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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-39, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775224

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been observed to develop resistance to the frontline anti-tuberculosis drug rifampicin, primarily through mutations in the rifampicin resistance-determining region (RRDR) of rpoB. While these mutations have been determined to confer a fitness cost, compensatory mutations in rpoA and rpoC that may enhance the fitness of resistant strains have been demonstrated. Recent genomic studies identified several rpoB non-RRDR mutations that co-occurred with RRDR mutations in clinical isolates without rpoA/rpoC mutations and may confer fitness compensation. In this study, we identified 33 evolutionarily convergent rpoB non-RRDR mutations through phylogenomic analysis of public genomic data for clinical M. tuberculosis isolates. We found that none of these mutations, except V170F and I491F, can cause rifampin resistance in Mycolicibacterium smegmatis. The compensatory effects of five representative mutations across rpoB were evaluated by an in vitro competition assay, through which we observed that each of these mutations can significantly improve the relative fitness of the initial S450L mutant (0.97-1.08 vs 0.87). Furthermore, we observed that the decreased RNAP transcription efficiency introduced by S450L was significantly alleviated by each of the five mutations. Structural analysis indicated that the fitness compensation observed for the non-RRDR mutations might be achieved by modification of the RpoB active center or by changes in interactions between RNAP subunits. Our results provide experimental evidence supporting that compensatory effects are exerted by several rpoB non-RRDR mutations, which could be utilized as additional molecular markers for predicting the fitness of clinical rifampin-resistant M. tuberculosis strains.

2.
Food Chem ; 350: 129142, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610842

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that dietary depletion of bovine milk exosomes and their cargos causes a loss of circulating microRNAs and a series of health problems. The aim of the current study was to determine whether bovine milk exosomes affect purine nucleotide metabolism and energy metabolism in oxidatively stressed intestinal crypt epithelial cells (IEC-6). Cells were pretreated with exosomes, followed by H2O2 to induce oxidative stress. Reactive oxidative species (ROS) levels, purine nucleotides, purine metabolic key enzyme activities, cell energy status, and AMPK protein expression were analysed. Exosome pretreatment reduced ROS level and the activities of adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase induced by H2O2 in cells. Total adenine nucleotides and energy charge were increased with exosome pretreatment, while the AMPK phosphorylation level was downregulated. The results indicated that bovine milk exosomes could attenuate purine nucleotide catabolism and improve energy status in oxidatively stressed IEC-6 cells and exerted protective effects against oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Leite/citologia , Purinas/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Dieta , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 164: 112057, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515816

RESUMO

Algae-dominance in seagrass beds has been well recognized, however, the competitive relationship between seagrass and macroalgae along land-sea gradients and their ecological effects has received little attention. In this study, a field survey was conducted at the Yellow River Estuary to investigate the effects of macroalgal proliferation on seagrass and macrobenthic invertebrate communities. Our results suggested that strong competitive interaction existed between the two primary producers, and the positive or negative effects of macroalgae on seagrass growth varied along land-sea gradient. Furthermore, the dominant controlling factors on the biomass, density and diversity of macrobenthic invertebrate communities were found to vary accordingly, i.e., from features of the primary producers in the nearshore where macroalgae suppressed seagrass growth to hydrodynamic disturbance in the offshore where macroalgae facilitated seagrass growth. Our study emphasizes the importance to integrate interspecific competition into ecosystem-based management of seagrass ecosystem, and provides references for additional ecological indicators.


Assuntos
Estuários , Alga Marinha , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Rios
4.
J Org Chem ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283504

RESUMO

A general and efficient synthesis of fully substituted 4-aminodixazoles was developed based on the strategies of amide activation and umpolung reaction. In this method, 1,4,2-dioxazol-5-ones were introduced as a rare type of umpolung reagent bearing a nucleophilic N-atom that could be used well together with the activating agent Tf2O. Because 1,4,2-dioxazol-5-ones played triple roles as an umpolung reagent, a substrate, and a weak base, the method proceeded smoothly under extremely convenient conditions.

5.
Org Lett ; 22(21): 8296-8301, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035061

RESUMO

The first general method for the synthesis of α-alkyl ynones was developed based on the strategy of electrophilic activation of amides. Its distinctive advantages are attributed to the use of air-stable "bare" 1-copper(I) alkyne as a mild nucleophile without any exogeneous ligand.

6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111638, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927182

RESUMO

Sea-level rise and overfishing could enhance the strength of hydrological connectivity and the presence of herbivores, resulting in salt marsh loss through physical stress and trophic cascade effects. Our aim was to estimate the effects of these two stresses on autochthonous producers. Survivorship and biomass of Suaeda salsa (S. salsa) were the lowest in areas with high hydrological connectivity, whereas the highest biomass was observed in the areas with moderate connectivity. The biomass of benthic microalgae was higher under low hydrological connectivity and no herbivores. The interactive effects between hydrological connectivity and herbivores on S. salsa but not on benthic microalgae were observed. Herbivores were somewhat (28%) important for the survival of initial S. salsa seedlings, while hydrological connectivity controlled (50%) the biomass of benthic microalgae. Our study highlights that, the autochthonous producers in coastal salt marshes may disappear due to strong hydrological connectivity and the excessive presence of herbivores.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Áreas Alagadas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Hidrologia
7.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(5): 675-679, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975083

RESUMO

Objective: To verify the secretory ability of the hypoxic response protein 1 (HRP1) encoded by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Rv2626c. Methods: The target gene attached with His tag was amplified from the genome of Mtb standard virulence strain H37Rv. The recombinant plasmid contained the above amplified product was constructed and electroporated into Mycobacterium smegmatis (Ms) (MC 2155) to construct a recombinant strain. Protein expression was induced under heat condition, and the expression of protein from the culture filtrates and the bacterial lysates was detected afterward. The 10 kDa culture filtrate antigen (CFP-10) (Ms) and CFP-10 (Mtb) were used as positive controls, and the cytoplasmic protein heat shock protein 65 (GroEL2) (Mtb) was used as negative controls. Results: The HRP1, GroEL2 (Mtb), CFP-10 (Mtb) and CFP-10 (Ms) were successfully amplified by PCR from recombinant plasmid, and sequencing results of the recombinant plasmid is right, confirming the successful construction of the recombinant plasmid. The recombinant Ms was successfully constructed and it could express the proteins GroEL2 (Mtb), HRP1, CFP-10 (Mtb) and CFP-10 (Ms). The target protein HRP1 was detected in both of the lysate and the culture filtrate of the recombinant strain by Western blot, which was consistent with the positive control CFP-10. The negative control GroEL2 (Mtb) was only detected in the bacterial lysate, but not detected in the culture filtrate. Conclusion: The protein HRP1 encoded by Mtb Rv2626c can be secreted out of Ms by the secretion system of Ms. It may be a secreted protein and play an important role in the pathogenesis of Mtb.

8.
J Geriatr Cardiol ; 17(7): 384-392, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863820

RESUMO

Background: The relationships between dietary intake of soybean products and incident hypertension were still uncertain. This study aimed to illustrate the associations between intake of soybean products with risks of incident hypertension and longitudinal changes of blood pressure in a prospective cohort study. Methods: We included 67, 499 general Chinese adults from the Project of Prediction for Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular Disease Risk in China (China-PAR). Information about soybean products consumption was collected by standardized questionnaires, and study participants were categorized into the ideal (≥ 125 g/day) or non-ideal (< 125 g/day) group. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for incident hypertension were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models. Among participants with repeated measures of blood pressure, generalized linear models were used to examine the relationships between soybean products consumption and blood pressure changes. Results: During a median follow-up of 7.4 years, compared with participants who consumed < 125 g of soybean products per day, multivariable adjusted HR for those in the ideal group was 0.73 (0.67-0.80). This inverse association remained robust across most subgroups while significant interactions were tested between soybean products intake and age, sex, urbanization and geographic region (P values for interaction < 0.05). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were 1.05 (0.71-1.39) mmHg and 0.44 (0.22-0.66) mmHg lower among participants in the ideal group than those in the non-ideal group. Conclusions: Our study showed that intake of soybean products might reduce the long-term blood pressure levels and hypertension incidence among Chinese population, which has important public health implications for primary prevention of hypertension.

9.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the effects of folic acid (FA) combined with a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intervention on the cognitive function and inflammatory cytokines in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial recruited 240 individuals with MCI in Tianjin, China, and randomly allocated into 4 groups: FA + DHA (FA 800 µg/d + DHA 800 mg/d), FA (FA 800 µg/d), DHA (DHA 800 mg/d), and placebo. Cognitive function, serum folate and homocysteine (Hcy), plasma DHA and inflammatory cytokines levels were measured at baseline and 6 months. RESULTS: Daily oral FA, DHA and their combined use for 6 months significantly improved the full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and some subtests of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale compared to the placebo. The increases of FSIQ, arithmetic, picture completion scores in the FA group and picture completion, block design scores in the DHA group were significantly less than that in the FA combined DHA group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, daily oral FA, DHA and their combined use for 6 months significantly decreased plasma inflammatory cytokines compared to the placebo. The changes of interleukin-1ß levels in the FA group and interleukin-6 levels in the DHA group were significantly less than that in the FA + DHA group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Daily oral FA, DHA and their combined use for 6 months can significantly improve cognitive function and decrease plasma inflammatory cytokines in MCI individuals. The combination of FA and DHA was more beneficial than each individual nutrient on their own.

10.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 46(6): 1933-1945, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627093

RESUMO

In mammals, heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) is well documented as the critical transcript factor to regulate heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression under different stresses, such as heat shock or bacterial infection. In fish, Hsf1 responses to physiological and environmental stresses and regulates Hsp70 expression under thermal exposure. However, the functional role of Hsf1 in Hsp70 production is still elusive under bacterial infection. In the present study, a coding sequence of grass carp hsf1 (gchsf1) gene was cloned and identified. Using Ctenopharyngodon idellus kidney (CIK) cells as the model, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exerted stimulatory effects on the expression of grass carp hsp70 (gchsp70) and hsf1, implying possible relationship of Hsp70 and Hsf1 under immune stimulation in fish. To validate the hypothesis, overexpression of gcHsf1 was performed in CIK cells, and the effects of overexpressing gcHsf1 on the expression of gcHsp70 in the absence or presence of LPS were examined. Results showed that LPS significantly upregulated the transcription and protein synthesis of gcHsp70, and these stimulatory effects were further amplified when overexpression of gcHsf1 was performed. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays in CIK cells revealed that both overexpression of Hsf1 and LPS upregulated gchsp70 transcription, and their combined treatment further enhanced the gchsp70 promoter activity. Moreover, the regions responsive to these treatments were mapped to the promoter of gchsp70. Besides transcriptional level and cellular protein contents, gcHsp70 secretion was measured by competitive ELISA, uncovering that gcHsf1 enhanced the release of gcHsp70 induced by LPS in the same cells. These data not only demonstrated the enhancement of Hsf1 in Hsp70 production but also initially revealed the involvement of Hsf1-Hsp70 axis in mediating inflammatory response in fish.

11.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 216, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis is a recognized complication of diabetes but its pathogenic mechanism incompletely understood. Our aim was to determine whether HIF-1α and VEGF are secreted from gastric tissue is a fundamental factor that drives diabetic gastroparesis. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley by a single intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin. After 4 and 12 weeks, rats were euthanized for assaying body weight, blood glucose, gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying. Morphologic changes in gastric mucosa were observed by the light microscope. Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF were assessed using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. RESULTS: Compared with control group, blood glucose were significantly increased and body weight were markedly decreased in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Gastric emptying was significantly decreased in diabetic rats compared to the control group at different times. The number of parietal cells was obviously decreased, and vacuolated degeneration in diabetic rats. Gastric acid secretion in diabetic group was significantly decreased, and expression of HIF-1α and VEGF were significantly increased in the diabetic group. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that overexpression of HIF-1α and VEGF in the gastric mucosa and played a pivotal role in the progression of diabetic gastroparesis.

12.
Acta Paediatr ; 109(10): 1944-1947, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652669

RESUMO

Vaginal bleeding in the prepubertal girl is an uncommon condition with complex aetiological factors. We report a case of a 6-year-old girl brought to hospital when vaginal bleeding was noticed after defecation. Various common causes were excluded by genital and auxiliary examinations. Serial vaginoscopy revealed increasing petechiae within the non-oestrogenised cervix and vaginal wall. The aetiology of these petechiae was considered to result from ruptured small blood vessels or submucosal capillaries due to an increase in abdominal pressure. CONCLUSION: This case report and review of literature has shed new light on the aetiology of prepubertal bleeding, which details challenging clinical characteristics of use to gynaecologists in the evaluation of related conditions and formulation of appropriate treatment regimens.

13.
Neuroradiology ; 62(9): 1201, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617604

RESUMO

The above article was published online with incorrect Fig. 1. The correct Fig. 1 is presented below.

14.
Neuroradiology ; 62(9): 1149-1155, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562035

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether imaging features on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can differentiate sinonasal extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphomas (ENKTL) from diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). METHODS: Consecutively, pathology-proven 59 patients with ENKTL and 27 patients with DLBCL in the sinonasal region were included in this study. Imaging features included tumor side, location, margin, pre-contrast T1 and T2 signal intensity and homogeneity, post-contrast enhancement degree and homogeneity, septal enhancement pattern, internal necrosis, mass effect, and adjacent involvements. These imaging features for each ENKTL or DLBCL on total 86 MRI scans were indicated independently by two experienced head and neck radiologists. The MRI-based performance in differential diagnosis of the two types of lymphomas was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: All ENKTLs were located in the nasal cavity, with ill-defined margin, heterogeneous signal intensity, internal necrosis, marked enhancement of solid component on MRI, whereas DLBCLs were more often located in the paranasal sinuses, with MR homogenous intensity, mild enhancement, septal enhancement pattern, and intracranial or orbital involvements (all P < 0.05). Using a combination of location, internal necrosis and septal enhancement pattern of the tumor in multivariate logistic regression analysis, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in differential diagnosis of ENKTL and DLBCL were 100%, 79.4%, and 91.9%, respectively, for radiologist 1, and were 98.3%, 81.5%, and 93.0%, respectively, for radiologist 2. CONCLUSION: MRI can effectively differentiate ENKTL from DLBCL in the sinonasal region with a high diagnostic accuracy.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 7046894, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596357

RESUMO

As an oncogenic virus, HPV16 can lead to the dysfunction of cervical epithelial cells and contribute to the progression of cervical cancer. Components from the cervical-vaginal fluid (CVF) could be used as the basis for cervical cancer screening. Exosomes are widely present in various body fluids and participate in intercellular communication via its cargos of proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs. This study was conducted to explore the changes of miRNAs in exosomes isolated form the cervical-vaginal fluid during HPV16 infection and to predict the potential effects of exosomal miRNAs on the development of cervical cancer. CVF was collected from volunteers with or without HPV16 infection. The exosomes in CVF were identified by electron microscopy. Microarray analysis was subjected to find the differentially expressed miRNAs in CVF exosomes. To confirm the results, 16 miRNAs were randomly selected to go through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, GO and pathway analyses were conducted to reveal potential functions of differentially expressed miRNAs. A total of 2548 conserved miRNAs were identified in the cervical-vaginal fluid-derived exosomes. In response to HPV16 infection, 45 miRNAs are significantly upregulated and 55 miRNAs are significantly downregulated (P < 0.05). The GO and KEGG pathway analyses revealed that these differentially expressed miRNAs are tightly associated with cervical cancer tumorigenesis, through interaction with the Notch signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, and TGF-ß signaling pathway. These results suggest that exosomal miRNAs in CVF are differentially expressed in HPV16 infection patients and HPV16-free volunteers. It provided a novel insight to understand the underlying mechanism of HPV16 infection in regulating cervical cancer progression.

16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 152: 110921, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479294

RESUMO

Invasion of habitat-modifying nonnative species and alteration of ecosystem engineer by exploitation are two of the dominant human impacts on natural ecosystem functioning. The effects of these co-occurring ecosystem engineers may act simultaneously and vary independently depending on ambient environmental conditions they modify. Using a saltmarsh ecosystem with continuing invasion of nonnative cordgrass and aggregation of native bivalve shells, we tested whether the ecosystem engineering effects of shell aggregation on macroinvertebrates depended on the plants due to their ability to trap shell debris. We found habitats covered with shell aggregation and vegetated cordgrass significantly increase the biodiversity but decrease the biomass of macroinvertebrates comparing to the tidal bare flats, whereas no differences were detected among shell covered, cordgrass vegetated and their coexistent habitats. Our study highlights the importance of considering multiple, potentially conflicting management goals, which may require flexibility and trade-offs to integrate nonnative and native resources into ecosystem management.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Ecossistema , Animais , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Humanos , Plantas
17.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(10): 1144-1154, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of milk intake with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cause-specific mortality remained controversial and evidence among the Chinese population was limited. We aimed to study the relationship between milk intake and CVDs among general Chinese adults. METHODS: A total of 104,957 participants received questionnaire survey. Results of physical examination such as anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests during 2007 to 2008, demographic data and their information on milk intake were collected through standardized questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CVD incidence, cause-specific mortality and all-cause mortality related to milk intake. Restricted cubic splines (RCSs) were applied to examine dose-response associations. RESULTS: Among the 91,757 participants with a median follow-up period of 5.8 years, we documented 3877 CVD cases and 4091 all-cause deaths. Compared with participants who never consumed milk, the multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of CVD incidence for 1 to 150 g/day, 151 to 299 g/day, and ≥300 g/day were 0.94 (0.86-1.03) (P > 0.05), 0.77 (0.66-0.89) (P < 0.05), and 0.59 (0.40-0.89) (P < 0.05), respectively; each 100 g increase of daily milk intake was associated with 11% lower risk of CVD incidence (HR, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85-0.94; P < 0.001), and 11% lower risk of CVD mortality (HR, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82-0.97; P = 0.008) after adjustment for age, sex, residential area, geographic region, education level, family history of CVD, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity level, body mass index, and healthy diet status (ideal or not). RCS analyses also showed a linear dose-response relationship with CVD (P for overall significance of the curve <0.001; P for non-linearity = 0.979; P for linearity <0.001) and stroke (P for overall significance of the curve = 0.010; P for non-linearity = 0.998; P for linearity = 0.002) incidence, and CVD mortality (P for overall significance of the curve = 0.045; P for non-linearity = 0.768; P for linearity = 0.014) within the current range of daily milk intake. CONCLUSIONS: Daily milk intake was associated with lower risk of CVD incidence and mortality in a linear inverse relationship. The findings provide new evidence for dietary recommendations in CVD prevention among Chinese adults and people with similar dietary pattern in other countries.

18.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 10(7): 2507-2517, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461202

RESUMO

Egg-laying behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-known model for investigating fundamental cellular processes. In egg-laying, muscle contraction is the relaxation of the vulval muscle to extrude eggs from the vulva. Unlike skeletal muscle, vulval muscle lacks visible striations of the sarcomere. Therefore, vulval muscle must counteract the mechanical stress, caused by egg extrusion and body movement, from inducing cell-shape distortion by maintaining its cytoskeletal integrity. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate the cellular integrity in vulval muscles remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that C. elegans egg-laying requires proper vulval muscle 1 (vm1), in which the actin bundle organization of vm1 muscles is regulated by Ras suppressor protein 1 (RSU-1). In the loss of RSU-1, as well as RasLET-60 overactivation, blister-like membrane protrusions and disorganized actin bundles were observed in the vm1 muscles. Moreover, RasLET-60 depletion diminished the defected actin-bundles in rsu-1 mutant. These results reveal the genetic interaction of RSU-1 and RasLET-60 in vivo In addition, our results further demonstrated that the fifth to seventh leucine-rich region of RSU-1 is required to promote actin-bundling protein, α-actinin, for actin bundle stabilization in the vm1 muscles. This expands our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of actin bundle organization in a specialized smooth muscle.

19.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328746

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Bovine milk exosomes, which are enriched with microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins, regulate immune response and growth. In the present study, we aimed to assess the protective effects of bovine milk exosomes against oxidative stress of intestinal crypt epithelial cells (IEC-6). METHODS: Bovine milk exosomes were isolated and characterized. To assess the protective effects of exosomes, IEC-6 cells were pretreated with exosomes, followed by H2O2. Cell viability and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), reactive oxidative species (ROS), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured. The expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (Ho1) genes, and miR-146a, miR-155, and the HO-1 protein were also determined. RESULTS: The isolated bovine milk exosome were positive for CD63 and CD9 expression. The exosomes were approximately circular and had a diameter of about 67.23 nm. Pretreatment of IEC-6 cells with bovine milk exosomes enhanced cell viability; increased SOD and GPX activities; and reduced LDH, ROS, and MDA levels after H2O2 challenge. Further analysis showed that exosome pretreatment increased intracellular miR-146a and miR-155 levels. Exosome pretreatment inhibited the elevation of Nrf2 and Ho1 gene expression induced by H2O2, but promoted HO-1 protein expression. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that bovine milk exosomes exerted protective effects against oxidative stress in IEC-6 cells.

20.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 46(7): 1098-1103, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare signs and symptoms between patients with recurrent ectopic pregnancies (REP) and primary ectopic pregnancies (PEP) and to identify potential risk factors of REP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 2014 to 2016 were analyzed. The study included 81 women each diagnosed with REP and PEP with no recurrence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) before January 2019. Information, including historical factors and findings at presentation of both group were collected. Data were compared between the two groups. Associations between REP and the risk factors were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: The findings revealed that compared to the patients in the PEP group, REP patients had significantly lower education (P = 0.001), higher proportion of previous infertility (P < 0.001) and different methods of PEP treatment (P = 0.001). Clinical data of the last operation revealed significantly higher occurrences of pelvic and peritubal adhesions (P < 0.05). Further multiple regression analysis showed that lower educational background (odds ratio [OR] = 4.183 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.311-13.344 P = 0.016), nulliparity (OR = 12.312 95% CI 3.382-44.824 P < 0.001), history of salpingotomy (OR = 7.129 95% CI 1.022-49.748 P < 0.05) and abortion (OR for one abortion = 21.576, P = 0.001; OR for two abortions =36.794, P < 0.001; OR for three abortions or more = 119.013, P < 0.001) were significant risk factors for REP. CONCLUSION: Active education on contraception is required for patients with lower educational level and history of abortion. Different plans should be formulated for patients with EP. For EP patients wanting fertility, the risk between fertility preservation and REP needs to be evaluated as reproductive function cannot be pursued blindly while ignoring the risk of recurrence.

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