included perioperative adult patients with pelvic trauma hospitalized across six Chinese centers between September 2012 and June 2019. An extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) algorithm was used to predict the need for perioperative RBCs transfusion, with data being split into training test (80%), which was subjected to 5-fold cross-validation, and test set (20%). The ability of the predictive transfusion model was compared with blood preparation based on surgeons' experience and other predictive models, including random forest, gradient boosting decision tree, K-nearest neighbor, logistic regression, and Gaussian naïve Bayes classifier models. Data of 33 patients from one of the hospitals were prospectively collected for model validation. Results: Among 510 patients, 192 (37.65%) have not received any perioperative RBCs transfusion, 127 (24.90%) received less-transfusion (RBCs < 4U), and 191 (37.45%) received more-transfusion (RBCs ≥ 4U). Machine learning-based transfusion predictive model produced the best performance with the accuracy of 83.34%, and Kappa coefficient of 0.7967 compared with other methods (blood preparation based on surgeons' experience with the accuracy of 65.94%, and Kappa coefficient of 0.5704; the random forest method with an accuracy of 82.35%, and Kappa coefficient of 0.7858; the gradient boosting decision tree with an accuracy of 79.41%, and Kappa coefficient of 0.7742; the K-nearest neighbor with an accuracy of 53.92%, and Kappa coefficient of 0.3341). In the prospective dataset, it also had a food performance with accuracy 81.82%. Conclusion: This multicenter retrospective cohort study described the construction of an accurate model that could predict perioperative RBCs transfusion in patients with pelvic fractures.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552653

RESUMO

Background: Chaiqin Qingning Capsule (CQ-C) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula commonly used to treat respiratory infectious diseases in China. The aim of this study was to detect the effect and mechanism of CQ-C treated with influenza virus in vitro and vivo. Methods: The cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of CQ-C in vitro was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The regulation of CQ-C on cytokine/chemokine expression was evaluated using RT-qPCR. In addition, the effect of CQ-C on the pathway protein, NF-κB, and its phosphorylation level was verified by western blotting. After virus inoculation, BALB/c mice were administered with CQ-C of different concentrations for 7 days. Body weight, viral titer, lung pathology, and mortality of the mice were measured, and the level of inflammatory cytokines was also examined using real-time RT-qPCR. Results: CQ-C inhibited the proliferation of influenza virus of various strains in vitro, with the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) ranging from 49 to 59 µg/mL. CQ-C downregulated virus-induced gene expression of IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL5, and COX-2 in a dose-dependent manner in A549 cells. Also, CQ-C inhibited the expression of NF-κB protein of the signaling pathway. Moreover, a decrease of the lung index and mortality of mice was observed in the CQ-C (1 g/kg/d) group. The related cytokine/chemokine expression was also decreased in the early stages of infection in the mRNA level. Conclusion: As a clinically applied Chinese prescription, our study shows that CQ-C has a wide range of effects on several influenza viruses. Moreover, CQ-C could play an important role in anti-influenza activity and anti-inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Thus, CQ-C may be a promising treatment option for influenza.

11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 686595, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568086

RESUMO

Natural killer/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL) most frequently affects the nasal cavity and upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) and is often mistaken for reactive disease processes, such as chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Recently, alterations of the nasal resident microbiota have been found in CRS. However, nasal microbial features in NKTCL have never been reported. This case-control study collected 46 NKTCL patients, 25 CRS patients and 24 matched healthy controls (HCs) to analyze nasal microbial profiles via 16S rRNA sequencing technology to improve our understanding of changes in the nasal microbiota in NKTCL. We found that alpha diversity was significantly decreased, while beta diversity was significantly increased in NKTCL compared with those in CRS and HCs. The genus Corynebacterium was significantly depleted in CRS and NKTCL versus that in HCs, while genus Staphylococcus was the most abundant in the NKTCL compared to that in the other two groups. The nasal microbial community was significantly different between UAT-NKTCL and non-UAT NKTCL patients. Importantly, based on a panel of taxa, excellent classification power with an AUC of 0.875 between UAT-NKTCL and CRS was achieved. Furthermore, the alpha diversity of the nasal microbiota was associated with several clinical covariates of NKTCL. Finally, PICRUSt analysis implicated an array of distinct functions in NKTCL that might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. In conclusion, the nasal microbial profile was unique in NKTCL. The nose-microbiota-UAT NKTCL axis represents a panel of promising biomarkers for clinical practice and contributes to revealing the potential pathogenesis of this malignancy.


Assuntos
Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK , Microbiota , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Nariz , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(8): 4650-4660, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527306

RESUMO

Background: Avian influenza A (H7N9) virus has caused more than 1,500 cases of human infection since its emergence in early 2013. Displaying little or no pathogenicity in poultry, but a 40% case-fatality rate in humans, five waves of H7N9 human infections occurred in China during 2013-2017, caused solely by a low pathogenicity strain. However, avian isolates possessing a polybasic connecting peptide in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein were detected in mid-2016, indicating that a highly pathogenic virus had emerged and was co-circulating with the low pathogenicity strains. Methods: Here we characterize the pathogenicity of a newly emerged human H7N9 variant with a PEVPKRKRTAR/GLF insertion motif at the cleavage site of the HA protein in vitro and in vivo. Results: This variant replicates in MDCK cells independently of TPCK-trypsin, which is indicative of high pathogenicity in chickens. The 50% mouse lethal dose (MLD50) of this novel isolate was less than 10 plaque forming units (PFU), compared with 3.16×104 for an identical virus lacking the polybasic insertion, indicating a high virulence phenotype. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the multiple basic amino acid insertion in the HA protein of the H7N9 variant confers high virulence in mammals, highlighting a potential risk to humans. Continuous viral surveillance is therefore necessary in the China region to improve pandemic preparedness.

13.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(16): 1290, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532427

RESUMO

Background: Electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring is widely used in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). However, conventional EEG report generation processes are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Therefore, an automatic, objective, and comprehensive pipeline for brain age estimation and EEG report conclusion prediction is urgently needed to assist clinician's decision-making. Methods: We recruited patients who underwent EEG monitoring from the NICU at Children's Hospital of Fudan University from Jan. 2016 to Mar. 2018. A total of 1,851 subjects were enrolled, including the patient's conceptional age (CA) and the clinical EEG report conclusion (normal, slightly abnormal, moderately abnormal, or severely abnormal). A total of 1,591 subjects were used to generate predictive models and 260 were used as the validation dataset. We developed Auto-Neo-EEG (an automatic prediction system to assist clinical neonatal EEG report generation), including signal feature extraction, supervised machine learning realized by gradient boosted models, to estimate brain age and predict EEG report conclusion. Results: The predicted results from the validation dataset were compared with the clinical observations to assess the performance. In the independent validation dataset, the model could achieve accordance 0.904 on estimating brain age for neonates with normal clinical EEG report conclusion, and differences between the predicted and observed brain age were strongly related with EEG report conclusion abnormality. Further, as for the EEG report conclusion prediction, the model could achieve area under the curve (AUC) of 0.984 for severely abnormal situations, and 0.857 for moderately abnormal ones. Conclusions: The Auto-Neo-EEG has the high accuracy of estimating brain age and EEG report conclusion, which can potentially greatly accelerate the EEG report generation processes assist in clinical decision making.

14.
Ecol Evol ; 11(17): 12161-12172, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522368

RESUMO

Environmental DNA metabarcoding is becoming a predominant tool in biodiversity assessment, as this time- and cost-efficient tactics have the ability to increase monitoring accuracy. As a worldwide distributed genus, Rheocricotopus Brundin, 1956 still does not possess a complete and comprehensive global DNA barcode reference library for biodiversity monitoring. In the present study, we compiled a cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA barcode library of Rheocricotopus with 434 barcodes around the world, including 121 newly generated DNA barcodes of 32 morphospecies and 313 public barcodes. Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) was applied on the 434 COI barcodes to provide a comparison between the operational taxonomic units (OTU) number calculated from the Barcode Index Number (BIN) with the "Barcode Gap Analysis" and neighbor-joining (NJ) tree analysis. Consequently, these 434 COI barcodes were clustered into 78 BINs, including 42 new BINs. ABGD yielded 51 OTUs with a prior intraspecific divergence of Pmax = 7.17%, while NJ tree revealed 52 well-separated clades. Conservatively, 14 unknown species and one potential synonym were uncovered with reference to COI DNA barcodes. Besides, based on our ecological analysis, we discovered that annual mean temperature and annual precipitation could be considered as key factors associated with distribution of certain members from this genus. Our global DNA barcode reference library of Rheocricotopus provides one fundamental database for accurate species delimitation in Chironomidae taxonomy and facilitates the biodiversity monitoring of aquatic biota.

15.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153701, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by limited airflow due to pulmonary and alveolar abnormalities from exposure to cigarette smoke (CS). Current therapeutic drugs are limited and the development of novel treatments to prevent disease progression is challenging. Isoforskolin (ISOF) from the plant Coleus forskohlii is an effective activator of adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms. Previously we found ISOF could attenuate acute lung injury in animal models, while the effect of ISOF on COPD has not been elucidated. PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ISOF on COPD and reveal its potential mechanisms. METHODS: A rat model of COPD was established by long-term exposure to CS, then the rats were orally administered with ISOF (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg). The pulmonary function, lung morphology, inflammatory cells and cytokines in serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were evaluated. Transcriptomics, proteomics and network pharmacology analysis were utilized to identify potential mechanisms of ISOF. Droplet digital PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of AC1-10 in donor lung tissues. AC activation was determined in recombinant human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably expressing human AC isoforms. In addition, ISOF caused trachea relaxation ex vivo were assessed in isolated trachea rings from guinea pigs. RESULTS: ISOF significantly ameliorated pathological damage of lung tissue and improved pulmonary function in COPD rats. ISOF treatment decreased the number of inflammatory cells in peripheral blood, and also the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and BALF. Consistent with omics-based analyses, ISOF markedly downregulated the mTOR level in lung tissue. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that ISOF treatment reduced the ratio of Th17/Treg cells in peripheral blood. Furthermore, the expression levels of AC1 and AC2 are relatively higher than other AC isoforms in normal lung tissues, and ISOF could potently activate AC1 and AC2 in vitro and significantly relax isolated guinea pig trachea. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our studies suggest that ISOF exerts its anti-COPD effect by improving lung function, anti-inflammation and trachea relaxation, which may be related to AC activation, mTOR signaling and Th17/Treg balance.


Assuntos
Adenilil Ciclases , Colforsina/farmacologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Fumaça , Animais , Coleus/química , Cobaias , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumar
16.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 721273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393799

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, is widely considered to be related to cigarette smoke (CS), and viral infections trigger acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Isoforskolin (ISOF) is a bioactive component from the plant Coleus forskohlii, native to Yunnan in China. It has been demonstrated that ISOF has anti-inflammatory effect on acute lung injury animal models. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy and mechanism of ISOF for the prevention and treatment of AECOPD. Mice were exposed to CS for 18 weeks and then infected with influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1). ISOF (0.5, 2 mg/kg) was intragastrically administered once a day after 8 weeks of exposure to cigarette smoke when the body weight and lung function of model mice declined significantly. The viral load, pulmonary function, lung morphology, Th17 cells, and inflammatory cytokines in lung tissues were evaluated. The expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathways were detected. The results showed that ISOF treatment reduced the viral load in the lung homogenate, decreased the lung index of model mice, and lung pathological injuries were alleviated. ISOF also improved the pulmonary function with increased FEV0.1/FVC and decreased Rn and Rrs. The levels of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17A, MCP-1, MIG, IP-10, and CRP) in the lung homogenate were reduced after ISOF treatment. ISOF decreased the proportion of Th17 cells in the lung tissues by the flow cytometry test, and the protein expression levels of RORγt and p-STAT3 were also decreased. Furthermore, ISOF significantly inhibited the activation of NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome in the lung tissues of model mice. In conclusion, ISOF alleviates AECOPD by improving pulmonary function and attenuating inflammation via the downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, Th17/IL-17 A, and NF-κB/NLRP3 pathways.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5026, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408158

RESUMO

Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Environ Pollut ; 288: 117583, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243086

RESUMO

Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may enhance the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the short-term effects of TRAP components on the cardiovascular system are not well understood. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, crossover intervention study in which 39 healthy university students spent 2 h next to a busy road. Participants wore a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) or an N95 mask. PAPRs were equipped with a filter for particulate matter (PM), a PM and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) filter or a sham filter. Participants were blinded to PAPR filter type and underwent randomized exposures four times, once for each intervention mode. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured before, during and for 6 h after the roadside exposure. Linear mixed-effect models were used to evaluate the effects of the interventions relative to baseline controlling for other covariates. All HRV measures increased during and following exposure for all intervention modes. Some HRV measures (SDNN and rMSSD during exposure and SDNN after exposure) were marginally affected by PM filtration. Wearing the N95 mask affected VLF power and rMSSD responses to traffic exposure differently than the PAPR interventions. Both systolic and diastolic BP increased slightly during exposure, but then were generally lower than baseline after exposure for the sham and filter interventions. HR, which fell during exposure and mostly remained lower than baseline after exposure, was lower yet with all filter interventions compared to the sham mode following exposure. Therefore, short-term exposure to traffic acutely affects HRV, BP and HR, but N95 mask and PAPR interventions generally show little efficacy in reducing these effects. Removing the PM component of TRAP has some limited effects on HRV responses to exposure but exaggerates the traffic-related decrease in HR. HRV findings from N95 mask interventions need to be interpreted cautiously.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Sistema Cardiovascular , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
19.
Front Oncol ; 11: 687374, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222013

RESUMO

Objective: The prognosis for patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (R/R-DLBCL) after second-line treatment failure is extremely poor. This study prospectively observed the efficacy and safety of decitabine with a modified cisplatin, cytarabine, and dexamethasone (DHAP) regimen in R/R-DLBCL patients who failed second-line treatment. Methods: Twenty-one R/R-DLBCL patients were enrolled and treated with decitabine and a modified DHAP regimen. The primary endpoints were overall response rate (ORR) and safety. The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: ORR reached 50% (complete response rate, 35%), five patients (25%) had stable disease (SD) with disease control rate (DCR) of 75%. Subgroup analysis revealed patients over fifty years old had a higher complete response rate compared to younger patients (P = 0.005), and relapsed patients had a better complete response rate than refractory patients (P = 0.031). Median PFS was 7 months (95% confidence interval, 5.1-8.9 months). Median OS was not achieved. One-year OS was 59.0% (95% CI, 35.5%-82.5%), and two-year OS was 51.6% (95% confidence interval, 26.9%-76.3%). The main adverse events (AEs) were grade 3/4 hematologic toxicities such as neutropenia (90%), anemia (50%), and thrombocytopenia (70%). Other main non-hematologic AEs were grade 1/2 nausea/vomiting (40%) and infection (50%). No renal toxicity or treatment-related death occurred. Conclusion: Decitabine with a modified DHAP regimen can improve the treatment response and prognosis of R/R-DLBCL patients with good tolerance to AEs, suggesting this regimen has potential as a possible new treatment option for R/R-DLBCL patients after second-line treatment failure. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03579082.

20.
Chemosphere ; 281: 130894, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289603

RESUMO

Long-term storage of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) may lead to granule inactivation and disintegration. Granule recovery in both structure and activity is important for scale-up and stability of AGS, but information about the structure recovery of stored AGS is limited. In addition, whether short-term exogenous N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) regulations could accelerate the granule recovery and sustain positive effects on AGS is unknown. Herein, the recovery of 33-month stored AGS was performed in three reactors for 38 days (phase I) at different exogenous AHLs concentrations (0, 50 and 500 nM of AHL-mixtures in R0, R1 and R2, respectively) and for an extended 45 days without exogenous AHLs (phase II). Results demonstrated successful recovery of disintegrated AGS in all reactors, although it was relatively time-consuming in R0. The treatment performance was similar among the reactors and steady-state removal of COD (90%) and NH4+-N (94%) could be recovered within 7 and 21 days, respectively. However, exogenous AHLs regulation (especially in R1) obviously accelerated bioactivity recovery of heterotrophs and nitrifiers and improved granule characteristics, including biomass, density, hydrophobicity and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). During phase II, sustainable positive effects remained in R1, but granule characteristics deteriorated in R2. The abundance of functional genera Thauera, Nitrosomonas and Candidatus_Nitrotoga, contributed to the rapid recovery and helped maintain the structure and activity of AGS. The predictive functional profiling of bacterial communities also demonstrated sustainably higher activities of metabolism, growth and signal sensing under exogenous AHLs regulation at an appropriate content.


Assuntos
Acil-Butirolactonas , Esgotos , Bactérias , Reatores Biológicos , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Percepção de Quorum
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