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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 97: 423-428, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29091892

RESUMO

The pathological characteristics of atherosclerosis (AS) include lipid accumulation, fibrosis formation and atherosclerotic plaque produced in artery intima, which leads to vascular sclerosis, lumen stenosis and irritates the ischemic changes of corresponding organs. Endothelial dysfunction was closely associated with AS. Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional signaling molecule involved in the maintenance of metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. NO is also a potent endogenous vasodilator and enters for the key processes that suppresses the formation vascular lesion even AS. NO bioavailability indicates the production and utilization of endothelial NO in organisms, its decrease is related to oxidative stress, lipid infiltration, the expressions of some inflammatory factors and the alteration of vascular tone, which plays an important role in endothelial dysfunction. The enhancement of arginase activity and the increase in asymmetric dimethylarginine and hyperhomocysteinemia levels all contribute to AS by intervening NO bioavailability in human beings. Diabetes mellitus, obesity, chronic kidney disease and smoking, etc., also participate in AS by influencing NO bioavailability and NO level. Here, we reviewed the relationship between NO bioavailability and AS according the newest literatures.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Animais , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Arginina/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/metabolismo , Vasodilatação/fisiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28424738

RESUMO

Li-Fei-Xiao-Yan prescription (LFXY) has been clinically used in China to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases including inflammatory lung diseases. The present study was aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of LFXY in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI). In this study, the mice were orally pretreated with LFXY or dexamethasone (positive drug) before the intratracheal instillation of LPS. Our data indicated that pretreatment with LFXY enhanced the survival rate of ALI mice, reversed pulmonary edema and permeability, improved LPS-induced lung histopathology impairment, suppressed the excessive inflammatory responses via decreasing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) and chemokine (MIP-2) and inhibiting inflammatory cells migration, and repressed oxidative stress through the inhibition of MPO and MDA contents and the upregulation of antioxidants (SOD and GSH) activities. Mechanistically, treatment with LFXY significantly prevented LPS-induced TLR4 expression and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation. Overall, the present study suggests that LFXY protected mice from acute lung injury induced by LPS via inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB p65 activation and upregulation of antioxidative enzymes and it may be a potential preventive and therapeutic agent for ALI in the clinical setting.

3.
Mol Med Rep ; 15(6): 4239-4246, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28440419

RESUMO

Osthole is the primary active component of a number of herbal plants such as the Cnidium monnieri fruit. In traditional Chinese herb medicine, osthole is commonly used in combination with borneol to obtain improved pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of borneol enantiomers on the pharmacokinetics of osthole. An appropriate high­performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was applied to determine the concentrations of osthole in plasma. Following oral administration of osthole alone or combined with borneol in rats, blood samples were collected and analyzed by HPLC. The results demonstrated that there were statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters of osthole between osthole administration alone and co­administration with borneol. When combined with synthetic borneol, the AUC0­t, AUC0­∞ and Cmax of osthole increased by 48.153, 104.708 and 92.630%, respectively, while the CL/F decreased by 51.251%. When combined with (+)­borneol, the AUC0­t, AUC0­∞ and Cmax of osthole were increased by 61.561, 78.167, and 51.769%, respectively, while the CL/F decreased by 44.174% (P<0.01). In addition, when combined with (­)­borneol, the AUC0­t, AUC0­∞ and Cmax of osthole increased by 115.856, 167.786 and 271.289%, respectively, while the CL/F decreased by 60.686% (P<0.01). These results indicated that borneol may enhance gastrointestinal absorption and inhibit the metabolism of osthole. In addition, the promotional effect of (­)­borneol on the pharmacokinetic parameters of osthole was greater than that of (+)­borneol.


Assuntos
Bornanos/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 185, 2017 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28359333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xiao'er Qixingcha (EXQ) has been extensively applied to relieve dyspepsia and constipation in children for hundreds of years in China. However, the therapeutic mechanism underlying its efficacy remained to be defined. The present study aimed to clarify the possible laxative and immune-regulating effects of EXQ on two models of experimental constipation in mice, which mimicked the pediatric constipation caused by high-heat and high-protein diet (HHPD). METHODS: The two models of constipated mice were induced by HHPD or HHPD + atropine respectively. To investigate the laxative and immune-regulating activities of EXQ, animals were treated with three doses of EXQ (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/kg) for 7 consecutive days. The fecal output parameters (number and weight), weight of intestinal content and, the thymus and spleen indexes were measured. The levels of sIgA, IL-10, TNF-α and LPS in colon and serum were determined by ELISA. Furthermore, the pathological changes of colon tissue were examined after routine H&E staining. RESULTS: Both HHPD and HHPD + atropine treatments obviously inhibited the fecal output and reduced the colonic sIgA, prominently increased the levels of IL-10 and TNF-α in colonic tissue and elevated the contents of LPS in serum and colonic tissues. In contrast, oral administration of EXQ significantly improved the feces characters and dose-dependently decreased the intestinal changes in both models. In HHPD model test, EXQ efficaciously boosted the sIgA level in a dose-dependent manner, significantly elicited decreases in TNF-α and IL-10 levels, and evidently decreased the spleen and thymus indexes. In HHPD + atropine model test, EXQ treatment reversed the pathological changes by not only dramatically decreasing the spleen index and the levels of LPS and IL-10, but also markedly elevating the thymus index. Furthermore, microscopic observation revealed that EXQ treatment maintained the integrity of colonic mucosa, and protected the colonic tissues from inflammation in the both models. CONCLUSIONS: EXQ exhibited prominent laxative activity and effectively protected the colonic mucosal barrier in two models of constipated mice, of which the mechanism might be closely associated with its propulsive and immune-regulating properties. The current results not only validated the rationale for the clinical application of EXQ in pediatric constipation related symptoms, but also threw new light on the immune-inflammatory responses accompanied with chronic constipation pathology.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Constipação Intestinal/imunologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Laxantes/administração & dosagem , Animais , China , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Intestinos , Masculino , Camundongos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/imunologia , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/imunologia
5.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi ; 36(3): 724-8, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27400514

RESUMO

As one of the necessary steps for data processing of Raman spectroscopy, baseline correction is commonly used to eliminate the interference of fluorescence spectra. The traditional baseline correction algorithm based on polynomial fitting is simple and easy to implement, but its flexibility is poor due to the uncertain fitting order. In this paper, instead of using polynomial fitting, non-uniform B-spline is proposed to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional method. Based on the advantages of the traditional algorithm, the node vector of non-uniform B-spline is fixed adaptively using the peak position of the original Raman spectrum, and then the baseline is fitted with the fixed order. In order to verify this algorithm, the Raman spectra of parathion-methyl and colza oil are detected and their baselines are corrected using this algorithm, the result is made comparison with two other baseline correction algorithms. The experimental results show that the effect of baseline correction is improved by using this algorithm with a fixed fitting order and less parameters, and there is no over or under fitting phenomenon. Therefore, non-uniform B-spline is proved to be an effective baseline correction algorithm of Raman spectroscopy.

6.
Exp Gerontol ; 77: 76-86, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26929999

RESUMO

Pogostone, a chemical constituent of patchouli oil, has been confirmed to possess favorable anti-inflammatory property. In the present study, we investigated the possible anti-photoaging potential of pogostone and the underlying mechanism against UV-induced skin damage in mice. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions were significantly ameliorated by pretreatment of pogostone as compared to the VC group. Furthermore, topical application of pogostone markedly increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and observably decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) level. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines showed obvious down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the pogostone groups. In addition, pogostone pretreatment evidently inhibited the abnormal expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and MMP-3). Taken together, pogostone exhibited prominent photo-protective activity mainly by its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, promising it as an effective alternative pharmaceutical therapy for photoaging.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Hiperplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pele/enzimologia , Raios Ultravioleta
7.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2016: 3271451, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26903706

RESUMO

Andrographolide sodium bisulfate (ASB), a water-soluble form made from andrographolide through sulfonating reaction, is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug; however, the antiphotoaging effect of ASB has still not been revealed. Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be responsible for ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induced skin damage and consequently premature aging. In this study, we aimed at examining the effect of ASB on UV-induced skin photoaging of mice by physiological and histological analysis of skin and examination of skin antioxidant enzymes and immunity analyses. Results showed that topical administration of ASB suppressed the UV-induced skin thickness, elasticity, wrinkles, and water content, while ASB, especially at dose of 3.6 mg/mouse, increased the skin collagen content by about 53.17%, decreased the epidermal thickness by about 41.38%, and prevented the UV-induced disruption of collagen fibers and elastic fibers. Furthermore, ASB decreased MDA level by about 40.21% and upregulated the activities of SOD and CAT and downregulated the production of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α in UV-irradiated mice. Our study confirmed the protective effect of ASB against UV-induced photoaging and initially indicated that this effect can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo, suggesting that ASB may be a potential antiphotoaging agent.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Timo/metabolismo
8.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi ; 36(12): 4082-7, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256578

RESUMO

To improve time resolution of the Raman measurement system, we need to adopt short scanning time. In this case, the weak Raman signal with vibrational spectrum of the molecular structure is easily to be buried by the high background noise, which influences the further analysis seriously. So it is necessary to de-noise the raw Raman signals. Conventional methods manage to de-noise signal by means of smoothing or averaging based on the difference between signal and noise in frequency characteristic or statistical features. They are commonly applied in the situation where the background noise is not so strong, and cannot give satisfactory results to the Raman signals with low signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper, the algorithm proposed detects peak positions and get peak half-width based on wavelet transform, and then reconstructs the Raman signals by least square fitting algorithm with characteristic parameters obtained, which extracts the useful signal from high background noise efficiently. In the simulation, the Raman curve fitted by the proposed algorithm was smooth, and the peak positions obtained were accurate, so the signal-to-noise ratio improved significantly. In the experiment, we adopted this algorithm to de-noise the tested Raman signal of Cefuroxime Axetil Tablets and Roxithromycin, respectively. The peak positions, peak half-width and amplitude were obtained and proved to be accurate. Therefore, the useful pure Raman signal could be recovered from the high background noise efficiently by the proposed algorithm, which improved the time resolution of Raman system. Both the simulation and the experiment showed that the proposed method could be easily performed with only a few parameters. Comparing with conventional methods, it could achieve satisfactory results under high background noise and provide accurate and reliable information for further analysis.

9.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 15: 238, 2015 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26179287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inhibitory effect of andrographolide sodium bisulphite (ASB) on jack bean urease (JBU) and Helicobacter pylori urease (HPU) was performed to elucidate the inhibitory potency, kinetics and mechanism of inhibition in 20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA, 25 °C. METHODS: The ammonia formations, indicator of urease activity, were examined using modified spectrophotometric Berthelot (phenol-hypochlorite) method. The inhibitory effect of ASB was characterized with IC50 values. Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots for JBU inhibition of ASB was constructed from the kinetic data. SH-blocking reagents and competitive active site Ni2+ binding inhibitors were employed for mechanism study. Molecular docking technique was used to provide some information on binding conformations as well as confirm the inhibition mode. RESULTS: The IC50 of ASB against JBU and HPU was 3.28±0.13 mM and 3.17±0.34 mM, respectively. The inhibition proved to be competitive and concentration- dependent in a slow-binding progress. The rapid formation of initial ASB-JBU complex with an inhibition constant of Ki=2.86×10(-3) mM was followed by a slow isomerization into the final complex with an overall inhibition constant of Ki*=1.33×10(-4) mM. The protective experiment proved that the urease active site is involved in the binding of ASB. Thiol reagents (L-cysteine and dithiothreithol) strongly protect the enzyme from the loss of enzymatic activity, while boric acid and fluoride show weaker protection, indicating that the active-site sulfhydryl group of JBU was potentially involved in the blocking process. Moreover, inhibition of ASB proved to be reversible since ASB-inactivated JBU could be reactivated by dithiothreitol application. Molecular docking assay suggested that ASB made contacts with the important sulfhydryl group Cys-592 residue and restricted the mobility of the active-site flap. CONCLUSIONS: ASB was a competitive inhibitor targeting thiol groups of urease in a slow-binding manner both reversibly and concentration-dependently, serving as a promising urease inhibitor for the treatment of urease-related diseases.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/farmacologia , Sulfitos/farmacologia , Urease , Canavalia/enzimologia , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Urease/química , Urease/efeitos dos fármacos , Urease/metabolismo
10.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2013: 434151, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24385881

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the ethanol extract of the root and rhizome of Pogostemon cablin (ERP). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated using four animal models including xylene-induced mouse ear edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced mouse pleurisy, and carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema. Results indicated that oral administration of ERP (120, 240, and 480 mg/kg) significantly attenuated xylene-induced ear edema, decreased acetic acid-induced capillary permeability, inhibited carrageenan-induced neutrophils recruitment, and reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema, in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathologically, ERP (480 mg/kg) abated inflammatory response of the edema paw. Preliminary mechanism studies demonstrated that ERP decreased the level of MPO and MDA, increased the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GRd), attenuated the productions of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, PGE2 and NO, and suppressed the activities of COX-2 and iNOS. This work demonstrates that ERP has considerable anti-inflammatory potential, which provided experimental evidences for the traditional application of the root and rhizome of Pogostemon cablin in inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Lamiaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Rizoma/química , Ácido Acético , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Permeabilidade Capilar/efeitos dos fármacos , Carragenina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Etanol , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Ativação de Neutrófilo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Xilenos
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