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1.
Appl Opt ; 58(30): 8339-8343, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674510

RESUMO

We demonstrate 10 kW spectral beam combination of six narrow-linewidth fiber amplifiers by two transmission gratings with a combining efficiency about 90%. The wavelengths of incident beams range from 1056 to 1088 nm. Each fiber amplifier delivers 2 kW output power laser with 0.25 nm root-mean-square (RMS) linewidth. A dual-grating beam-combining system is constructed to combine the six beams into a 10 kW level high-power beam and control the beam quality factor ${{\rm M}^2} \lt {2}$M2<2 by dispersion compensation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power combined by transmission gratings, which verifies the feasibility of transmission grating under high-power density laser radiation and provides an alternative approach for high-power beam combining.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624818

RESUMO

Laser-ablated group 6 transition metal atoms react with BF3 to yield typical transition metal inserted complexes F2B-MF (M = Cr, Mo, and W) and terminal borylene complex FB[triple bond, length as m-dash]WF2. These products are investigated by using infrared spectroscopy, isotopic substitution and theoretical frequency calculations. The inserted complexes F2B-MF (M = Cr, Mo, and W) were identified by antisymmetric and symmetric stretching modes of F-B-F. The FB[triple bond, length as m-dash]WF2 molecule has a 11B-F (10B-F) stretching frequency at 1453.2 (1505.0) cm-1 and the triple bond between boron and tungsten is confirmed by EDA-NOCV calculations, CASSCF calculation and NBO analysis. Furthermore, the bonding for tungsten complexes is compared with that of molybdenum and chromium complexes, which reveals interesting differences in their chemistries.

3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 2932-2936, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602835

RESUMO

Xiyanping Injection is a commonly used medicine in clinical treatment,which is recommended by many pediatric disease guidelines/consensus. However,the instraction is relatively simple and lack of guidance for clinical application,which affects the efficacy and brings safety risks. Therefore,more detailed clinical guidance is urgently needed. This consensus is formulated by clinical experts of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine in pediatrics. This consensus follows Manual for the clinical experts consensus of Chinese patent medicine which published by China Association of Chinese Medicine. The study identified clinical problems using clinical investigation,searched the literature based on PICO clinical problems,using GRADE system to carry out evidences evaluation,classification and recommendation,and adopted the nominal grouping method to reach expert consensus. The consensus combines evidence-based evidence with expert experience,sufficient evidence of clinical problems would lead to " recommendations",and clinical problems with insufficient evidence will lead to " consensus suggestions". This expert consensus recommends the indications,intervention time for treatment,route of drug administration,dose conversion,the indications of being used alone,suitability and taboos of medicine combination,and introduces the safety and clinical application,to provide reference for clinical using.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Criança , China , Consenso , Humanos , Injeções , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Pediatria
4.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224296, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644601

RESUMO

Dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of stress-inducible gene expression in plants. Anthocyanins, an important class of flavonoids, protect plants from reactive oxygen species produced under abiotic stresses. However, regulation of DREBs on anthocyanin accumulation is largely unknown. Here, an A-5 subgroup DREB gene (AmDREB3) isolated from Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, a desert broadleaf shrub with very high tolerance to harsh environments, was characterized in terms of both abiotic stress tolerance and anthocyanin accumulation. AmDREB3 does not contain the transcriptional repression motif EAR, and the protein was located in the nucleus and has transcriptional activation capacity. The transcription of AmDREB3 was differentially induced in the shoots and roots of A. mongolicus seedlings under drought, salt, heat, cold, ultraviolet B, and abscisic acid treatments. Moreover, the transcript levels in twigs, young leaves, and roots were higher than in other organs of A. mongolicus shrubs. Constitutively expressing AmDREB3 improved the tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis to drought, high salinity and heat, likely by inducing the expression of certain stress-inducible genes. The transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings also exhibited an obvious purple coloration and significant increases in anthocyanin accumulation and/or oxidative stress tolerance under drought, salt, and heat stresses. These results suggest that the AmDREB3 TF may be an important positive regulator of both stress tolerance and anthocyanin accumulation.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4469, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578337

RESUMO

Magnetic topological insulators (MTIs) offer a combination of topologically nontrivial characteristics and magnetic order and show promise in terms of potentially interesting physical phenomena such as the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect and topological axion insulating states. However, the understanding of their properties and potential applications have been limited due to a lack of suitable candidates for MTIs. Here, we grow two-dimensional single crystals of Mn(SbxBi(1-x))2Te4 bulk and exfoliate them into thin flakes in order to search for intrinsic MTIs. We perform angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, low-temperature transport measurements, and first-principles calculations to investigate the band structure, transport properties, and magnetism of this family of materials, as well as the evolution of their topological properties. We find that there exists an optimized MTI zone in the Mn(SbxBi(1-x))2Te4 phase diagram, which could possibly host a high-temperature QAH phase, offering a promising avenue for new device applications.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642661

RESUMO

Enabling long cyclability of high-voltage oxide cathodes is a persistent challenge for all-solid-state batteries, largely due to their poor interfacial stabilities against sulfide solid electrolytes. While protective oxide coating layers such as LiNbO3 (LNO) have been proposed, its precise working mechanisms are still not fully understood. Existing literature attributes reductions in interfacial impedance growth to the coating's ability to prevent interfacial reactions. However, its true nature is more complex, with cathode interfacial reactions and electrolyte electrochemical decomposition occurring simultaneously, making it difficult to decouple each effect. Herein, we utilized various advanced characterization tools and first-principles calculations to probe the interfacial phenomenon between solid electrolyte Li6PS5Cl (LPSCl) and high-voltage cathode LiNi0.85Co0.1Al0.05O2 (NCA). We segregated the effects of spontaneous reaction between LPSCl and NCA at the interface and quantified the intrinsic electrochemical decomposition of LPSCl during cell cycling. Both experimental and computational results demonstrated improved thermodynamic stability between NCA and LPSCl after incorporation of LNO coating. Additionally, we revealed the in-situ passivation effect of LPSCl electrochemical decomposition. When combined, both these phenomena occurring at the first charge cycle result in a stabilized interface enabling long cyclability of all-solid-state batteries.

7.
Mol Med Rep ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638228

RESUMO

Although platinum­based chemotherapy is the first­line choice for locally advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients, accelerated recurrence and chemoresistance remain inevitable. New evidence suggests that metabolism reprogramming under stress involves independent processes that are executed with a variety of proteins. This study investigated the functions of nutrient stress (NS)­mediated acetyl­CoA synthetase short­chain family member 2 (ACSS2) in cell proliferation and cisplatin­resistance and examined its combined effects with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a key regulator of DNA replication and repair. Here, it was demonstrated that under NS, when the AMP­activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway was activated, ESCC cells maintained proliferation and chemoresistance was distinctly upregulated as determined by CCK­8 assay. As determined using immunoblotting and RT­qPCR, compared with normal esophageal epithelial cells (Het­1A), ESCC cells were less sensitive to NS and showed increased intracellular levels of ACSS2. Moreover, it was shown that ACSS2 inhibition by siRNA not only greatly interfered with proliferation under NS but also participated in DNA repair after cisplatin treatment via PCNA suppression, and the acceleration of cell death was dependent on the activation of the AMPK pathway as revealed by the Annexin V/PI and TUNEL assay results. Our study identified crosstalk between nutrient supply and chemoresistance that could be exploited therapeutically to target AMPK signaling, and the results suggest ACSS2 as a potential biomarker for identifying higher­risk patients.

8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(36): 5505-5514, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bilioenteric Roux-en-Y anastomosis is one of the most complicated approaches for reconstructing the gastrointestinal tract, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is technically challenging in patients after bilioenteric Roux-en-Y anastomosis. The optimal endoscopic strategies for such cases remain unknown. AIM: To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of single balloon enteroscopy-assisted (SBE-assisted) therapeutic ERCP in patients after bilioenteric Roux-en-Y anastomosis based on multi-disciplinary collaboration between endoscopists and surgeons as well as report the experience from China. METHODS: This is a single center retrospective study. All of the SBE-assisted therapeutic ERCP procedures were performed by the collaboration between endoscopists and surgeons. The operation time, success rate, and complication rate were calculated. RESULTS: Forty-six patients received a total of 64 SBE-assisted therapeutic ERCP procedures, with successful scope intubation in 60 (93.8%) cases and successful diagnosis in 59 (92.2%). All successfully diagnosed cases received successful therapy. None of the cases had perforation or bleeding during or after operation, and no post-ERCP pancreatitis occurred. CONCLUSION: Based on multi-disciplinary collaboration, SBE-assisted therapeutic ERCP in patients after bilioenteric Roux-en-Y anastomosis is relatively safe and effective and has a high success rate.

9.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 10(1): 287, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: miRNA expression profiles in ectopic endometrium (EC) serving as pathophysiologic genetic fingerprints contribute to determining endometriosis progression; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. METHODS: miRNA microarray analysis was used to determine the expression profiling of EC fresh tissues. qRT-PCR was performed to screen miR-205-5p expression in EC tissues. The roles of miR-205-5p and its candidate target gene, angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), in endometriosis progression were confirmed on the basis of both in vitro and in vivo systems. miR-205-5p and ANGPT2 expression were measured by in situ hybridization and immunochemistry, and their clinical significance was statistically analysed. RESULTS: miR-205-5p was screened as a novel suppressor of endometriosis through primary ectopic endometrial stromal cell migration, invasion, and apoptosis assay in vitro, along with endometrial-like xenograft growth and apoptosis in vivo. In addition, ANGPT2 was identified as a direct target of miR-205-5p through bioinformatic target prediction and luciferase reporter assay. Re-expression and knockdown of ANGPT2 could respectively rescue and simulate the effects induced by miR-205-5p. Importantly, the miR-205-5p-ANGPT2 axis was found to activate the ERK/AKT pathway in endometriosis. Finally, miR-205-5p and ANGPT2 expression were closely correlated with the endometriosis severity. CONCLUSION: The newly identified miR-205-5p-ANGPT2-AKT/ERK axis illustrates the molecular mechanism of endometriosis progression and may represent a novel diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for disease treatment.

10.
J Comput Biol ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545074

RESUMO

This study was aimed at identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with copy number changes in gastric cancer (GC) pathogenesis. Microarray data GSE33429, including array-based comparative genomic hybridization and gene expression profiles, were obtained. DEGs were screened between GC and adjacent noncancerous tissues. Genes located at Minimum Common Regions (MCRs) were identified, and overlapped genes between DEGs and genes with amplification or deletion were identified. Gene Ontology function and pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs were performed. A protein-protein interaction network for DEGs was built, and significant modules were mined from the network. Functional annotation of genes in modules was also performed. A total of 677 up- and 583 downregulated DEGs were identified, including 37 overexpressed genes located at gained MCRs and 28 downregulated genes located at deleted MCRs. In significant modules, upregulated genes with amplification, including DSN1 (MIS12 kinetochore complex component), MAPRE1 (microtubule-associated protein, RP/EB family, member 1), TPX2 (microtubule-associated), UBE2C (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C), and MYBL2 (v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog-like 2), were associated with cell cycle, but downregulated genes with deletion, including UGT2B15 (UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2 family, polypeptide B15), UGT2B17 (UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2 family, polypeptide B17), ADH1B (alcohol dehydrogenase 1B), and ADH1A (alcohol dehydrogenase 1A), were related to metabolism. The identified genes DSN1, MAPRE1, TPX2, UBE2C, and MYBL2 located at gained MCRs and UGT2B15, UGT2B17, ADH1B, and ADH1A located at deleted MCRs may play an important role in GC progression through regulating cell cycle and metabolism.

11.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545336
12.
Blood ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558466

RESUMO

Combined FV and FVIII deficiency (F5F8D) is a rare autosomal recessive bleeding disorder caused by mutations in LMAN1 and MCFD2 Six different causative homozygous mutations (five in LMAN1 and one in MCFD2) were identified in 6 patients with F5F8D. Thrombin generation assay, triggered with 1 pM TF in F5F8D plasma, paradoxically exhibited enhanced thrombin generation compared to normal plasma. A significantly lower free tissue factor pathway inhibitor (fTFPI) was found in F5F8D patients compared to healthy controls (P<0.01). Normalizing TFPIα in F5F8D plasma greatly delayed and reduced thrombin generation. Increasing FV concentrations by adding plasma FV in F5F8D plasma only caused a gradual decrease of thrombin generation, suggesting that low levels of both TFPIα and FV co-contributed to the elevated thrombin generation by reducing their anticoagulant effects. On the contrary, thrombin generation in F5F8D platelet rich plasma (PRP) was significantly lower than in normal controls (P<0.05), but was fully corrected by either normalizing FVIII or after DDAVP infusion, indicating that the hypocoagulable state of F5F8D patients is associated with low FVIII levels. In addition, plasma and platelet FV in F5F8D PRP was sufficient to support normal thrombin generation and low TFPIα may have no effect on thrombin generation. The DDAVP infusion induced a complete response in five F5F8D patients and a partial response in the remaining one. Based on our findings, we suggest that DDAVP may be considered as a potential substitute for FVIII concentrates and FFP infusion may not be necessary for F5F8D patients with minor bleeding challenges.

13.
Hematology ; 24(1): 631-636, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514689

RESUMO

Objectives: Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare disease resulting from autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII that leads to spontaneous bleeding. This study reports the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of a relatively sizable cohort of patients with AHA. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the characteristics and outcomes of 42 patients with AHA diagnosed in our center from January 2014 through December 2018. Results: The FVIII activity (FVIII: C) was significantly suppressed (median 1.5%; interquartile range [IQR]: 0.9-3.5) by FVIII inhibitor (median 8 BU/mL; IQR: 4.0-16.0). Bypassing agents, PCC or FVIIa, were used in 14 patients for bleeding control without any adverse reaction; and most patients (90.5%, 38/42) were placed on immunosuppressive regimen, corticosteroid alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide. Patients treated with corticosteroids alone had a lower median inhibitor titer (8 BU/mL) than those treated with combination corticosteroids of cyclophosphamide (16 BU/mL) (p < 0.001). 97.4% (37/38) patients achieved complete remission (CR) after immunosuppression therapy, and the median time to CR in patients treated with corticosteroids alone was shorter than those with combination corticosteroids of cyclophosphamide (median 40 days; IQR: 31-65 vs. 51 days; IQR: 38-83, p = 0.301). 10 (26.3%) patients relapsed thereafter and were placed on combined corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide treatment, which yielded second remission in 8 patients (80%). Two patients died, one from uncontrolled post-surgical retroperitoneal hemorrhage and one from sepsis complicating corticosteroid therapy. Conclusion: The corticosteroid achieves a satisfactory outcome, particularly with low inhibitors titers; and combination of cyclophosphamide will facilitate remission in sever patients with high titers of inhibitors.

14.
EBioMedicine ; 47: 470-483, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NACHT and WD repeat domain-containing protein 1 (Nwd1) is a member of the innate immune protein subfamily. Nwd1 contributes to the androgen receptor signaling pathway and is involved in axonal growth. However, the mechanisms that underlie pathophysiological dysfunction in seizures remain unclear. METHODS: Biochemical methods were used to assess Nwd1 expression and localization in a mouse model of kainic acid (KA)-induced acute seizures and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. Electrophysiological recordings were used to measure the role of Nwd1 in regulating synaptic transmission and neuronal hyperexcitability in a model of magnesium-free-induced seizure in vitro. Behavioral experiments were performed, and seizure-induced pathological changes were evaluated in a KA-induced seizure model in vivo. GluN2B expression was measured and its correlation with Tyr1472-GluN2B phosphorylation was analyzed in primary hippocampal neurons. FINDINGS: We demonstrated high protein levels of Nwd1 in brain tissues obtained from mice with acute seizures and TLE patients. Silencing Nwd1 in mice using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) profoundly suppressed neuronal hyperexcitability and the occurrence of acute seizures, which may have been caused by reducing GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor-dependent glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Moreover, the decreased activation of Nwd1 reduced GluN2B expression and the phosphorylation of the GluN2B subunit at Tyr1472. INTERPRETATION: Here, we report a previously unrecognized but important role of Nwd1 in seizure models in vitro and in vivo, i.e., modulating the phosphorylation of the GluN2B subunit at Tyr1472 and regulating neuronal hyperexcitability. Meanwhile, our findings may provide a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of epilepsy or other hyperexcitability-related neurological disorders. FUND: The funders have not participated in the study design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation, or writing of the report.

15.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 385, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481102

RESUMO

In the original publication of this article [1], there are mistakes in Fig. 3A and Fig. 3D.

16.
Inorg Chem ; 58(19): 13418-13425, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549826

RESUMO

The boron-transition-metal triple-bond complexes FB≡MF2 (M= Ir, Os, Re, W, Ta) were trapped in excess solid neon and argon through metal atom reactions with boron trifluoride and identified by matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. The FB≡MF2 molecule features very high 11B-F stretching frequencies at 1586.6 cm-1 (Ir), 1526.6 cm-1 (Os), 1505.5 cm-1 (Re), and 1453.2 cm-1 (W), respectively. The very high strength of B≡M bonds with triple-bonding character is confirmed by EDA-NOCV calculations and the active molecular orbital and NBO analysis. The experimental observation of FB stabilization by heavy transition-metal atoms with triple bonds opens the door to design new boron-transition-metal complexes.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547215

RESUMO

Critical illness insurance (CII) in China was introduced to protect high-cost groups from health expenditure shocks for the purpose of mutual aid. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of CII on the burden of high-cost groups in central rural China. Data were extracted from the basic medical insurance (BMI) hospitalization database of Xiantao City from January 2010 to December 2016. A total of 77,757 hospitalization records were included in our analysis. The out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses and reimbursement ratio (RR) were the two main outcome variables. Interrupted time series analysis with a segmented regression approach was adopted. Level and slope changes were reported to reflect short- and long-term effects, respectively. Results indicated that the number of high-cost inpatient visits, the average monthly hospitalization expenses, and OOP expenses per high-cost inpatient visit were increased after CII introduction. By contrast, the RR from BMI and non-reimbursable expenses ratio were decreased. The OOP expenses and RR covered by CII were higher than those uncovered. We estimated a significant level decrease in OOP expenses (p < 0.01) and rise in RR (p < 0.01), whereas the slope decreases of OOP expenses (p = 0.19) and rise of RR (p = 0.11) after the CII were non-significant. We concluded that the short-term effect of the CII policy is significant and contributes to decreasing OOP expenses and raising RR for high-cost groups, whereas the long-term effect is non-significant. These findings can be explained by increasing hospitalization expenses, many non-reimbursable expenses, low coverage for high-cost groups, and the unsustainability of the financing methods.

18.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(11): 7819-7829, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496071

RESUMO

Helminths and their products can shape immune responses by modulating immune cells, which are dysfunctional in inflammatory diseases such as asthma. We previously identified SJMHE1, a small molecule peptide from the HSP60 protein of Schistosoma japonicum. SJMHE1 can inhibit delayed-type hypersensitivity and collagen-induced arthritis in mice. In the present study, we evaluated this peptide's potential intervention effect and mechanism on ovalbumin-induced asthma in mice. SJMHE1 treatment suppressed airway inflammation in allergic mice, decreased the infiltrating inflammatory cells in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, modulated the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the splenocytes and lungs of allergic mice, reduced the percentage of Th2 cells and increased the proportion of Th1 and regulatory T cells (Tregs). At the same time, Foxp3 and T-bet expression increased, and GATA3 and RORγt decreased in the lungs of allergic mice. We proved that SJMHE1 can interrupt the development of asthma by diminishing airway inflammation in mice. The down-regulation of Th2 response and the up-regulation of Th1 and Tregs response may contribute to the protection induced by SJMHE1 in allergic mice. SJMHE1 can serve as a novel therapy for asthma and other allergic or inflammatory diseases.

20.
Nature ; 572(7770): 511-515, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435056

RESUMO

Lithium metal anodes offer high theoretical capacities (3,860 milliampere-hours per gram)1, but rechargeable batteries built with such anodes suffer from dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency (the ratio of charge output to charge input), preventing their commercial adoption2,3. The formation of inactive ('dead') lithium- which consists of both (electro)chemically formed Li+ compounds in the solid electrolyte interphase and electrically isolated unreacted metallic Li0 (refs 4,5)-causes capacity loss and safety hazards. Quantitatively distinguishing between Li+ in components of the solid electrolyte interphase and unreacted metallic Li0 has not been possible, owing to the lack of effective diagnostic tools. Optical microscopy6, in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy7,8, X-ray microtomography9 and magnetic resonance imaging10 provide a morphological perspective with little chemical information. Nuclear magnetic resonance11, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy12 and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy13,14 can distinguish between Li+ in the solid electrolyte interphase and metallic Li0, but their detection ranges are limited to surfaces or local regions. Here we establish the analytical method of titration gas chromatography to quantify the contribution of unreacted metallic Li0 to the total amount of inactive lithium. We identify the unreacted metallic Li0, not the (electro)chemically formed Li+ in the solid electrolyte interphase, as the dominant source of inactive lithium and capacity loss. By coupling the unreacted metallic Li0 content to observations of its local microstructure and nanostructure by cryogenic electron microscopy (both scanning and transmission), we also establish the formation mechanism of inactive lithium in different types of electrolytes and determine the underlying cause of low Coulombic efficiency in plating and stripping (the charge and discharge processes, respectively, in a full cell) of lithium metal anodes. We propose strategies for making lithium plating and stripping more efficient so that lithium metal anodes can be used for next-generation high-energy batteries.

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