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1.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(1): 43-64, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34975317

RESUMO

Background: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a highly malignant subtype of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) with poor prognosis. In iCCA, the interplay between the stroma and tumor cells results in resistance to adjuvant chemotherapy. Increasing evidence indicates that miR-206 participates in tumor progression, but its role in iCCA is still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify dysregulated miR-206 expression in iCCA and to further explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: MiR-206 expression was proven to be downregulated in iCCA tissues by qPCR, and its correlation with clinical characteristics and prognosis was investigated. iCCA-derived cancer-associated fibroblast cells (CAFs) and normal fibroblast cells (NFs) were isolated and identified. MiR-206 was knocked in or down in CAFs and CCA cells, respectively, to explore the role of miR-206, and coculture of these treated CCAs and CAFs was conducted to explore the effects of miR-206 on their mutual promoting effects. Exosomes carrying miR-206 and an orthotopic mouse model were used to determine the inhibitory effects of miR-206 on iCCA deterioration in vivo. Results: We confirmed that miR-206 is a suppressor of iCCA. Overexpressing miR-206 in CCA cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion. When cocultured with CCA cells, NFs downregulated miR-206 expression, and NFs were susceptible to transforming into CAFs. Moreover, CAFs promoted CCA cell malignant behaviors and gemcitabine resistance. Overexpressing miR-206 in CAFs or CCA cells inhibited this mutual promoting effect. Additionally, when delivered by exosomes, miR-206 suppressed tumor deterioration. And combined with gemcitabine, this treatment resulted in a longer survival time. Conclusion: Our study explained that the interaction between CCA cells and CAFs promoted iCCA deterioration. As a suppressive factor, miR-206 inhibited aggressive characteristics and gemcitabine resistance by interfering with this mutual promoting effect. This research elucidated the molecular mechanism underlying the unfavorable chemotherapeutic response of patients with iCCA, which provided a promising target for iCCA treatment.

2.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive genomic analysis of paired primary tumors and their metastatic lesions may provide new insights into the biology of metastatic processes and therefore guide the development of novel strategies for intervention. To date, our knowledge of the genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships in gallbladder cancer (GBC) is limited. METHODS: We performed whole exome sequencing for 5 patients with primary tumor, metastatic lymph node (LNM) and corresponding normal tissue. Mutations, mutation signatures and copy number variations were analyzed with state-of-art bioinformatics methods. Phylogenetic tree was also generated to infer metastatic pattern. RESULTS: Five driver mutations were detected in these patients. Among which, TP53 was the only shared mutation between primary tumor and LNM. Although tumor mutational burden was comparable between primary tumor and LNM, higher mutation burden was observed in LNM of one patient. Copy number variations (CNVs) burden was higher in LNM than their primary tumor. Phylogenetic analysis indicated both linear and parallel progression of metastasis exist in these patients. TP53 mutation and CNVs were homogenously between primary tumor and LNM. CONCLUSIONS: High consistence of genetic landscape were shown between primary tumor and LNM in GBC. However, heterogenicity still exist between primary tumor and LNM in particular patients in term of driver mutation, TMB and CNV burden. Phylogenetic analysis indicated both Linear and parallel progression of metastasis were exist among these patients.

4.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 775462, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869376

RESUMO

Immune associated cells in the microenvironment have a significant impact on the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and have received more and more attention. Different types of immune-associated cells play different roles, including promoting/inhibiting HCC and several different types that are controversial. It is well known that immune escape of HCC has become a difficult problem in tumor therapy. Therefore, in recent years, a large number of studies have focused on the immune microenvironment of HCC, explored many mechanisms worth identifying tumor immunosuppression, and developed a variety of immunotherapy methods as targets, laying the foundation for the final victory in the fight against HCC. This paper reviews recent studies on the immune microenvironment of HCC that are more reliable and important, and provides a more comprehensive view of the investigation of the immune microenvironment of HCC and the development of more immunotherapeutic approaches based on the relevant summaries of different immune cells.

5.
J Oncol ; 2021: 3002480, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34925507

RESUMO

Background: Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) is a rare and heterogeneous histological subtype of primary liver cancer, which is still poorly understood. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological and clinical features, investigate the prognostic indicators, and develop a competing risk nomogram for CHC. Methods: The study cohort was taken from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The annual percent change (APC) in incidence was calculated using the joinpoint regression. The nomogram was developed based on multivariate competing risk survival analyses and validated by calibration curves. Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, Harrell's C-index, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves were obtained to compare prognostic performance. Decision curve analysis was introduced to examine the clinical value of the models. Results: The overall incidence of CHC was 0.062 per 100,000 individuals in 2004 and 0.081 per 100,000 individuals in 2018, with an APC of 1.0% (P > 0.05). CHC displayed intermediate clinicopathological features of hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Race, tumor size, vascular invasion, extrahepatic invasion, distant metastasis, grade, surgery, and Metavir stage were confirmed as the independent predictors of cancer-specific survival. The constructed nomogram was well calibrated, which showed better discrimination power and higher net benefits than the current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. Patients with liver transplantation had better survival than those with hepatectomy, especially patients within the Milan Criteria (P=0.022 and P=0.015). There was no survival difference between liver transplantation and hepatectomy in patients beyond the Milan Criteria (P=0.340). Conclusion: The morbidity of CHC remained stable between 2004 and 2018. The constructed nomogram could predict the prognosis with good performance, which was meaningful to individual treatment strategies optimization. CHC patients should also be considered as potential liver transplantation recipients, especially those within the Milan Criteria, but the finding still needs more evidence to be further confirmed.

6.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(17): 1359, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733911

RESUMO

Background: Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is a well-established prognostic factor for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), but there are still some controversies relating to the evaluation of nodal status. Therefore, we investigated the role of lymph node dissection (LND), compared the prognostic performances of different nodal staging systems, and then developed and validated a nomogram to predict cancer-specific survival (CSS) of ICC patients. Methods: The study cohort was taken from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, Harrell's C-index and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated to evaluate the different staging models. The nomogram for the CSS was constructed based on Cox regression models and validated by calibration curves. Decision curve analysis was introduced to examine the clinical value of the models. Results: A total of 664 patients were enrolled, and 331 (51.4%) patients underwent LND. An increasing number of lymph nodes retrieved showed no oncologic benefit (P=0.876). LNM was identified in 103 (31.1%) patients, which was the cause of their poor prognoses (5-yr CSS 13.1% versus 44.9%, P<0.001). Patients without LNM could not benefit from adjuvant therapy after propensity score matching (P=0.140). Based on the Youden index, 4 or more lymph nodes retrieved might be adequate for accurate staging. The lymph node ratio (LNR) classification, with an optimal cut-off value of 0.15, displayed the best prognostic performance. Age, size, tumor number, T Stage, grade and the LNR classification were independent predictive factors for the CSS in ICC patients. The nomogram for predicting the CSS of ICC patients according to the independent factors was well calibrated and it showed better discrimination power and higher net benefits than the American Joint Committee on Cancer (8th edition) staging system. Conclusions: LNM is an independent prognostic factor in ICC. Although it shows no oncologic benefits, LND should still be considered as a method of stratifying patients, with 4 or more lymph nodes retrieved potentially enough to do so. LNR appears to be a promising and easy-to-use prognosticator for nodal staging. The constructed nomogram could serve as an effective tool to predict the CSS probabilities of ICC patients.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841486

RESUMO

Air pollution has been a deeply concerned issue posing an immediate and profound threat to human's lower respiratory health in China. The health of children under 5 years old, regarded as a key index of public health progress in a country, is closely related to the long-term human capital development. Hence, it is vital to investigate the potential association between air pollution and children's lower respiratory health outcomes and to explore related policy implications regarding the public health and the pollution regulation. As air pollutants diffuse across adjacent regions rather easily, considering the spatial spillover effect is meaningful in course of acquiring the aforementioned association. Based on the proposed province-level panel dataset of China during 2006-2017, this study constructs a dynamic spatial panel Durbin model to investigate the impact of air pollution on under-five children's lower respiratory infections. As a result, (1) both air pollution and children's respiratory health have obvious spatial spillover effects, and the latter has an outstanding characteristic of path dependence in time. (2) In the short term, air pollution presents significant negative impact on children's respiratory health, while in the long run, the impact decreases dramatically. (3) Regional comparison indicates that children in the western China are the most susceptible to air pollution followed by children in the central and eastern regions. (4) Other control variables have significant and varying impacts both in the short and long term. Particularly, this paper proves the existence of "siphon effect" in children healthcare system in China. From a broader and more comprehensive perspective, this study provides effective and constructive basis for policy making, in favor of improving children's health under air pollution and promoting sustainable development in China.

8.
iScience ; 24(11): 103223, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746696

RESUMO

Serine/threonine kinase 39 (STK39) is overexpressed in various tumor tissues and plays an essential role in tumor progression. In this study, we investigated the clinical value, as well as the potential functions and mechanisms of STK39 in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The results showed that STK39 was overexpressed in CCA and negatively associated with the prognosis of patients with CCA. Functionally, STK39 knockdown suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, while STK39 overexpression facilitated tumor aggressiveness. The tumor-promoting effects of STK39 in CCA were also validated by in vivo experiments. Mechanistically, RNA-seq analysis identified that STK39 enhanced the progression of CCA by activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Furthermore, overexpression of STK39 could induce gemcitabine resistance in CCA cells. Moreover, the increased expression of STK39 may be mediated by the dysregulation of miR-26a-5p. In summary, STK39 could be served as a valuable prognostic candidate and a potential therapeutic target of CCA.

9.
Hepatology ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master regulator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation and has been implicated in both human and murine inflammatory disease models. We aimed to characterize the roles of macrophage-specific Nrf2 in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). APPROACH AND RESULTS: First, macrophage Nrf2 expression and liver injury in patients undergoing OLT or ischemia-related hepatectomy were analyzed. Subsequently, we created a myeloid-specific Nrf2-knockout (Nrf2M-KO ) strain to study the function and mechanism of macrophage Nrf2 in a murine liver IRI model. In human specimens, macrophage Nrf2 expression was significantly increased in liver tissues after transplantation or hepatectomy. Interestingly, lower Nrf2 expressions correlated with more severe liver injury postoperatively. In a mouse model, we found Nrf2M-KO mice showed worse hepatocellular damage than Nrf2-proficient controls based on serum biochemistry, pathology, ROS, and inflammation. In vitro, Nrf2 deficiency promoted innate immune activation and migration in macrophages on toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 stimulation. Microarray profiling showed Nrf2 deletion caused markedly lower transcriptional levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (Timp3). ChIP-seq, PCR, and luciferase reporter assay further demonstrated Nrf2 bound to the promoter region of Timp3. Moreover, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 10/ROCK1 was specifically increased in Nrf2-deficient macrophages. Increasing Timp3 expression effectively inhibited ADAM10/ROCK1 expression and rescued the Nrf2M-KO -mediated inflammatory response on TLR4 stimulation in vitro. Importantly, Timp3 overexpression, recombinant Timp3 protein, or ROCK1 knockdown rescued Nrf2M-KO -related liver IRI by inhibiting macrophage activation. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, macrophage Nrf2 mediates innate proinflammatory responses, attenuates liver IRI by binding to Timp3, and inhibits the RhoA/ROCK pathway, which provides a therapeutic target for clinical organ IRI.

10.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 26: 637-648, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703649

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is capable of mediating circRNA generation in carcinoma biology. Nevertheless, the posttranscriptional systems of m6A and circRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development are still unclear. The present study identified a circRNA with m6A modification, circHPS5, which was increased in neoplasm HCC tissues and indicated poor patient survival. Silencing of circHPS5 inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem-like cell (CSC) phenotypes. Notably, METTL3 could direct the formation of circHPS5, and specific m6A controlled the accumulation of circHPS5. YTHDC1 facilitated the cytoplasmic output of circHPS5 under m6A modification. In addition, we demonstrated that circHPS5 can act as a miR-370 sponge to regulate the expression of HMGA2 and further accelerate HCC cell tumorigenesis. Accordingly, the m6A modification of circHPS5 was found to modulate cytoplasmic output and increase HMGA2 expression to facilitate HCC development. The new regulatory model of "circHPS5-HMGA2" provides a new perspective for circHPS5 as an important prognostic marker and therapeutic target in HCC and provides mechanistic insight for exploring the carcinogenic mechanism of circHPS5 in HCC.

11.
J Hepatocell Carcinoma ; 8: 913-923, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414136

RESUMO

Background: Improved prognostic prediction is needed to stratify patients with early hepatocellular carcinoma (EHCC) to refine selection of adjuvant therapy. We aimed to develop a machine learning (ML)-based model to predict survival after liver resection for EHCC based on readily available clinical data. Methods: We analyzed data of surgically resected EHCC (tumor≤5 cm without evidence of extrahepatic disease or major vascular invasion) patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program to train and internally validate a gradient-boosting ML model to predict disease-specific survival (DSS). We externally tested the ML model using data from 2 Chinese institutions. Patients treated with resection were matched by propensity score to those treated with transplantation in the SEER-Medicare database. Results: A total of 2778 EHCC patients treated with resection were enrolled, divided into 1899 for training/validation (SEER) and 879 for test (Chinese). The ML model consisted of 8 covariates (age, race, alpha-fetoprotein, tumor size, multifocality, vascular invasion, histological grade and fibrosis score) and predicted DSS with C-Statistics >0.72, better than proposed staging systems across study cohorts. The ML model could stratify 10-year DSS ranging from 70% in low-risk subset to 5% in high-risk subset. Compared with low-risk subset, no remarkable survival benefits were observed in EHCC patients receiving transplantation before and after propensity score matching. Conclusion: An ML model trained on a large-scale dataset has good predictive performance at individual scale. Such a model is readily integrated into clinical practice and will be valuable in discussing treatment strategies.

12.
Front Oncol ; 11: 683878, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295819

RESUMO

Objectives: Feline sarcoma-related protein (FER) is known to play a critical regulatory role in several carcinomas. However, the exact biological function of FER in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still needs to be investigated. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the unknown function and molecular mechanisms of FER in HCC. Materials and Methods: The expression level of FER in HCC tissue samples and cells was examined by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot. Cellular and animal experiments were used to explore the effect of FER on the proliferative and metastatic capacities of HCC cells. The crosstalk between FER and NF-κB signaling was explored by western blot. The upstream factors that regulate FER were evaluated through dual-luciferase experiments and western blot assays. Results: FER was overexpressed in HCC specimens and HCC cell lines. FER expression levels were positively associated with unfavorable clinicopathological characteristics. The higher the expression of FER was, the worse the overall survival of HCC patients was. The results of loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments indicated that knockdown of FER decreased, while overexpression of FER increased, the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that FER activated the NF-κB signaling pathway and stimulated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We also found that FER was directly regulated by miR-206, and the downregulation of miR-206 was associated with proliferation and metastatic progression in HCC. Conclusions: The present research was the first to reveal that a decrease in miR-206 levels results in an increase in FER expression in HCC, leading to enhanced cell growth and metastatic abilities via activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15140, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302023

RESUMO

Interspecies hydrogen transfer (IHT) and direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) are two syntrophy models for methanogenesis. Their relative importance in methanogenic environments is still unclear. Our recent discovery of a novel species Candidatus Geobacter eutrophica with the genetic potential of IHT and DIET may serve as a model species to address this knowledge gap. To experimentally demonstrate its DIET ability, we performed electrochemical enrichment of Ca. G. eutrophica-dominating communities under 0 and 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl based on the presumption that DIET and extracellular electron transfer (EET) share similar metabolic pathways. After three batches of enrichment, Geobacter OTU650, which was phylogenetically close to Ca. G. eutrophica, was outcompeted in the control but remained abundant and active under electrochemical stimulation, indicating Ca. G. eutrophica's EET ability. The high-quality draft genome further showed high phylogenomic similarity with Ca. G. eutrophica, and the genes encoding outer membrane cytochromes and enzymes for hydrogen metabolism were actively expressed. A Bayesian network was trained with the genes encoding enzymes for alcohol metabolism, hydrogen metabolism, EET, and methanogenesis from dominant fermentative bacteria, Geobacter, and Methanobacterium. Methane production could not be accurately predicted when the genes for IHT were in silico knocked out, inferring its more important role in methanogenesis. The genomics-enabled machine learning modeling approach can provide predictive insights into the importance of IHT and DIET.


Assuntos
Transporte de Elétrons/fisiologia , Geobacter/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Teorema de Bayes , Citocromos/metabolismo , Elétrons , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Metano/metabolismo , Methanobacterium/metabolismo
14.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 25: 67-82, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188972

RESUMO

As next-generation sequencing (NGS) is leaping forward, more than 160 covalent RNA modification processes have been reported, and they are widely present in every organism and overall RNA type. Many modification processes of RNA introduce a new layer to the gene regulation process, resulting in novel RNA epigenetics. The commonest RNA modification includes pseudouridine (Ψ), N 7-methylguanosine (m7G), 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hm5C), 5-methylcytosine (m5C), N 1-methyladenosine (m1A), N 6-methyladenosine (m6A), and others. In this study, we focus on non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) to summarize the epigenetic consequences of RNA modifications, and the pathogenesis of cancer, as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for cancer, as well as the mechanisms affecting the immune environment of cancer. In addition, we summarize the current status of epigenetic drugs for tumor therapy based on ncRNA modifications and the progress of bioinformatics methods in elucidating RNA modifications in recent years.

15.
Hepatology ; 74(5): 2633-2651, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver metastasis is a frequent occurrence in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), with 15%-25% of CRC patients having liver metastases at the time of initial diagnosis. Specifically, some regional-stage patients with mild symptoms (stage 1 or 2) will also advance to liver metastases rapidly, even if the CRC lesion in situ is resected in time. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism of liver metastasis is still unclear. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Fresh tumor tissues from patients with CRC, adjacent noncancerous tissues, and colorectal adenoma tissues were subjected to microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed microRNA. Exosomes from human serum and cell culture medium were separated, quantitated, and verified by transmission electronic microscopy and Zetasizer Nano. Luciferase reporter assay, real-time quantitative PCR, western blot, immunoprecipitation, chromatin and re-chromatin immunoprecipitation, migration and invasion assay, PDX mouse model, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence staining were employed to explore the regulation among CRC liver metastases, immunosuppression, and cell adhesion. In this study, we demonstrated that the hypoxic microenvironment in primary CRC lesions boosted exosome release, selectively initiated favorable premetastatic niche formation in the liver but not in other organs. Mechanistically, Kupffer cells (KCs) can phagocytose exosomes containing highly expressed miR-135a-5p from the blood circulation into the liver. Exosomal miR-135a-5p initiated the large tumor suppressor kinase 2-yes-associated protein-matrix metalloproteinase 7 axis to promote the occurrence of CRC liver metastasis, and cluster of differentiation 30-TNF receptor-associated factor 2-p65-mediated immunosuppression signaling also contributed to this process. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxia-induced exosomal miR-135a-5p correlates with the development, clinical severity, and prognosis of CRC liver metastases through the premetastatic niche; and our findings revealed that miR-135a-5p might be a promising target in halting CRC liver metastases.

16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(5): 1783-1790, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042374

RESUMO

Root exudates are important carriers for material exchange and information transfer between plant and soil, and important regulators of crop-soil-microorganism interaction in intercropping systems. We examined the interaction between crops in intercropping system by setting three treatments, monoculture Chinese milk vetch, monoculture rape and Chinese milk vetch intercropped with rape. The responses of root exudates were emphatically analyzed. The results showed that 391 root exudates were detected, with 93 of which being identified and divided into nine types of metabo-lites. Among them, organooxygen compounds were the most abundant, mainly in the form of ribitol. Under different planting patterns, root exudates of Chinese milk vetch and rape were significantly different. The characteristics of root exudates in intercropping were similar to monoculture rape, but significantly different from monoculture Chinese milk vetch. Among the root exudates in different planting modes, only 9-fluorenone 1 was negatively correlated with others. The differential root exudates were mainly benzenoids, lipids and lipid-like molecules, organic acids and derivatives, and organooxygen compounds. The benzenoids, lipids and lipid-like molecules were important types that characterized the changes of root exudates of Chinese milk vetch and rape. Chinese milk vetch intercropping with rape changed the characteristics of root exudates, which were closely related to benzenoids, lipids, and lipid-like molecules.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta) , Estupro , Agricultura , China , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Solo
17.
Hepatology ; 74(4): 2118-2132, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) remains an unresolved clinical problem. This study dissected roles of liver-resident macrophage Kupffer cells (KCs), with a functional focus on efferocytosis receptor T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein-4 (TIM-4), in both the activation and resolution of IRI in a murine liver partial warm ischemia model. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Fluorescence-activated cell sorting results showed that TIM-4 was expressed exclusively by KCs, but not infiltrating macrophages (iMФs), in IR livers. Anti-TIM-4 antibody depleted TIM-4+ macrophages in vivo, resulting in either alleviation or deterioration of liver IRI, which was determined by the repopulation kinetics of the KC niche with CD11b+ macrophages. To determine the KC-specific function of TIM-4, we reconstituted clodronate-liposome-treated mice with exogenous wild-type or TIM-4-deficient KCs at either 0 hour or 24 hours postreperfusion. TIM-4 deficiency in KCs resulted in not only increases in the severity of liver IRI (at 6 hours postreperfusion), but also impairment of the inflammation resolution (at 7 days postreperfusion). In vitro analysis revealed that TIM-4 promoted KC efferocytosis to regulate their Toll-like receptor response by up-regulating IL-10 and down-regulating TNF-α productions. CONCLUSIONS: TIM-4 is critical for KC homeostatic function in both the activation and resolution of liver IRI by efferocytosis.

18.
Front Oncol ; 11: 607021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718159

RESUMO

Proteasome 26S subunit ATPase 2 (PSMC2) plays a pathogenic role in various cancers. However, its function and molecular mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown. In this study, tissue microarray (TMA) analysis showed that PSMC2 is highly expressed in HCC tumors and correlates with poor overall and disease-free survival in HCC patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that PSMC2 is an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients. Furthermore, our results showed that PSMC2 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and suppressed tumorigenesis in vivo. Knockdown of PSMC2 increased the expression of p21 and therefore decreased the expression of cyclin D1. Dual-luciferase reporter assays indicated that depletion of PSMC2 significantly enhanced the promoter activity of p21. Importantly, PSMC2 knockdown-induced phenotypes were also rescued by downregulation of P21. Taken together, our data suggest that PSMC2 promotes HCC cell proliferation and cell cycle progression through the p21/cyclin D1 signaling pathway and could be a promising diagnostic and therapeutic target for HCC patients.

19.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 57, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753742

RESUMO

Malignant T-cell-amplified sequence 1 (Mct-1) has been reported as an oncogene in multiple malignant diseases. However, the function of Mct-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor progression have not been explored. In this study, Mct-1 expression levels in HCC tissues and cells were detected by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. Mct-1 shRNAs and overexpression vector were transfected into HCC cells to downregulate or upregulate Mct-1 expression. In vitro and in vivo assays were performed to investigate the function of Mct-1 in cell proliferation and apoptosis. RNA sequencing analysis (RNA-seq) was performed to explore differences in gene expression when silenced Mct-1 expression. Mct-1 was upregulated in HCC specimens and cell lines, and higher expression of Mct-1 was predictive of poor survival. Overexpression of Mct-1 was shown to promote cell proliferation and repress cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. The results of RNA-seq indicated that knockdown of Mct-1 suppressed Yap expression, while the results of the luciferase assay also revealed that Mct-1 increases the activity of the Yap promoter. Restoration of Yap expression in Mct-1 knockdown cells partially recovered the promotion of cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. Collectively, these results indicate that Mct-1 acts as a tumor promoter gene in HCC progression by up-regulating Yap expression and, thus, could serve a novel potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for HCC.

20.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 23: 944-958, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33614242

RESUMO

Mounting evidence has demonstrated that microRNA-1224 (miR-1224) is commonly downregulated and serves as a tumor suppressor in multiple malignancies. However, the role and mechanisms responsible for miR-1224 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-1224 was downregulated in HCC. Low miR-1224 expression was associated with poor clinicopathologic features and short overall survival. Moreover, the methylation status of putative CpG islands was also found to be an important part in the modulation of miR-1224 expression. miR-1224 could induce HCC cells to arrest in G0/G1 phase and inhibited the proliferation of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic investigation showed that by binding with cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein (CREB) miR-1224 could repress the transcription and the activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) signaling pathway. Furthermore, the expression of miR-1224 was inhibited by CREB through EZH2-mediated histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) on miR-1224 promoter, thus forming a positive feedback circuit. Our findings identify a miR-1224/CREB feedback loop for HCC progression and that blocking this circuit may represent a promising target for HCC treatment.

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