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1.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 264: 120240, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352503

RESUMO

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) generated in gold nanoparticles can induce the conversion of p-Aminothiophenol (PATP) molecules into p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) molecules by coupling reaction under the action of excitation light. Molecular detection of samples by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) techniques allows the study of their plasma-driven photocatalytic reaction processes. In this study, we used gold nanostars (GNS) as the substrate to study its catalytic performance and sensitivity. On this basis, catalytic substrates of gold nanospheres (GNPs) were prepared for comparison. The catalytic reactions of PATP molecules on each of the above two substrates were systematically investigated under 633 nm laser irradiation. The reduction process was subsequently observed by introducing NaBH4 solution. The results show that photocatalytic reactions can be achieved on both substrates under laser excitation at the same wavelength. However, the catalytic and reduction reaction rates on GNSs as a substrate are much faster than those of GNPs. This phenomenon may be due to the abundant nano-branched microstructures on the surface of GNSs, which will generate more and stronger local surface plasma hot spots under the irradiation of excitation light. In order to test the above hypothesis, the surface electromagnetic field distribution of two nanostructures was numerically simulated using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. It is found that the star-like nanostructures not only have the same inter-particle hot spot system as the spherical nanostructures, but also have a large number of high-intensity single-particle hot spot systems arising from the abundance of branched nanostructures on their own surfaces. Compared with the spherical nanostructures, they are characterized by a dual hot spot system, which accelerates the photocatalytic reaction rate. The above experiments are of some reference significance for the in-depth study of multi-branched nanostructures and surface plasma distribution properties and their applications.

2.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 737633, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738001

RESUMO

Background: Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations of TBX5 gene. Case presentation: We report a fetus with HOS diagnosed sonographically at 23 weeks of gestation. The fetal parents are non-consanguineous. The fetus exhibited short radius and ulna, inability to supinate the hands, absence of the right thumb, and heart ventricular septal defect (VSD), while the fetal father exhibited VSD and short radius and ulna only. Fetal brother had cubitus valgus and thumb adduction, except for VSD, short radius and ulna. The pregnancy was terminated. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) revealed a novel mutation in the TBX5 (c.510+1G>A) in the fetus inherited from the father. The variant (c.510+1G>A) occurs at splice donor and may alter TBX5 gene function by impact on splicing. It was not previously reported in China. Conclusion: Our case reported a novel mutation in TBX5, which expanded the known genetic variants associated with HOS.

4.
Mol Immunol ; 140: 250-266, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798593

RESUMO

Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), a glycolytic rate-limiting enzyme, reportedly plays an important role in tumorigenesis and the inflammatory response by regulating the metabolic reprogramming. However, its contribution to microglial activation during neuroinflammation is still unknown. In this study, we observed an enhanced glycolysis level in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. Utilizing the glycolysis inhibitor 2-DG, we proved that LPS requires glycolysis to induce microglial pyroptosis. Moreover, the protein expression, dimer/monomer formation, phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of PKM2 were all increased by LPS. Silencing PKM2 or preventing its nuclear translocation by TEPP-46 significantly alleviated the LPS-induced inflammatory response and pyroptosis in microglia. Employing biological mass spectrometry combined with immunoprecipitation technology, we identified for the first time that PKM2 interacts with activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) in microglia. Inhibition of glycolysis or preventing PKM2 nuclear aggregation significantly reduced the phosphorylation and activation of ATF2. Furthermore, knocking down ATF2 reduced the LPS-induced pyroptosis of microglia. In vivo, we showed the LPS-induced pyroptosis in the cerebral cortex tissues of mice, and first found that an increased PKM2 expression was co-localized with ATF2 in the inflamed mice brain. Collectively, our data suggested for the first time that PKM2, a key rate-limiting enzyme of the Warburg effect, directly interacts with the pro-inflammatory transcription factor ATF2 to bridge glycolysis and pyroptosis in microglia, which might be a pivotal crosstalk between metabolic reprogramming and neuroinflammation in the CNS.

5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 701, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mirror syndrome (MS) is defined as maternal edema with fetal hydrops and placental edema with different etiologies, such as rhesus isoimmunization and twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Herein, we showcased a unique MS case secondary to fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH). CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old gravida 2 para 0 woman diagnosed with fetal hydrops was admitted to our hospital. Maternal laboratory tests revealed anemia, slightly increased creatinine and uric acid levels, hypoproteinemia, and significantly increased alpha-fetoprotein and hemoglobin-F levels. Therefore, FMH was diagnosed initially. Two days after admission, the woman had unexpectedly progressive anasarca and started to feel chest distress, palpitations, lethargy, and oliguria, and MS was suspected. An emergency cesarean section was performed to terminate the pregnancy. The maternal clinical symptoms and laboratory tests rapidly improved after delivery. A very preterm infant with a 2080-g birthweight at 31 weeks gestation survived after emergency cesarean section, active resuscitation, emergency blood transfusion, abdominocentesis, and advanced life support. CONCLUSIONS: FMH could develop into MS, providing new insights into the etiology of MS. Once MS is diagnosed, emergency cesarean section might be an alternative treatment. The very preterm infant survived with a favorable long-term outcome, and a well-trained perinatal work team is needed for such cases.

6.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685151

RESUMO

Various effects caused by surface plasmons including enhanced electromagnetic field, local heating, and excited electrons/holes can not only redistribute the electromagnetic field in the time domain and space but also redistribute the excited carriers and drive chemical reactions. In this study, firstly, an Au nanoporous array photocatalyst with the arrayed gauge was prepared by means of the anodic alumina template. Then, the formation of 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) by the surface plasmon-driven photocatalysis under 633 nm laser irradiation was investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy using aminothiophenol (PATP) as a probe molecule on gold nananoporous arrays. In addition, sodium borohydride was introduced in situ to realize the reverse photocatalytic reaction driven by the surface plasma. With the help of FDTD software, the plasma distribution characteristics on the surface of Au nanoporous arrays were simulated and analyzed. Through this practical method, it is expected to draw specific graphics, letters, and Chinese characters on the micro/nano scale, and realize the functions of graphics drawing, information encryption, reading, and erasing on the micro/nano scale.

7.
J Exp Bot ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604906

RESUMO

Plant growth and development in response to nutrient and water availability is an important adaptation for abiotic stress tolerance. Roots need to intercept both passing nutrients and water while foraging into new soil layers for further resources. Substantial amounts of nitrate can be lost in the field when leaching into groundwater; yet, very little is known about how deep rooting affects this process. Here, we phenotyped root system traits and deep 15N nitrate capture across 1.5 m vertical profiles of solid-media using tall mesocosms in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a promising cellulosic bioenergy feedstock. Root and shoot biomass traits, photosynthesis and respiration measures, and nutrient uptake and accumulation traits were quantified in response to a water and nitrate stress factorial experiment for switchgrass upland (VS16) and lowland (AP13) ecotypes. The two switchgrass ecotypes shared common plastic abiotic responses to nitrogen (N) and water availability and yet had substantial genotypic variation for root and shoot traits. A significant interaction between nitrogen and water stress combination treatments for axial and lateral root traits represents a complex and shared root development strategy for stress mitigation. Deep root growth and 15N capture were found to be closely linked to aboveground growth. Together, these results represent the wide genetic pool of switchgrass and that deep rooting promotes nitrate capture, plant productivity, and sustainability.

8.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(4): 1146, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504591

RESUMO

Cardiac fibrosis is a core process in the development of heart failure. However, the underlying mechanism of cardiac fibrosis remains unclear. Recently, a study found that in an isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac fibrosis animal model, there is high expression of latent-transforming growth factor ß-binding protein 2 (LTBP2) in cardiac fibroblasts. Whether LTBP2 serves a role in cardiac fibrosis is currently unknown. In the present study, mouse cardiac fibroblasts (MCFs) were treated with 100 µM/l ISO for 24, 48, or 72 h, and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were used to knockdown LTBP2. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting were used to determine gene and protein expression levels, respectively. Caspase-3 serves a key role in cell apoptosis and is related to cardiac fibrosis-induced heart failure. Caspase-3 activity was therefore determined using a caspase-3 assay kit, CCK8 was used to determine the rate of cell proliferation and apoptosis rates were quantified using a cell death detection ELISA kit. The present study demonstrated that cell apoptosis and LTBP2 expression increased in MCFs treated with 100 µM/l ISO in a time-dependent manner. Expression and activity of caspase-3 also increased in MCFs treated with 100 µM/l ISO for 48 h compared with the control group. In addition, ISO stimulation-induced MCF apoptosis, along with the increased expression of caspase-3 were partly abolished when LTBP2 was knocked down. In conclusion, LTBP2 expression increased in ISO-treated MCFs and accelerated mouse cardiac fibroblast apoptosis by enhancing the expression and activity of caspase-3. LTBP2 may therefore be a potential therapeutic target for treating patients with cardiac fibrosis.

9.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(8): e04706, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466259

RESUMO

46,XY female is a genetic disorder characterized by gonad gender not consistent with chromosomal sex. The SRY gene mutation is a common cause of 46,XY reversal type 1 (OMIM: 400044). Peripheral blood was collected from a 46,XY female patient and her father. Sex chromosomes were confirmed by karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) detection of the specific probe of sex chromosomes with cultured lymphocytes. After extracting blood genomic DNA, SRY characteristic fluorescence peak was detected by quantitative fluorescence PCR (QF-PCR) method. Whole exome was sequenced with NGS, and SRY gene was sequenced by Sanger sequencing, respectively. The chromosomes X and Y of the patient were confirmed by karyotype of 46,XY, and FISH specific probe of chromosome X and Y. SRY specific fluorescence peak was observed by QF-PCR. The whole-exome sequencing results showed chrY: 2655352(GRCh37): c.293G>A hemizygote mutation, confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The de novo mutation resulted in the mRNA encoding the tryptophan codon of 98 (UGG) change into a termination codon (UAG) (P.Trp98ter), and the translation process was terminated prematurely. The discovery of this novel mutation in the SRY gene helps elucidate the molecular mechanism of 46,XY female sex reversal and enriches such patients' genetic mutation spectrum.

10.
World Allergy Organ J ; 14(7): 100537, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429814

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence rates of allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma in the border region of China may be different from those in the central region of plateau grasslands. A survey was performed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for AR, asthma, and AR combined with asthma among adults (age ≥ 20 years) residing in the southern border of plateau grasslands in northern China. Methods: From May to August 2018, a cross-sectional survey was completed by subjects that were selected using a cluster random sampling method. The subjects completed a questionnaire and were administered skin prick tests (SPTs). Risk factors for AR, asthma, and AR combined with asthma were examined by multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: A total of 1815 adult subjects in the selected region completed study. The prevalence rates of physician-diagnosed AR, asthma, and AR combined with asthma were 13.9% (253), 9.8% (177), and 2.9% (52), respectively. Among the patients with AR, 20.6% were found to have concurrent asthma; among the patients with asthma, 29.4% were found to have concurrent AR. Artemisia and Humulus pollen were the most common sensitizing pollen types. Approximately 70% of subjects with AR and <30% of asthma patients were sensitized to Artemisia and Humulus pollen. Symptoms of AR and asthma mainly appeared during August. A multivariable logistic regression analysis identified sensitization pollen as an independent risk factor for both AR and AR combined with asthma (AR: OR = 16.23, 95% CI: 10.15-25.96; AR combined with asthma: OR = 6.16, 95% CI: 1.28-29.66). An age >40 years old, family history of asthma, moderate-to-severe AR, adverse food reactions, and mold allergies were independent risk factors for AR combined with asthma. Conclusions: This study identified the prevalence rates of AR and asthma in the southern borders of the plateau grassland in northern China (>1500 m above sea level). Sensitization pollen is an independent risk factor for AR and AR combined with asthma.

11.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(23): 6789-6797, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CYP21A2 gene mutations may all cause reduction or loss of 21-hydroxylase activity, leading to development of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with different clinical phenotypes. For families with CAH children, genetic testing of the parents and genetic counseling are recommended to assess the risk of recurrence. CASE SUMMARY: We report a case of CAH with a high suspicion before delivery. The risk of the child suffering from CAH during the pregnancy had been underestimated due to the deviation of genetic counseling and genetic testing results. Our report confirmed a CYP21A2 homozygous deletion in this case, CYP21A2 heterozygous deletion in the mother, and a rare 2+0 CYP21A2 deletion in the father. CONCLUSION: It is important to analyze the distribution of CYP21A2 gene in the two alleles of parents of children with CAH.

12.
JBMR Plus ; 5(8): e10526, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368611

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve kidney and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, bone fragility has emerged as a side effect in some but not in all human studies. Because use of SGLT2 inhibitors in humans affects mineral metabolism, we investigated the long-term effects of genetic loss of Sglt2 function on bone and mineral metabolism in mice. Slc5a2 nonsense mutation in Sweet Pee (SP) mice results in total loss of Sglt2 function. We collected urine, serum, and bone samples from 15-week-old and 25-week-old wild-type (WT) and SP mice fasted from food overnight. We measured parameters of renal function and mineral metabolism and we assessed bone growth, microarchitecture, and mineralization. As expected, 15-week-old and 25-week-old SP mice showed increased glucosuria, and normal kidney function compared to age-matched WT mice. At 15 weeks, SP mice did not show alterations in mineral metabolism parameters. At 25 weeks, SP mice showed reduced fasting 24-hour urinary calcium excretion and increased fractional excretion of phosphate, but normal serum calcium and phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF23) levels. At 25 weeks, but not at 15 weeks, SP mice showed reduced body weight compared to WT. This was associated with reduced femur length at 25 weeks, suggesting impaired skeletal growth. SP mice did not show trabecular or cortical bone microarchitectural modifications but showed reduced cortical bone mineral density compared to WT mice at 25 weeks. These results suggest that loss of Sglt2 function in mice in the absence of T2DM does not alter regulatory hormones FGF23, PTH, and 1,25(OH)2D, but may contribute to bone fragility over the long term. Future studies are required to determine how loss of Sglt2 function impacts bone fragility in T2DM. © 2021 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

13.
Bone Res ; 9(1): 35, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334787

RESUMO

Bone-produced fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) increases in response to inflammation and iron deficiency and contributes to cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL or lipocalin 2; LCN2 the murine homolog) is a pro-inflammatory and iron-shuttling molecule that is secreted in response to kidney injury and may promote CKD progression. We investigated bone FGF23 regulation by circulating LCN2. At 23 weeks, Col4a3KO mice showed impaired kidney function, increased levels of kidney and serum LCN2, increased bone and serum FGF23, anemia, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Deletion of Lcn2 in CKD mice did not improve kidney function or anemia but prevented the development of LVH and improved survival in association with marked reductions in serum FGF23. Lcn2 deletion specifically prevented FGF23 elevations in response to inflammation, but not iron deficiency or phosphate, and administration of LCN2 increased serum FGF23 in healthy and CKD mice by stimulating Fgf23 transcription via activation of cAMP-mediated signaling in bone cells. These results show that kidney-produced LCN2 is an important mediator of increased FGF23 production by bone in response to inflammation and in CKD. LCN2 inhibition might represent a potential therapeutic approach to lower FGF23 and improve outcomes in CKD.

14.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(32): 6396-6405, 2021 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313290

RESUMO

Exploring and developing a new type of nanoplatform with diagnosis and treatment to effectively cure tumors and reduce side effects has become a hot spot for researchers and is of great significance. Herein, a cancer theranostic nanoplatform with dual-imaging, dual-phototherapy and laser-responsiveness to tumor microenvironment was successfully assembled by liposome (Lip) co-loaded with oil-soluble Au4Cu4 nanoclusters (NCs) and water-soluble Au25 NCs via a simple film hydration method and subsequent extraction process. The prepared Au4Cu4/Au25@Lip nanoplatform with core-shell structure and about 50 nm of uniform sphere shape presented highly biocompatible, stability and passive targeting due to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Furthermore, the Lip composed of lecithin and cholesterol has good affinity with the cell membrane, which can realize the effective accumulation of photosensitizers at the tumor site, so that improving phototherapy effect and reducing the damage to normal tissue. The loaded oil-soluble Au4Cu4 NCs were firstly and pleasantly surprised to find possessed not only ideal photodynamic effect, but also preferable catalysis towards endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) decomposition to produce oxygen (O2) for improving the tumor hypoxic environment besides the excellent photoluminescence ability while the water-soluble Au25 NCs own outstanding photothermogenesis effect and also photoluminescence performance. The in vitro and in vivo experiment results proved that in the Au4Cu4/Au25@Lip nanoplatform, the performances of both NCs were complementary, which presenting considerable photothermal/fluorescence imaging (PTI/FI)-guided synergistic photothermal therapy (PTT)/O2-enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect for the tumor under the irradiation of near infrared (NIR) laser. This work provides a useful inspiration and paves a new way for the assembly of NCs or namomaterials with different properties into an integrated anti-tumor theranostic nanoplatform.

15.
Asian J Surg ; 44(9): 1232-1233, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217558

Assuntos
, Mãos , Humanos
16.
Nanoscale ; 13(24): 10816-10828, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113940

RESUMO

Cancer is still a major threat to human health at present. Developing new types of integrated nanoplatforms for the accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of cancer is very significant. Herein, an intelligent dual-stage core-shell cancer theranostic nanoplatform (Fe3+@Au1Ag24@PbP) with NIR laser/tumor-microenvironment (TME) co-responsiveness and multi-modal imaging-therapy was successfully prepared, which was composed of the precisely structured oil-soluble Au1Ag24 nanoclusters (NCs) and Fe3+ ions easily assembled within the oil and aqueous phases of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) block grafted polyketal (PK) copolymer (PK-b-PEG, PbP) vesicles, respectively. In this system, we were delighted to find that the prepared Au1Ag24 NCs possess multi-photoresponsive properties, endowing the nanoplatform with photoacoustic (PA)/photothermal (PT) imaging and synergetic photothermal therapy (PTT)/photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. On the other hand, Fe3+ ions exhibit multi-TME response and regulation behaviors, including as catalysts for the decomposition of endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the solid tumor to produce O2 and as the oxidizing agent for the consumption of the intracellular GSH to avoid the reduction of the generated 1O2; therefore, the synchronously formed Fe2+ ions from the redox of Fe3+ with GSH could further react with H2O2 to produce hydroxyl radical (˙OH), which induced ferroptosis-based cancer treatment. The PbP shell possesses TME/pH sensitivity for controlled drug release and passive targeting, causing a large increase in Au1Ag24/Fe3+ accumulation within the weakly acidic tumor region and reducing the side effects on normal tissues. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the Fe3+@Au1Ag24@PbP nanoplatform presented excellent PA/PT imaging-guided synergetic PTT/PDT/ferroptosis effects toward tumor cells and tumors. This integrating multi-responsive and multi-modal theranostic nanoplatform paves a new way for effective cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Lasers , Imagem Multimodal , Fototerapia , Medicina de Precisão , Nanomedicina Teranóstica
17.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(5): 5589-5595, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34150162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) nursing on postoperative patients with gastric cancer and its impact on quality of life. METHODS: According to the random number table method, 103 patients with gastric cancer were divided into observation group (n=52, TCM nursing) and control group (n=51, routine nursing). The postoperative recovery of gastrointestinal function, the scores of mental states, inflammatory index, self-esteem scale (SES) and quality of life score (generic quality of life inventory-74 scale, GQOLI-74 scale) before and after intervention were compared between the two groups, and the adverse reactions were recorded. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the first postoperative exhaust time, the regression time of epigastric distension symptoms, the first defecation time and the time of returning to normal eating in the observation group were shorter than those in the control group (all P<0.05). After intervention, the scores of Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and the levels of serum TNF-α, CRP and IL-1ß in the two groups were lower than those before intervention, and those in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (all P<0.05). After intervention, the scores of SES and GQOLI-74 in both groups were higher than those before intervention, and those in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (all P<0.05). During hospitalization, the total incidence of adverse reactions in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Perioperative TCM nursing for patients with gastric cancer can more obviously improve postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction, alleviate acute inflammation, improve postoperative unhealthy mental state, reduce the occurrence of postoperative complications, and finally improve the quality of life of postoperative patients, which is worthy of clinical application.

18.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 10(8): 840-849, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105265

RESUMO

To assess the bioequivalence of 2 formulations of aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets and to monitor their safety and tolerability in Chinese subjects, a single-site, open-label, randomized, 2-preparation, single-dose, 2-period crossover design was conducted. All 60 subjects were randomly divided into the fasting group and the fed group. Blood samples were collected at scheduled times after a single oral dose of orodispersible tablets containing 10 mg of aripiprazole. In the fasting state, the geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals [CIs]) of the test/reference formulation were 92.22%-100.20% for the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to the last measured concentration (AUC0-t ), 91.73%-100.14% for the AUC from administration to infinite time (AUC0-∞ ), and 98.52%-112.52% for the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ). In the fed state, AUC0-t , AUC0-∞ , and Cmax were 92.23%-100.20%, 91.73%-100.14%, and 95.91%-105.13%, respectively. The 90%CIs of the test/reference AUC ratio and Cmax ratio were within the acceptance range of 80.00%-125.00% for bioequivalence. Neither the maximum peak plasma concentration (tmax ) nor the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 ) showed any significant difference. No serious adverse events) were encountered during the study. The test and reference formulations were bioequivalent under both fasting and fed conditions and were found to be safe and tolerated.

20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 650893, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33937097

RESUMO

The incidence of allergic disorders has been increasing over the past few decades, especially in industrialized countries. Allergies can affect people of any age. The pathogenesis of allergic diseases is complex and involves genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors, and the response to medication is very variable. For some patients, avoidance is the sole effective therapy, and only when the triggers are identifiable. In recent years, the intestinal microbiota has emerged as a significant contributor to the development of allergic diseases. However, the precise mechanisms related to the effects of the microbiome on the pathogenesis of allergic diseases are unknown. This review summarizes the recent association between allergic disorders and intestinal bacterial dysbiosis, describes the function of gut microbes in allergic disease development from both preclinical and clinical studies, discusses the factors that influence gut microbial diversity and advanced techniques used in microbial analysis. Ultimately, more studies are required to define the host-microbial relationship relevant to allergic disorders and amenable to new therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipersensibilidade , Microbiota , Disbiose , Humanos
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