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1.
Zootaxa ; 4995(2): 389-395, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810562

RESUMO

A new gall wasp species, Plagiotrochus hepingensis sp. n. is described from Hunan Province, China that forms integral galls on the central vein on the abaxial leaf blade surface of Quercus (Cyclobalanopsis) glauca (Fagaceae). The morphological characters of the new species are described and photographed and data on the diagnosis, distribution, and biology are given. Additionally, a specific region of the COI gene was amplified using the primers HCO-2198 and LCO-1490 and compared for both the new species and Plagiotrochus masudai Ide, Wachi Abe.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Lepidópteros , Quercus , Vespas , Animais , China , Folhas de Planta , Vespas/genética
2.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 34(11): 1072-6, 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of single-segment lumbar microdiscectomy without drainage. METHODS: The clinical data of 135 patients with single-segment lumbar disc herniation treated by microdiscectomy surgery from January 2018 to August 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 95 males and 40 females, aged from 18 to 40 years old, with a mean of (28.3±5.4) years. They were divided into drainage group (78 cases) and non-drainage group (57 cases) according to whether the drainage tube was placed during operation. The general conditions of patients were recorded such as age, gender, operation segment, body mass index(BMI), symptom duration, follow-up time, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, out-of-bed time, hospital stay, postoperative drainage removal time and drainage volume of drainage group, postoperative body temperature. VAS of incisional pain in supine resting state on the 1 and 3 days after operation, the VAS of low back pain and lower extremity radiating pain during ground exercise before operation, 3 days, 1 month and 3 months after operation were compared. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was collected before operation, 1 month and 3 months after operation. The ratio of complications was calculated such as symptomatic incision hematoma, poor incision healing, incision infection, exacerbation and progressive aggravation of neurological dysfunction, and unplanned secondary surgery. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, gender, operation segment, BMI, symptom duration, follow-up time, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative body temperature between two groups. The average hospital stay and out-of-bed time in non-drainage group were shorter than in drainage group(P=0.0000). VAS of incision pain in non-drainage group was lower than that in control group at 1 and 3 days after surgery (P<0.05). Postoperative low back pain VAS and ODI of all patients were significantly reduced compared with those before surgery. No symptomatic hematoma occurred in two groups. Postoperative neurological dysfunction immediately aggravated each one patient in two groups, and no progressive aggravation of neurological function was found in two groups. Incision infection occurred in one case in each of the two groups, and both were cured by drug treatment; poor incision healing occurred in one case in each of the two groups, and both were healed after repeated dressing changes. There was one case of unplanned second operation in drainage group, the patient received a second operation due to disc protrusion recurrence within 1 month. CONCLUSION: Single-segment lumbar microdiscectomy without drainage can shorten the average hospital stay and promote early exercise out of bed, and reduce the trauma and stress reaction of drainage. No drainage may be an option for patients with enhanced recovery after lumbar microdiscectomy.


Assuntos
Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral , Vértebras Lombares , Adolescente , Adulto , Drenagem , Feminino , Humanos , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Histopathology ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725848

RESUMO

AIMS: Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive molecular subtype associated with younger age and early relapse. Most cases lack expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, limiting targeted therapeutic options. Basal-like breast cancer is defined by expression of genes in the outer/basally-located epithelial layer of mammary glands including those encoding cytokeratins 5 and 14, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). SOX10, a readily available immunohistochemical stain, is expressed in a subset of breast cancers, particularly triple-negative carcinomas. In this study, we sought to (i) assess the association between SOX10 expression and intrinsic molecular subtypes as defined by PAM50 gene expression and (ii) compare the performance of SOX10 to other surrogate markers of basal-like subtype, including CK5, EGFR, nestin and INPP4b. METHODS AND RESULTS: SOX10 immunostaining was performed on tissue microarrays constructed from a contemporary series enriched for ER negative and weakly positive cancers, which had also undergone PAM50 gene profiling. A total of 211 cases were informative for both SOX10 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PAM50 subtype, including 103 basal-like. Staining for SOX10 was positive in 73/103 basal-like cancers and only 2/108 other subtypes (p<0.001), resulting in a sensitivity of 70.9% and a specificity of 98.1%. SOX10 was more specific than the other tested basal-markers and the results were independent of estrogen receptor status. CONCLUSIONS: SOX10 is a moderately sensitive, but highly specific IHC biomarker for the basal-like intrinsic subtype of breast cancer, which unlike other commonly used IHC biomarkers, is independent of hormone receptor status.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768831

RESUMO

The metal cation symporter ZIP8 (SLC39A8) is a transmembrane protein that imports the essential micronutrients iron, manganese, and zinc, as well as heavy toxic metal cadmium (Cd). It has been recently suggested that selenium (Se), another essential micronutrient that has long been known for its role in human health and cancer risk, may also be transported by the ZIP8 protein. Several mutations in the ZIP8 gene are associated with the aberrant ion homeostasis of cells and can lead to human diseases. However, the intricate relationships between ZIP8 mutations, cellular Se homeostasis, and human diseases (including cancers and illnesses associated with Cd exposure) have not been explored. To further verify if ZIP8 is involved in cellular Se transportation, we first knockout (KO) the endogenous expression of ZIP8 in the HeLa cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The elimination of ZIP8 expression was examined by PCR, DNA sequencing, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence analyses. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry indicated that reduced uptake of Se, along with other micronutrients and Cd, was observed in the ZIP8-KO cells. In contrast, when ZIP8 was overexpressed, increased Se uptake could be detected in the ZIP8-overexpressing cells. Additionally, we found that ZIP8 with disease-associated single-point mutations G38R, G204C, and S335T, but not C113S, showed reduced Se transport ability. We then evaluated the potential of Se on Cd cytotoxicity prevention and therapy of cancers. Results indicated that Se could suppress Cd-induced cytotoxicity via decreasing the intracellular Cd transported by ZIP8, and Se exhibited excellent anticancer activity against not all but only selected cancer cell lines, under restricted experimental conditions. Moreover, clinical-based bioinformatic analyses revealed that up-regulated ZIP8 gene expression was common across multiple cancer types, and selenoproteins that were significantly co-expressed with ZIP8 in these cancers had been identified. Taken together, this study concludes that ZIP8 is an important protein in modulating cellular Se levels and provides insights into the roles of ZIP8 and Se in disease prevention and therapy.

5.
Chemistry ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791731

RESUMO

In this work, by using two kinds of viologen ligands three POM-based compounds were obtained under hydrothermal conditions, namely [AgI(bmypd)0.5(ß-Mo8O26)0.5] (1) (bmypd·2Cl = 1,1'-[Biphenyl-4,4'-bis(methylene)]bis(4,4'-bipyridyinium)dichloride), [AgI2(bypy)4(HSiW12O40)2]·14H2O (2) and [AgI(bypy)(γ-Mo8O26)0.5] (3) (bypy·Cl = 1-Benzyl-4,4'-bipyridyinium chloride). The structures were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-3 show excellent photochromic ability with fast photoresponse under the irradiation of ultraviolet light with different degrees of color changes. So compounds 1-3 can be used as visible ultraviolet detectors. Compounds 1-3 also possess the photoluminescence properties with fast and excellent fluorescence quenching effect. Compounds 1-3 also can be used as inkless and erasable printing materials with the suspensions of 1-3 applied to filter paper. Compounds 1-3 can also produce color changes in the amine vapor environment, especially in the NH3 atmosphere. Compounds 1-3 can be used as organic amine detectors.

6.
Anim Nutr ; 7(4): 1031-1038, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738033

RESUMO

The intestinal health of chick embryos is vital for their life-long growth, and exogenous nutrition intervention may provide sufficient nutrition for embryonic development. In the present study, we investigated the effect of in ovo injection of L-methionine (L-Met) on the intestinal structure and barrier function of chick embryos. There were 4 groups of treatments: the control (CON) group injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and the other 3 groups injected with 5, 10, and 20 mg L-Met/egg, respectively. The injection was performed on embryonic day 9 (E9), and intestinal samples were collected on the day of hatching for analysis. The results showed that, compared with the CON group, the groups administered an in ovo injection of L-Met increased relative weights of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (P < 0.05). Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining showed that the groups injected with 5, 10, and 20 mg L-Met significantly increased villus height and crypt depth (P < 0.05). Moreover, in ovo injection of 10 mg L-Met also increased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of the jejunum (P < 0.05). Injection with 10 and 20 mg L-Met increased the expression of the tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and claudin-1) and the fluorescence signal intensity of Ki67 and villin proteins (P < 0.05). Further, the protein expression of phospho-Janus kinase 2 (p-JAK2) and phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) was significantly increased by 10 or 20 mg L-Met injection (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the injection of L-Met, especially at a dose of 10 mg, showed beneficial effects on the intestinal integrity of chick embryos due to the activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Our results may provide new insights for regulating the intestinal development of embryonic chicks and the rapid growth of chicks after hatching.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of COVID-19 has a persistent impact on global health, yet its sequelae need to be addressed at a wide scale around the globe. This study aims to investigate the characteristics, prevalence, and risk factors for mid-term (>6 months) clinical sequelae in a cohort of COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: Totally 715 COVID-19 survivors discharged before April 1, 2020, from three medical centers in Wuhan, China, were included. The longitudinal study was conducted by telephone interviews based on a questionnaire including the clinical sequelae of general, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Demographics and some characteristics of clinical sequelae of the survivors were recorded and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to explore the risk factors for the sequelae. RESULTS: The median time interval from discharge to telephone interview was 225.0 days. The COVID-19 survivors' median ages were 69 years, and 51.3% were male. Among them, 29.9% had at least one clinical sequela. There were 19.2%, 22.7%, and 5.0% of the survivors reporting fatigue, respiratory symptoms, and cardiovascular symptoms, respectively. Comorbidities, disease severity, the application of mechanical ventilation and high-flow oxygen therapy, and the history of re-admission were associated with the presence of clinical sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides further evidence for the prevalence and characteristics of clinical sequelae of COVID-19 survivors, suggesting long-term monitoring and management is needed for their full recovery.

8.
Environ Pollut ; 293: 118505, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785291

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as an emerging environmental contaminant, has become ubiquitous in the environment. It is of significance to study bioconcentration and tissue distribution of aquatic organisms for predicting the persistence of PFOA and its adverse effects on the environment and human body. However, the distribution of PFOA in different tissues is a complex physiological process affected by many factors. It is difficult to be accurately described by a simple kinetic model. In present study, a new strategy was introduced to research the PFOA distribution in tissues and estimate the exposure stages. Zebrafish were continuously exposed to 25 mg/L PFOA for 30 days to simulate environmental process. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) method was used to monitor the spatio-temporal distribution of PFOA in zebrafish tissues. By analyzing the law of change obtained from the high spatial resolution MSI data, two different enrichment trends in ten tissues were summarized by performing curve fitting. Analyzing the ratio of two types of curves, a new "exposure curve" was defined to evaluate the exposure stages. With this model, three levels (mild, moderate, and deep pollution stage) of PFOA pollution in zebrafish can be simply evaluated.

9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(19): 5137-5143, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738412

RESUMO

Mongolians have a long history of using prescriptions, which can be classified into four stages as follows: the germination and experience accumulation stage before the 13 th century, the theoretical formation stage from the 13 th to 16 th century, the rapid development stage from the 17 th to 20 th century, and the leaping development stage from the mid-20 th century to the present. The prescriptions from the ancient classical or representative medical books have always been used by Mongolian physicians for generations, and they are still in use due to the definite curative effects. In 2008, the Notice on Issuing the Supplementary Provisions to the Registration and Management of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) described that China has attached more importance to the excavation and development of classical prescriptions. As stipulated in the Law of the People's Republic of China on Traditional Chinese Medicine, the classical prescriptions should be those available in ancient TCM classics and still in wide use, with exact curative effects, distinct features, and obvious advantages. This paper expounded the historical formation and development of classical prescriptions in Mongo-lian medicine, introduced the five most influential ancient medical books revealing the formation and development of these classic prescriptions, and traced the origin of such classical prescriptions as Wenguanmu Siwei Decoction, Shouzhangshen Bawei Decoction, Jianghuang Siwei Decoction and summarized the origin, development history and characteristics of classical prescriptions in Mongolian medicine, aiming to provide a reference for their further research and development.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Livros , China , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicina Tradicional da Mongólia , Prescrições
10.
Front Chem ; 9: 757584, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765587

RESUMO

Cytochrome bc 1 complex is an important component of cellular respiratory chain, and it is also an important target enzyme to inhibit the growth of plant pathogens. Using cytochrome bc 1 complex as the target enzyme, twenty-three novel nopol-based 1,2,4-triazole-thioether compounds were designed and synthesized from natural preponderant resource ß-pinene, and their structures were confirmed by FT-IR, NMR, ESI-MS and elemental analysis. The in vitro antifungal activity of the target compounds 5a-5w was preliminarily evaluated against eight plant pathogens at the concentration of 50 µg/ml. The bioassay results showed that the target compounds exhibited the best antifungal activity against Physalospora piricola, in which compounds 5b (R= o-CH3 Ph), 5e (R= o-OCH3 Ph), 5h (R= o-F Ph), 5m (R= o-Br Ph), 5o (R= m,m-OCH3 Ph), and 5r (R= p-OH Ph) had inhibition rates of 91.4, 83.3, 86.7, 83.8, 91.4 and 87.3%, respectively, much better than that of the positive control chlorothalonil. Also, compound 5a (R= Ph) had inhibition rate of 87.9% against Rhizoeotnia solani, and compound 5b (R= o-CH3 Ph) had inhibition rates of 87.6 and 89% against Bipolaris maydis and Colleterichum orbicala, respectively. In order to develop novel and promising antifungal compounds against P. piricola, the analysis of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) was carried out using the CoMFA method on the basis of their antifungal activity data, and a reasonable and effective 3D-QSAR model (r 2 = 0.944, q 2 = 0.685) has been established. In addition, the theoretical study of molecular docking revealed that the target compounds could bind to and interact with the site of cytochrome bc 1 complex.

11.
J Plant Physiol ; 268: 153575, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837885

RESUMO

Psammochloa villosa is a desert plant growing in Northwest China with considerable resistance to abiotic stress, including drought, cold, and salt. To facilitate future studies of stress resistance in Psammochloa villosa, we sought to establish a suite of reference (or housekeeping) genes for utilization within future gene expression studies. Specifically, we selected nine candidate genes based on prior studies and new transcriptomic data for P. villosa, and we evaluated their expression stability in three different tissues of P. villosa under different treatments simulating abiotic stress conditions using four different bioinformatics assessments. Our results showed that TIP41 (TIP41-like family protein) was the most stable reference gene in drought- and salt-stressed leaves and salt-stressed stems, ELF-1α (elongation factor 1-α) was the most stable in cold-stressed leaves and drought- and salt-stressed roots, ACT (actin) was the most stable in drought-stressed stems, TUA (α-tubulin) was the most stable in cold-stressed stems, and 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA) was the most stable in cold-stressed roots. Additionally, we tested the utility of these candidate reference genes to detect the expression pattern of P5CS (Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase), which is a drought-related gene. This study is the first report on selecting and validating reference genes of P. villosa under various stress conditions and will benefit future investigations of the genomic mechanisms of stress resistance in this ecologically important species.

12.
Drug Deliv ; 28(1): 2127-2136, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617835

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a triptolide phospholipid complex (TPCX) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by transdermal delivery. TPCX was prepared and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The solubility of TPCX was determined. Then, a TPCX cream was prepared to evaluate its percutaneous permeability and the antiarthritis effect. The transdermal permeability was determined using the Franz method, and a microdialysis system was used for skin pharmacokinetic study. A rat model of RA was prepared to evaluate the pharmacological effects. TPCX increased the solubility of triptolide in water, and the percutaneous permeability of TPCX cream was greatly enhanced compared with triptolide cream. The skin pharmacokinetic study indicated that TPCX cream has a longer biological half-life (t1/2) and mean residence time (MRT), but it has a shorter Tmax than that of triptolide cream in vivo. The area under the curve (AUC0-t)/AUC0-∞) and the peak concentration (Cmax) of TPCX cream were obviously higher than those of triptolide cream. The TPCX-loaded cream alleviated paw swelling and slowed down the progression of arthritis by inhibiting the inflammatory response by down regulating the TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 levels, thus exhibiting excellent antiarthritic effects. In summary, the prepared TPCX effectively increases the hydrophilicity of triptolide, which is good for its percutaneous absorption and enhances its effect on RA rats. TPCX can be a good candidate for the transdermal delivery to treat RA.

13.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 73(5): 781-794, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708235

RESUMO

The balance of glucose and lipid metabolism is a coordinated result of multiple factors and organs, and is one of the fundamental requirements for the maintenance of human health. As the most important organ for human metabolism, liver plays a key role in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. With the advances of researches, the number of publications related to hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism has increased rapidly, which posed a challenge for grasping the hot research topics and developmental trends of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in a short time. To solve such problem, we developed an information analysis method, which systematically analyzes the research status, research techniques, and hot research topics of the hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism research field through Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of related papers and high-throughput experimental data. The results showed that the number of publications related to hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism, especially publications by Chinese scholars, has increased dramatically in this century, along with the remarkable increment of the numbers of authors and affiliations per paper. Such increment is in part positively correlated with the impact of publications. Nowadays, various types of high-throughput experimental techniques have become the main research methods for genetic studies of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), have become the new research hotspots. These results systematically showed the current focuses and developmental trends of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism research, and the data analysis method developed in this work can also be applied to other research fields.


Assuntos
Glucose , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado
14.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 608(Pt 1): 830-839, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689112

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: The intricate entropy-enthalpy interplay of dendrimers confined in pores affects their conformation and retention in the porous stationary phase. This work aims at providing important insights into its impacts on partitioning and chromatographic separation in both size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and interaction chromatography (IC) regimes. SIMULATIONS: Using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, we investigated the bulk-pore phase equilibria and the conformational behavior of flexible dendrimers differing in generation, in spacer length and in fraction of modified terminal groups interacting differently with pore walls than the majority building units. FINDINGS: With increasing interaction strength, a distinct transition from a roughly spherical shape caused by simultaneous interactions with two walls to an ellipsoidal (or even disklike) conformation tenaciously adhering to only one wall was observed for moderately confined dendrimers. The strongly deformed dendrimers subjected to severe confinement gain high energy and the samples differing in the degree of modification become chromatographically discernable thanks to large energy differences. Consequently, our results suggest that the column fillings with fairly narrow pores which are ineffective in SEC, are highly efficient separation media for dendrimer studies by IC above the critical adsorption point (CAP). Overall, our simulations reveal useful information for advancing and optimizing experimental liquid chromatography studies of dendrimers.

15.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(27): 8164-8170, 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (SP-HUS) is increasing. Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen activation is highly involved in the pathogenesis of SP-HUS, and T-antibody-negative plasma exchange (PE) may be effective in the treatment of severe cases of SP-HUS. CASE SUMMARY: We retrospectively reviewed two pediatric patients with SP-HUS. Both clinical features and laboratory examination results of the children were described. T-antibody-negative PE was performed in both cases. Both children made a full recovery after repeated PE and remained well at a 2 year follow-up. CONCLUSION: Streptococcal pneumonia continues to be an uncommon but important cause of HUS. The successful treatment of the presented cases suggests that T-antibody-negative PE may benefit patients with SP-HUS.

16.
Neurochem Res ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625874

RESUMO

To evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine (Dex) and oxycodone (Oxy) on neurocognitive and inflammatory response after tourniquet-induced ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. C57/BL6 mice were used to construct the mouse model of tourniquet-induced I/R injury. Mice (n = 48) were randomly divided into sham, I/R, Dex or Oxy group. Morris water maze test was performed to assess the spatial learning and memory function. The expression of NF-κB, TLR4, NR2B, M1 (CD68 and TNF-α) and M2 (CD206 and IL-10) polarization markers in mice hippocampus were detected by western blot or immunofluorescent staining. Spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (sEPSCs) were recorded by electrophysiology. Dex treatment alleviated I/R-induced declines in learning and memory (p < 0.05), while Oxy had no significant effect on it. Compared with I/R group, Dex and Oxy treatment down-regulated the expression of NF-κB, TLR4, TNF-α and CD68 (all p < 0.05), while no significantly different was found in CD206 and IL-10. In addition, Dex treatment down-regulated the expression of NR2B and reduced the frequency and amplitude of sEPSCs in I/R model mice (all p < 0.05), while Oxy had no significant effect on them. Tourniquet-induced I/R could impair the neurocognitive function of mice. Dex treatment could alleviate I/R-induced neurocognitive disorder by inhibiting abnormal synaptic transmission in hippocampal neurons. Both Dex and Oxy could alleviate the inflammatory response likely by inhibiting the polarization of microglia toward M1 phenotype via TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Future studies are needed to further examine the effects of Dex on neurocognitive disorder after tourniquet-induced I/R injury and investigate the exact mechanism.

17.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 735793, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630359

RESUMO

Dimethylsulfide (DMS) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are widespread in marine environment, and are important participants in the global sulfur cycle. Microbiol oxidation of DMS to DMSO represents a major sink of DMS in marine surface waters. The SAR11 clade and the marine Roseobacter clade (MRC) are the most abundant heterotrophic bacteria in the ocean surface seawater. It has been reported that trimethylamine monooxygenase (Tmm, EC 1.14.13.148) from both MRC and SAR11 bacteria likely oxidizes DMS to generate DMSO. However, the structural basis of DMS oxidation has not been explained. Here, we characterized a Tmm homolog from the SAR11 bacterium Pelagibacter sp. HTCC7211 (Tmm7211). Tmm7211 exhibits DMS oxidation activity in vitro. We further solved the crystal structures of Tmm7211 and Tmm7211 soaked with DMS, and proposed the catalytic mechanism of Tmm7211, which comprises a reductive half-reaction and an oxidative half-reaction. FAD and NADPH molecules are essential for the catalysis of Tmm7211. In the reductive half-reaction, FAD is reduced by NADPH. In the oxidative half-reaction, the reduced FAD reacts with O2 to form the C4a-(hydro)peroxyflavin. The binding of DMS may repel the nicotinamide ring of NADP+, and make NADP+ generate a conformational change, shutting off the substrate entrance and exposing the active C4a-(hydro)peroxyflavin to DMS to complete the oxidation of DMS. The proposed catalytic mechanism of Tmm7211 may be widely adopted by MRC and SAR11 bacteria. This study provides important insight into the conversion of DMS into DMSO in marine bacteria, leading to a better understanding of the global sulfur cycle.

18.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 92: 26-32, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666272

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Levodopa has become the main therapy for motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to test whether the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) computed by fMRI could predict individual patient's response to levodopa treatment. METHODS: We included 40 patients. Treatment efficacy was defined based on motor symptoms improvement from the state of medication off to medication on, as assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score III. Two machine learning models were constructed to test the prediction ability of ALFF. First, the ensemble method was implemented to predict individual treatment responses. Second, the categorical boosting (CatBoost) classification was used to predict individual levodopa responses in patients classified as moderate and superior responders, according to the 50% threshold of improvement. The age, disease duration and treatment dose were controlled as covariates. RESULTS: No significant difference in clinical data were observed between moderate and superior responders. Using the ensemble method, the regression model showed a significant correlation between the predicted and the observed motor symptoms improvement (r = 0.61, p < 0.01, mean absolute error = 0.11 ± 0.02), measured as a continuous variable. The use of the Catboost algorithm revealed that ALFF was able to differentiate between moderate and superior responders (area under the curve = 0.90). The mainly contributed regions for both models included the bilateral primary motor cortex, the occipital cortex, the cerebellum, and the basal ganglia. CONCLUSION: Both continuous and binary ALFF values have the potential to serve as promising predictive markers of dopaminergic therapy response in patients with PD.

19.
Org Lett ; 23(21): 8554-8558, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669403

RESUMO

Two unprecedented and complementary synthetic strategies for S- and C-difluoromethylation of 2-substituted benzothiazoles have been developed by taking advantage of the remarkably different reactivity of CF2H- and 2-PySO2CF2- nucleophiles. A variety of structurally diverse difluoromethyl 2-isocyanophenyl sulfides and 2-difluoromethylated benzothiazoles were synthesized with these two new synthetic protocols.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542824

RESUMO

Stroke remains a highly deadly and disabling disease with limited treatment tragedies due to the limitations of available treatments; novel therapies for stroke are needed. In this article, the synergistic results of dual bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) and fasudil treatment in rat models of ischemic stroke still require further identification. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to construct the middle cerebral artery, occlusion models. BMSCs were incubated with fasudil, and MTT was performed to evaluate cell proliferation. The rats were treated with fasudil + BMSC, BMSC, fasudil, and saline. Blood samples were collected for complete blood count analysis and measurement of serum TNF-α levels. The neurological functions were evaluated. After the rats were sacrificed, immunohistochemical staining and TTC staining was performed. Fasudil promoted the proliferation of BMSCs and induced their differentiation into neuron-like cells. BMSCs increased the proportion of neutrophils; nevertheless, fasudil counteracted the neutrophil increase. The TUJ-1/MAP2/VIII factor expression in the fasudil + BMSC group was significantly higher than that in the other groups. The number of GFAP-positive cells decreased in the fasudil + BMSC and BMSC alone groups. The infarct volume in the fasudil + BMSC and BMSC alone groups was significantly lower than in the fasudil alone and control groups. Both BMSCs and fasudil exert neurorestorative effects in rat models of cerebral ischemia. Fasudil neutralizes the pro-inflammatory effects of BMSCs, while BMSCs and fasudil together had synergistic effects promoting neurovascular remodeling and neurological function recovery in stroke. A combination of BMSCs and fasudil provides a promising method for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

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