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1.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432582

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations are correlated to overweight/obesity in infants and to explore a threshold of 25(OH)D. A total of 1205 six-month-old infants from two community hospitals in Shanghai were randomly recruited, and 925 of them were followed up at 12 months. Concentration of 25(OH)D, weight, and length were measured at two time points. Overweight/obesity was defined as a weight-for-length Z-score >97th percentile. The prevalence of overweight/obesity at 6 and 12 months was 6.88% and 5.26%, respectively. The occurrence of vitamin D (VitD) deficiency (<20 ng/mL) at 6 and 12 months was 6.56% and 2.05%, respectively. Concentration of 25(OH)D at the corresponding age was negatively associated with weight-for-length percentile (WLP) at both 6 (adjusted ß: -0.14; 95% CI: -0.27, -0.02; p = 0.02) and 12 months (adjusted ß: -0.22; 95% CI: -0.41, -0.02; p = 0.03), while the relationship between 25(OH)D at 6 months and WLP at 12 months was nonlinear, where 35 ng/mL was identified as an inflection point. Those with a concentration of 25(OH)D <35 ng/mL at 6 months had a higher risk of overweight/obesity (adjusted OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.91; p = 0.02) compared to the group with a concentration of 25(OH)D ≥35 ng/mL. Moreover, a concentration of 25(OH)D <35 ng/mL at two time points significantly increased the risk of overweight/obesity at 12 months compared to the group with 25(OH)D concentration ≥35 ng/mL at two time points (adjusted OR: 2.91; 95% CI: 1.13, 7.46; p = 0.03). A suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration <35 ng/mL significantly increases the risk of overweight/obesity in infants.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Lactente , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , China/epidemiologia , Vitamina D , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Calcifediol
2.
ACS Omega ; 7(37): 33443-33452, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36157761

RESUMO

Solar-boosted oxidation plus hydrogen production for pollutant removal in wastewater, driven by a high thermal and low-potential electrochemical combination, is facilitated and demonstrated from theory to experiments. One sun fully offers both thermal and electrical energy powered thermo- and electrochemistry for pollutant oxidation. Solar thermal action provides high temperatures for the activation of the pollutant molecules to gear up for solar-driven electrochemical oxidation. Taking wastewater containing phenol as an example, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves display two redox processes at less than 100 °C, while only one redox process of single oxidation of phenol appears at more than 100 °C. The oxidation of phenol is accompanied by an efficient evolution of hydrogen, in which the yield of 0.627 mL at 30 °C is increased to 2.294 mL at 210 °C. The phenol removal is enhanced to 80.50% at 210 °C. Tracking the reaction progress shows that small molecular organic acids are detected as the only intermediate at the high temperatures, which suggests the easy realization of full mineralization. The kinetic reaction of the phenol oxidation is fitted to the first order with an increase of the rate constant of 10 times compared with that at low temperatures. Solar engineering of oxidation of organic pollutants not only solves the issue of energy demand for the tough wastewater treatment but also realizes fast and efficient oxidation of organic pollutants. This study opens up new avenues to achieve solar wastewater treatment and simultaneous hydrogen production.

3.
Science ; 377(6608): 870-874, 2022 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981022

RESUMO

The ambient metastability of the rock-salt phase in well-defined model systems comprising nanospheres or nanorods of cadmium selenide, cadmium sulfide, or both was investigated as a function of composition, initial crystal phase, particle structure, shape, surface functionalization, and ordering level of their assemblies. Our experiments show that these nanocrystal systems exhibit ligand-tailorable reversibility in the rock salt-to-zinc blende solid-phase transformation. Interparticle sintering was used to engineer kinetic barriers in the phase transformation to produce ambient-pressure metastable rock-salt structures in a controllable manner. Interconnected nanocrystal networks were identified as an essential structure that hosted metastable high-energy phases at ambient conditions. These findings suggest general rules for transformation-barrier engineering that are useful in the rational design of next-generation materials.

4.
J Oncol ; 2022: 8361775, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35356252

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the efficiency of capecitabine (CAP) plus temozolomide (TEM) in refractory pituitary adenoma after tumor resection and its impact on serum prolactin (PRL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH) levels. Methods: From January 2017 to January 2020, 80 patients assessed for eligibility receiving transsphenoidal tumor resection for refractory pituitary adenoma in the Department of Neurosurgery of our hospital were recruited. They were randomly distributed at a ratio of 1 : 1 via the random number table method to receive either bromocriptine and TEM (control group) or bromocriptine plus combination chemotherapy of TEM and CAP (study group). The two groups were compared in terms of clinical efficacy and serum levels of PRL, IGF-1, and GH. Results: The objective response rate (ORR) was 87.50% and 67.50% in the study group and the control group, respectively (P=0.032). Before treatment, two groups had similar levels of PRL, IGF-1, and GH. After treatment, PRL levels in the study group were lower than that in the control group (278.35 ± 39.25 versus 326.35 ± 42.45, P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, IGF-1 levels in the study group were also lower (311.78 ± 28.82 versus 364.35 ± 31.35, P < 0.001). The study group presented markedly lower levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and higher serum levels of free thyroxine-4 (FT-4) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) versus the control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of adverse events was comparable between the study group (30.0%) and the control group (22.5%) (P > 0.05). All eligible patients had similar progression-free survival (PFS) after chemotherapy. Conclusion: For patients with refractory pituitary adenoma, the combination chemotherapy of CAP and TEM significantly improves clinical outcomes and corrects hormonal disturbances, with a good safety profile, but its long-term efficacy requires further investigation.

5.
Int J Med Robot ; 18(3): e2378, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35133713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wearing appropriate active prosthesis is the guarantee of daily life for amputees. Normally the controller of the traditional active transfemoral prosthesis is designed based on the mathematical model. The modelling error and the external interference will reduce the control accuracy of the system and make the prosthesis unable to operate in the desired trajectory. METHODS: Firstly, combined with time delay estimation (TDE), a model-free robust integral sliding mode impedance controller is designed. This method not only suppress the impedance error, but also eliminate the nonlinear relationship and disturbance in the dynamic model. Secondly, an adaptive law is proposed to update the controller gain, which provide stable control effect. Thirdly, the stability of prosthesis closed-loop system is proved by Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the motor torque is used to drive each joint, and Matlab/Simscape is used to verify the prosthesis control system. RESULTS: From the result of the simulation experiment, the control method has a good tracking effect on each joint. The root mean square error and mean absolute errors of each joint's angle tracking error are 0.6123°, 1.9976°, 0.5574° and 0.2635°, 1.8175°, 0.4796°. Compared with the controller without adaptive gain and impedance control, the control effect is improved, and the plantar pressure of amputees is closer to the sound side. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the results of different controllers, the adaptive integral sliding mode impedance controller with TDE can better track the expected angles of each joint. The gait is more normal. The walking performance of the prosthesis wearers is improved.


Assuntos
Tornozelo , Membros Artificiais , Diclorodifenildicloroetano , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Dedos do Pé
6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(3): 036401, 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35119886

RESUMO

Hysteresis underlies a large number of phase transitions in solids, giving rise to exotic metastable states that are otherwise inaccessible. Here, we report an unconventional hysteretic transition in a quasi-2D material, EuTe_{4}. By combining transport, photoemission, diffraction, and x-ray absorption measurements, we observe that the hysteresis loop has a temperature width of more than 400 K, setting a record among crystalline solids. The transition has an origin distinct from known mechanisms, lying entirely within the incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) phase of EuTe_{4} with no change in the CDW modulation periodicity. We interpret the hysteresis as an unusual switching of the relative CDW phases in different layers, a phenomenon unique to quasi-2D compounds that is not present in either purely 2D or strongly coupled 3D systems. Our findings challenge the established theories on metastable states in density wave systems, pushing the boundary of understanding hysteretic transitions in a broken-symmetry state.

7.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(4): 367-371, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039684

RESUMO

van der Waals materials have greatly expanded our design space of heterostructures by allowing individual layers to be stacked at non-equilibrium configurations, for example via control of the twist angle. Such heterostructures not only combine characteristics of the individual building blocks, but can also exhibit physical properties absent in the parent compounds through interlayer interactions1. Here we report on a new family of nanometre-thick, two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectric semiconductors, where the individual constituents are well-studied non-ferroelectric monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), namely WSe2, MoSe2, WS2 and MoS2. By stacking two identical monolayer TMDs in parallel, we obtain electrically switchable rhombohedral-stacking configurations, with out-of-plane polarization that is flipped by in-plane sliding motion. Fabricating nearly parallel-stacked bilayers enables the visualization of moiré ferroelectric domains as well as electric field-induced domain wall motion with piezoelectric force microscopy. Furthermore, by using a nearby graphene electronic sensor in a ferroelectric field transistor geometry, we quantify the ferroelectric built-in interlayer potential, in good agreement with first-principles calculations. The new semiconducting ferroelectric properties of these four new TMDs opens up the possibility of studying the interplay between ferroelectricity and their rich electric and optical properties2-5.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(22): 227401, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889631

RESUMO

Engineering novel states of matter with light is at the forefront of materials research. An intensely studied direction is to realize broken-symmetry phases that are "hidden" under equilibrium conditions but can be unleashed by an ultrashort laser pulse. Despite a plethora of experimental discoveries, the nature of these orders and how they transiently appear remain unclear. To this end, we investigate a nonequilibrium charge density wave (CDW) in rare-earth tritellurides, which is suppressed in equilibrium but emerges after photoexcitation. Using a pump-pump-probe protocol implemented in ultrafast electron diffraction, we demonstrate that the light-induced CDW consists solely of order parameter fluctuations, which bear striking similarities to critical fluctuations in equilibrium despite differences in the length scale. By calculating the dynamics of CDW fluctuations in a nonperturbative model, we further show that the strength of the light-induced order is governed by the amplitude of equilibrium fluctuations. These findings highlight photoinduced fluctuations as an important ingredient for the emergence of transient orders out of equilibrium. Our results further suggest that materials with strong fluctuations in equilibrium are promising platforms to host hidden orders after laser excitation.

9.
PeerJ ; 9: e12361, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760377

RESUMO

Tooth replacement rate is an important feature related to feeding mechanics and food choices for dinosaurs. However, only a few data points are available for sauropod dinosaurs, partially due to rarity of relevant fossil material. Four somphospondylan sauropod species have been recovered from the Lower Cretaceous Aptian-Albian Haoling Formation in the Ruyang Basin, Henan Province of central China, but no cranial material has been reported except for a single crown. Here we report the discovery of the rostral portion of a left dentary with replacement teeth in its first five alveoli. Comparative anatomical study shows the partial dentary can be assigned to a member of early diverging somphospondylans. The non-destructive tooth length-based approach to estimating tooth formation time and replacement rate is adopted here. The estimated tooth replacement rate is 76 days, faster than that of Brachiosaurus (83 days) and much lower than typical late diverging lithostrotian titanosaurians (20 days). Thus, this discovery adds an intermediate tooth replacement rate in the evolution of titanosauriform sauropods and supports the idea that evolution of tooth replacement rate is clade-specific. This discovery also provides more information to understand the Ruyang sauropod assemblage, which includes one of the most giant dinosaurs to have walked our Earth (Ruyangosaurus giganteus).

10.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 4177-4193, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675482

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pinocembrin is a dihydroflavonoid, which is widely found in several plant species. Although pinocembrin has good pharmacological activity, it has poor water solubility and low bioavailability. Therefore, we have modified the structure of pinocembrin with a combination of different amino acids to solve this problem. Moreover, the effect of the antiaging activity of them has not been explored. We aim to investigate the effect of pinocembrin and its amino acid derivatives on the aging of Caenorhabditis elegans. METHODS: Pinocembrin was spliced with different amino acids in order to obtain their corresponding derivatives. The preliminary research of pinocembrin and its amino acid derivatives on antiaging effect was studied by using the C. elegans model. Among all the compounds, the one shows the best antiaging effect was then studied on antiaging mechanism. The protective effect on nematodes under emergency conditions was explained by detecting the ROS content and sod-3p::GFP fusion protein expression in nematodes; the possible anti-aging mechanism of nematodes was determined by DAF-16 nuclear localization experiment and the survival curve of transgenic nematodes model under stress conditions. RESULTS: Pb-3 showed the best effect on increasing tolerance to thermal and oxidative stress and reduce the accumulation of lipofuscin. In the assay of C. elegans, pb-3 reduced intracellular ROS accumulation. Application of pb-3 to the transgenic mutant TJ356 induced the translocation of the transcription factor DAF-16 from the cytosol to the nucleus, and modulated the expression of SOD-3 (downstream genes of daf-16), which regulates longevity in C. elegans. Moreover, pb-3 did not prolong the lifespan of daf-16, age-1, daf-2 and hsp16.2 mutants, suggesting that these genetic pathways are involved in mediating the antiaging effects of pb-3. CONCLUSION: The antioxidant and antiaging properties of pb-3 may involve in the DAF-16/FOXO transcription process. Pinocembrin amino acid derivatives might be a novel agent for antiaging therapy.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Envelhecimento/genética , Aminoácidos/química , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/química , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavanonas/síntese química , Flavanonas/química , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 141: 111876, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328085

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies and has the second highest lethal rate in the world; thus, finding new medicines with high potency and low toxicity is urgent. Cudrania tricuspidata (Carr.) Bur. ex Lavallee (Moraceae) is a traditional medicinal herb that is considered to have antitumour efficacy. We extracted and isolated cudraxanthone L (CXL) from Cudrania tricuspidata and evaluated its anti-cancer efficacy. CXL treatment inhibited angiogenesis of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and repressed the cell viability of various human cancer cells, indicating it presented the antitumour potential. Among them, CXL presented the best inhibitory effects on MGC803 cells. In addition, the invasion, migration and clonogenicity were significantly repressed, S phase of the cell cycle was arrested, and apoptosis was induced when MGC803 cells were treated with CXL. The results of RNA sequencing, qRT-PCR and western blotting verified that CXL regulated the MAPK signalling pathway and induced apoptosis by FAS-mediated pathway. The in vivo data revealed that CXL arrested tumour growth without toxic effects and upregulated the protein levels in FAS-mediated pathway in MGC803 gastric cancer-bearing mice. In summary, we demonstrate CXL presents impactful anti-GC efficacy by regulating the MAPK signalling pathway and promoting the FAS-mediated pathway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Xantonas/uso terapêutico , Receptor fas/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Moraceae , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Xantonas/isolamento & purificação , Xantonas/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
12.
Science ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045323

RESUMO

2D ferroelectrics with robust polarization down to atomic thicknesses provide building blocks for functional heterostructures. Experimental realization remains challenging because of the requirement of a layered polar crystal. Here, we demonstrate a rational design approach to engineering 2D ferroelectrics from a non-ferroelectric parent compound via employing van der Waals assembly. Parallel-stacked bilayer boron nitride exhibits out-of-plane electric polarization that reverses depending on the stacking order. The polarization switching is probed via the resistance of an adjacently stacked graphene sheet. Twisting the boron nitride sheets by a small angle changes the dynamics of switching thanks to the formation of moiré ferroelectricity with staggered polarization. The ferroelectricity persists to room temperature while keeping the high mobility of graphene, paving the way for potential ultrathin nonvolatile memory applications.

13.
Eur J Nutr ; 60(6): 3473-3483, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661376

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prenatal vitamin D (VitD) deficiency influences children's health in later life. We aimed to test the associations between maternal VitD status in each of the three trimesters of pregnancy and cord blood 25(OH)D concentrations in newborns. METHODS: Participants were pregnant women recruited from the Shanghai Birth Cohort (SBC) (n = 1100). Of all the participants, 946 completed the collection of venous blood at early (< 16 weeks, T1), mid- (24-28 weeks, T2), and late (32-34 weeks, T3) pregnancy as well as the corresponding cord blood in the newborns. Maternal serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS, and the information on confounding factors was obtained through a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean 25(OH)D concentrations at time points T1, T2, T3 in maternal blood and cord blood of the newborns were 26.31 ng/mL, 31.92 ng/mL, 35.62 ng/mL, and 19.77 ng/mL, respectively. Neonatal 25(OH)D level in cord blood was positively correlated with maternal serum 25(OH)D levels at each trimester, and the strongest correlation was found at time point T3. CONCLUSION: Maternal 25(OH)D concentrations at each trimester were positively associated with neonatal VitD status in cord blood, and the strongest correlation was found in the late stage of pregnancy, which could be considered as a sensitive time window. Attention should be paid to the nutritional status of VitD during pregnancy to better prevent the VitD deficiency in neonates.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
14.
Biosci Rep ; 41(7)2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioma is the most common malignant tumor in the human central nervous system. Long noncoding RNA nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) promotes oncogenesis in various tumors. In the present study, we aimed to examine the role of NEAT1 in altering the properties of gliomas. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR technology was used to determine the expression levels of relevant genes in tumor tissues and cell lines. The protein expression levels were validated by Western blotting. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and colony formation assays were used to test the cell proliferation ability. A luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the interactions of the genes. Tumor xenografts were used to detect the role of NEAT1 in gliomas in vivo. RESULTS: We demonstrated that NEAT1 up-regulated glioma cells and negatively correlated with miR-98-5p in glioma tissues. A potential binding region between NEAT1 and miR-98-5p was confirmed by dual-luciferase assays. NEAT1 knockdown inhibited glioma cell proliferation. The inhibition of miR-98-5p rescued the knockdown of NEAT1 in glioma cells. Basic leucine zipper and W2 domain containing protein 1 (BZW1) was identified as a direct target of miR-98-5p. We also identified that BZW1 was positively correlated with NEAT1 in glioma tissues. NEAT1 knockdown inhibited glioma cell proliferation in vivo via miR-98-5p/BZW1. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that NEAT1 plays an oncogenic function in glioma progression. Targeting NEAT1/miR-98-5p/BZW1 may be a novel therapeutic treatment approach for glioma patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Glioma/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioma/genética , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Carga Tumoral
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(16): 20440-20450, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403637

RESUMO

The production and emission of short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) has increased over the years to replace long-chain PFAAs, leading to frequent detection in the environment and raising global concerns about the potential impacts on human health. In this study, the specific urine levels of 10 PFAAs were obtained from 189 children (age 8-12 years) from two primary schools located in urban and suburban areas of Shanghai in 2019, and the contributions of dietary factors were investigated. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) were detected in 100%, 99.5%, and 87.3% of the samples, with median concentrations of 20.20 ng/L, 46.50 ng/L, and 20.95 ng/L, respectively. The most abundant PFAA was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), with a median concentration of 78.90 ng/L. The concentration of ∑PFAAs ranged from 61.10 to 4108.93 ng/L, with a median concentration of 253.12 ng/L. Children aged 8-9 years had higher median levels of PFBS, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) than children aged 10-12 years. Obese/overweight children had lower levels of PFHpA, PFBS, and PFOS. The intake of red meats, tubers, sugared beverages, fish and seafood, and eggs contributed to higher concentrations of PFAAs, while frequent intake of poultry and soy milk was associated with lower PFAA concentrations.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Animais , Caprilatos , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113324, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890714

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fufang Xueshuantong (FXST) is a traditional Chinese patent medicine composed of Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H.Chen (Araliaceae), Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae), Astragalus propinquus Schischkin (Leguminosae), and Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. (Scrophulariaceae). It has been widely used for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and exerts a positive clinical therapeutic effect. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of FXST on diabetic rat retinas and investigate its pharmacological mechanism for improving DR. METHODS: The diabetic rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The rats were divided into a normal group, diabetic group, and FXST group. The rats in the FXST group were treated with FXST by intragastric administration for 12 weeks while other rats were given the same volume of normal saline. The haemodynamic parameters of the central retinal artery in the rats were measured by ultrasound. Haematoxylin-eosin staining was utilised to observe the pathological structural changes in the retina. The apoptosis of retinal nerve cells was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling. RNA sequencing was used to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and enrichment analyses were performed. The DEGs were validated through real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: The peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, and mean velocity decreased while the resistance index and pulsatility index increased in the diabetic rat retinas. FXST also improved haemodynamics. In contrast with the diabetic group, FXST allayed the disorder and oedema of the retinal structure in addition to reversing the reductions in retinal thickness and retinal ganglion cell number. It also decreased the apoptosis index of retinal cells. A total of 1134 DEGs were identified by RNA sequencing in the FXST group compared to the diabetic group, including 814 upregulated genes and 320 downregulated genes. These genes were enriched in the complement and coagulation cascades as well as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signalling pathway. Several DEGs, including PPAR gamma, perilipin 4, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase long chain, CD55 molecule, and plasminogen activator urokinase, were identified by qRT-PCR, and the results were consistent with the RNA sequencing data. CONCLUSIONS: FXST alleviates DR by improving the haemodynamics and morphological alterations of diabetic rat retinas, which are mediated by complement and coagulation cascades and the PPAR signalling pathway.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Masculino , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estreptozocina
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 268: 113616, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271246

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: HuoXue JieDu Formula (HXJDF) originates from classical formulas and was formed based on clinical experience. It is composed of Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Siebold, Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H. Chen, the roots of Anguina kirilowii (Maxim.) Kuntze, and Coptis omeiensis (C. Chen) C.Y.Cheng. HXJDF prevents the deterioration of diabetic retinopathy. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effects of HXJDF on diabetic retinopathy in rats and investigate the roles of miRNAs in the effects of HXJDF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg) was used to induce diabetes in rats. Rats were divided into three groups: normal, diabetic, and diabetic + HXJDF. Rats were treated with HXJDF (15.4 g/kg) or water by oral gavage for twelve weeks. At the end of the treatment, rats were anaesthetized, and retinal haemodynamic changes were measured. Then, the retinas were removed and examined by haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and TUNEL assays. In addition, miRNA expression profiling was performed using miRNA microarrays and further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: Diabetes reduced peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), mean velocity (MV) and central retinal vein velocity (CRV) but increased the resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI). In addition, in the diabetic group, retinal cell arrangement was disordered and loosely arranged, the retinal thickness and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) number decreased, and retinal cell apoptosis increased. In addition, 11 miRNAs were upregulated and 4 miRNAs were downregulated. After treatment, HXJDF improved retinal haemodynamics and morphologic changes, restored retinal thickness and RGC number and decreased retinal cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the changes in miRNA expression were significantly abolished by HXJDF. CONCLUSION: HXJDF may prevent DR by regulating the expression of miRNAs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Retinopatia Diabética/genética , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/síntese química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Ultramicroscopy ; 230: 113389, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530284

RESUMO

Integral to the exploration of nonequilibrium phenomena in solid-state systems is the study of lattice motion after photoexcitation by a femtosecond laser pulse. For the past two decades, ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) has played a critical role in this regard. Despite remarkable progress in instrumental development, this technique is still bottlenecked by a demanding sample preparation process, where ultrathin single crystals of large lateral size are typically required. In this work, we describe an efficient, versatile method that yields high-quality, laterally extended (≥ 100 µm), and thin (≤ 50 nm) single crystals on amorphous films of Si3N4 windows. It applies to most exfoliable materials, including those reactive in ambient conditions, and promises clean, flat surfaces. Besides the natural extension to fabricating van der Waals heterostructures, our method can also be applied to future-generation UED that enables additional control of sample parameters, such as electrostatic gating and excitation by a locally enhanced terahertz field. Our work significantly expands the type of samples for UED studies and also finds application in other time-resolved techniques such as attosecond extreme-ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. This method hence provides further opportunities to explore photoinduced transitions and to discover novel states of matter out of equilibrium.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21518, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298989

RESUMO

An electrosynthesis is presented to transform CO2 into an unusual nano and micron dimensioned morphology of carbon, termed Carbon Nano-Scaffold (CNS) with wide a range of high surface area graphene potential usages including batteries, supercapacitors, compression devices, electromagnetic wave shielding and sensors. Current CNS value is over $323 per milligram. The morphology consists of a series of asymmetric 20 to 100 nm thick flat multilayer graphene platelets 2 to 20 µm long orthogonally oriented in a 3D neoplasticism-like geometry, and appears distinct from the honeycomb, foam, or balsa wood cell structures previously attributed to carbon scaffolds. The CNS synthesis splits CO2 by electrolysis in molten carbonate and has a carbon negative footprint. It is observed that transition metal nucleated, high yield growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is inhibited in electrolytes containing over 50 wt% of sodium or 30 wt% of potassium carbonate, or at electrolysis temperatures less than 700 °C. Here, it is found that a lower temperature of synthesis, lower concentrations of lithium carbonate, and higher current density promotes CNS growth while suppressing CNT growth. Electrolyte conditions of 50 wt% sodium carbonate relative to lithium carbonate at an electrolysis temperature of 670 °C produced over 80% of the CNS desired product at 85% faradaic efficiency with a Muntz brass cathode and an Inconel anode.

20.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(11): e9974, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965325

RESUMO

Moyamoya disease (MMD) is currently thought to involve endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). We investigated whether superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) can be used to label EPCs. Mononuclear cells from 10 moyamoya disease patients were isolated, and cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133) positive cells sorted by magnetic-activated cell sorting were cultured in vitro. The positive rates of CD133, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2, and cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) were detected by flow cytometry. The cells were co-cultured with fluorescence labeled Dil-acetylated-low-density lipoprotein (Dil-ac-LDL) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) to observe the endocytosis of Dil-ac-LDL and binding to UEA-1. Prussian blue staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the endocytosis of different SPIO concentrations in EPCs, and CCK-8 was used to detect proliferation of cells transfected with different concentrations of SPIO. T2 weighted imaging (T2WI) signals from magnetic resonance imaging after SPIO endocytosis were compared. Positive rates of CD133, VEGFR-2, and CD34 on sorted mononuclear cells were 68.2±3.8, 57.5±4.2, and 36.8±6.5%, respectively. The double-positive expression rate of CD34 and VEGFR-2 was 19.6±4.7%, and 83.1±10.4% of cells, which showed the uptake of Dil-ac-LDL and binding with UEA-1. The labeling efficiencies of SPIO at concentrations of 25 and 50 µg/mL were higher than for 12.5 µg/mL. The proliferation of cells was not influenced by SPIO concentrations of 12.5 and 25 µg/mL. After labeling, the T2WI of EPCs was reduced. The concentration of 25 µg/mL SPIO had high labeling efficiency detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without decreased EPCs viability.


Assuntos
Células Progenitoras Endoteliais , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Doença de Moyamoya , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Compostos Férricos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
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