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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 239: 116233, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414449

RESUMO

A highly efficient and sustainable strategy for the production of functional and thermostable cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was developed in this work. In which, the acid hydrolysis system composed with small doses of H2SO4 (5-10%) and large amounts of easily recoverable acetic acid (70-90%) was used to hydrolyze cellulose pulp at 80 °C for several hours. The rod-like CNCs were obtained with the length of 150-500 nm and diameter of 5-20 nm in high yield (Ymax = 81%). The resulted CNCs showed high thermal stability and excellent dispersion stability in both aqueous and organic phases. The acetic acid in the hydrolysis system can be completely recovered by vacuum distillation, and the dosage of sulfuric acid can be reduced significantly compared with the traditional sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Thus, this approach is promising for the large-scale and sustainable preparation of CNCs with excellent water dispersibility and good thermal stability, with less environmental issues.

2.
Mol Ecol ; 2020 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306487

RESUMO

Allopatric divergence is often initiated by geological uplift and restriction to sky-islands, climate oscillations, or river capture. However, it can be difficult to establish which mechanism was the most likely to generate the current phylogeographical structure of a species. Recently, genomic data in conjunction with a model testing framework have been applied to address this issue in animals. To test whether such an approach is also likely to be successful in plants, we used population genomic data of the Rheum palmatum complex from the Eastern Asiatic Region, in conjunction with biogeographical reconstruction and demographic model selection, to identify the potential mechanism(s) which have led to the current level of divergence. Our results indicate that the R. palmatum complex originated in the central Hengduan Mts and possibly in regions further east, and then dispersed westward and eastward resulting in genetically distinct lineages. Populations are likely to have diverged in refugia during climate oscillations followed by subsequent expansion and secondary contact. However, model simulations within the western lineage of the R. palmatum complex cannot reject a restriction to sky-islands as a possible mechanism of diversification due to the genetically ambiguous position of one population. This highlights that genetically mixed populations might introduce ambiguity regarding the best diversification model in some cases. Although it might be possible to resolve this ambiguity using other data, sometimes this could prove to be difficult in complex biogeographical areas.

3.
Plant Cell Rep ; 39(6): 811-824, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221666

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Complete plastomes of Rheum species facilitated to clarify the phylogeny of Polygonaceae, and comparative chloroplast genomics contributed to develop genetic markers for the authentication of Rheum species. Rheum (Polygonaceae) is widely distributed throughout the temperate and subtropical areas of Asian interior. Rheum species are usually perennial herbs, and half of them are endemic to China with important medicinal properties. On account of similar morphological characteristics, species delimitation of Rheum still remains unclear. Chloroplast genomes of eight Rheum species, Rumex crispus and Oxyria digyna were characterized. Based on the comparison of genome structure of these species and the two published Rheum species, it is shown that plastome sequences of these species are relatively conserved with the same gene order, and three Sect. Palmata species remarkably showed high sequence similarities. Some hotspots could be used to discriminate the Rheum species, and 17 plastid genes were subject to positive selection. The phylogenetic analyses indicated that all the Polygonaceae species were clustered in the same group and showed that Rheum species, except for Rheum wittrockii, formed a monophyletic group with high maximum parsimony/maximum likelihood bootstrap support values and Bayesian posterior probabilities. The molecular dating based on plastomes indicated that the divergences within Polygonaceae species were dated to the Upper Cretaceous period [73.86-77.99 million years ago (Ma)]. The divergence of Sect. Palmata species was estimated to have occurred around 1.60 Ma, indicating that its diversification was affected by the repeated climatic fluctuation in the Quaternary.

4.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-10, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680595

RESUMO

Objective: Altered glutamatergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We examined the effects and potential mechanism of glutamate-related drugs on compulsive behavior in quinpirole (QNP)-sensitized rats, to deepen our understanding of the link between OCD and glutamate.Method: This study systematically compared the effects of the partial NMDA agonist D-Cycloserine and the NMDA antagonist NVP-AAMO77, Ro25-6981 on compulsive behavior using the elevated zero maze, open field, and marble burying tests in QNP-induced OCD model.Results: The competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists NVP-AAMO77 (5 mg/kg) and Ro25-6981 (5 mg/kg) significantly inhibited anxiety-like and compulsive behavior in rats. And D-Cycloserine at all doses showed significant suppression on anxiety-like and marble-burying behavior. Glutamic acid (Glu) levels, reflecting changes in the glutamatergic neurotransmission, were significantly decreased in rat hippocampus of the NVP-AAMO77 and D-Cycloserine-treated group compared to the saline-treated group. The levels of other amino acids were unaffected. Moreover, NVP-AAMO77 significantly decreased the expression of the subunit NR2A of the NMDAR, and Ro25-6981 suppressed the level of the subunit NR2B of the NMDAR, while D-Cycloserine decreased both the subunit NR2A and NR2B of the NMDAR.Conclusion: Collectively, these findings suggest a functional role of NMDARs in anxiety and compulsive behaviors, with NMDARs inhibition promoting anxiolytic-like and anti-compulsive responses. These findings suggest that D-cycloserine, NVP-AAMO77, and Ro25-6981 could be useful drugs for the treatment of OCD, which may be due to the suppression of NR2A- or NR2B- containing NMDAR.

5.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8069-8077, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze the psychosocial characteristics of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) couples and normal couples, and to identify the influencing factors of psychological characteristics and pregnancy outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS There were 260 infertile couples undergoing IVF-ET and 277 healthy couples of childbearing age in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University recruited into 2 groups. Psychosocial characteristics were compared to analyze the influencing factors of pregnancy outcomes after IVF-ET. In-depth interviews (n=11) and infertility-related forum posts (n=12) were adopted to obtain the data related to the psychological experience and adjustment. Nvivo 11 software was utilized to collect and analyze the data. RESULTS The levels of anxiety and depression in the IVF-ET group were significantly higher (both P<0.01), the total scores of marital quality scale and social support scale were significantly lower (both P<0.05), immature defense mechanism score was significantly higher (P<0.05), and mature defense mechanism score (P<0.05) was significantly lower than those in the control group. Bod mass index (BMI), family's rural residence, marital quality, and immature and mature defense mechanisms were influencing factors of depression in IVF-ET female patients (all P<0.05). Marital quality, mature and immature defense mechanisms, concealment factors, and Harm Avoidance (HA) score were influencing factors of depression in IVF-ET males (all P<0.05). The age of the female patient was an independent influencing factor of IVF-ET pregnancy success rate (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS The mental health levels of IVF-ET patients were worse than those of fertile couples. The younger the female infertile patient, the higher pregnancy rate of IVF-ET.

6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 223: 115116, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427005

RESUMO

A mild and efficient approach for the preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was developed by using mixed H2SO4/Oxalic acid hydrolysis. In this process, the mixed acid of sulfuric acid, oxalic acid and H2O in an optimal mass ratio of 1:5:4 was used to produce CNCs from bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP) at 80 °C for 2-5 h. The CNCs with a diameter range of 5-20 nm and a length range of 150-400 nm were obtained at a high yield (>70%) and showed excellent dispersion stability in water and good thermal stability. Moreover, the dosage of sulfuric acid can reduce to 2.4 g/g CNCs in this mixed acid hydrolysis, which is far lower than that of the typical 64% sulfuric acid hydrolysis (55 g/g CNCs, tested in this work). In addition, 91±2% of oxalic acid could be recovered by a simple recrystallization operation.

7.
Front Genet ; 10: 444, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156705

RESUMO

Euphrasia (Orobanchaceae) is a genus which is widely distributed in temperate regions of the southern and northern hemisphere. The taxonomy of Euphrasia is still controversial due to the similarity of morphological characters and a lack of genomic resources. Here, we present the first complete chloroplast (cp) genome of this taxonomically challenging genus. The cp genome of Euphrasia regelii consists of 153,026 bp, including a large single-copy region (83,893 bp), a small single-copy region (15,801 bp) and two inverted repeats (26,666 bp). There are 105 unique genes, including 71 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA and 4 rRNA genes. Although the structure and gene order is comparable to the one in other angiosperm cp genomes, genes encoding the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex are widely pseudogenized due to mutations resulting in frameshifts, and stop codon positions. We detected 36 dispersed repeats, 7 tandem repeats and 65 simple sequence repeat loci in the E. regelii plastome. Comparative analyses indicated that the cp genome of E. regelii is more conserved compared to other hemiparasitic taxa in the Pedicularideae and Buchnereae. No structural rearrangements or loss of genes were detected. Our analyses suggested that three genes (clpP, ycf2 and rps14) were under positive selection and other genes under purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis of monophyletic Orobanchaceae based on 45 plastomes indicated a close relationship between E. regelii and Neobartsia inaequalis. In addition, autotrophic lineages occupied the earliest diverging branches in our phylogeny, suggesting that autotrophy is the ancestral trait in this parasitic family.

8.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 3476-3484, 2019 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Borderline Personality Features Scale for Children (BPFS-C) has been widely applied to evaluate the children's borderline personality features worldwide, whereas it is rarely utilized in China. This study was designed to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Chinese-version BPFS-C in a multi-school-based sample of Chinese children and adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 964 students were recruited from 3 senior high schools, 1 junior middle school, and 1 elementary school in Shenyang, Capital city of Liaoning Province, China. We used the Chinese-version BPFS-C, Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder (MSI-BPD), University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale, 12-item Aggression Questionnaire (AQ-12), the subscales of obsessive-compulsive symptom and interpersonal sensitivity of Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), and Basic Empathy Scale (BES). RESULTS Sixty-eight students were re-tested 3 weeks after the initial test. Internal consistency and reliability of the Chinese-version BPFS-C was calculated as 0.853, and the reliability of re-test was 0.824. The BPFS-C score was moderately correlated with the scores of CDI, MSI-BPD, UCLA, AQ-12, and SCL-90, with a correlation coefficient of 0.590-0.676. The mean BPFS-C score in boys (55.857±12.620) was significantly lower than that (59.460±13.866) in girls (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS BPFS-C is a reliable and effective scale, which can be used for evaluating borderline personality features in children and adolescents in China.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Psicometria/métodos , Adolescente , Agressão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Emoções , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12379, 2018 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120274

RESUMO

Fagopyrum dibotrys, belongs to Polygonaceae family, is one of national key conserved wild plants of China with important medicinal and economic values. Here, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of F. dibotrys is reported. The cp genome size is 159,919 bp with a typical quadripartite structure and consisting of a pair of inverted repeat regions (30,738 bp) separated by large single copy region (85,134 bp) and small single copy region (13,309 bp). Sequencing analyses indicated that the cp genome encodes 131 genes, including 80 protein-coding genes, 28 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. The genome structure, gene order and codon usage are typical of angiosperm cp genomes. We also identified 48 simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci, fewer of them are distributed in the protein-coding sequences compared to the noncoding regions. Comparison of F. dibotrys cp genome to other Polygonaceae cp genomes indicated the inverted repeats (IRs) and coding regions were more conserved than single copy and noncoding regions, and several variation hotspots were detected. Coding gene sequence divergence analyses indicated that five genes (ndhK, petL rpoC2, ycf1, ycf2) were subject to positive selection. Phylogenetic analysis among 42 species based on cp genomes and 50 protein-coding genes indicated a close relationship between F. dibotrys and F. tataricum. In summary, the complete cp genome sequence of F. dibotrys reported in this study will provide useful plastid genomic resources for population genetics and pave the way for resolving phylogenetic relationships of order Caryophyllales.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Fagopyrum/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Códon/genética , Evolução Molecular , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(7)2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976857

RESUMO

Gentiana section Cruciata is widely distributed across Eurasia at high altitudes, and some species in this section are used as traditional Chinese medicine. Accurate identification of these species is important for their utilization and conservation. Due to similar morphological and chemical characteristics, correct discrimination of these species still remains problematic. Here, we sequenced three complete chloroplast (cp) genomes (G. dahurica, G. siphonantha and G. officinalis). We further compared them with the previously published plastomes from sect. Cruciata and developed highly polymorphic molecular markers for species authentication. The eight cp genomes shared the highly conserved structure and contained 112 unique genes arranged in the same order, including 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs, and 4 rRNAs. We analyzed the repeats and nucleotide substitutions in these plastomes and detected several highly variable regions. We found that four genes (accD, clpP, matK and ycf1) were subject to positive selection, and sixteen InDel-variable loci with high discriminatory powers were selected as candidate barcodes. Our phylogenetic analyses based on plastomes further confirmed the monophyly of sect. Cruciata and primarily elucidated the phylogeny of Gentianales. This study indicated that cp genomes can provide more integrated information for better elucidating the phylogenetic pattern and improving discriminatory power during species authentication.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Genoma de Planta , Gentiana/classificação , Gentiana/genética , Rubiaceae/classificação , Rubiaceae/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Ordem dos Genes , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos , Mutação INDEL , Filogenia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9424, 2018 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930263

RESUMO

Medicinal herbs of high quality and with significant clinical effects have been designated as top-geoherbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, the validity of this concept using genetic markers has not been widely tested. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation within the Rheum palmatum complex (rhubarb), an important herbal remedy in TCM, using a phylogeographic (six chloroplast DNA regions, five nuclear DNA regions, and 14 nuclear microsatellite loci) and a chemical approach (anthraquinone content). Genetic and chemical data identified two distinct groups in the 38 analysed populations from the R. palmatum complex which geographically coincide with the traditional top-geoherb and non-top-geoherb areas of rhubarb. Molecular dating suggests that the two groups diverged in the Quaternary c. 2.0 million years ago, a time of repeated climate changes and uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Our results show that the ancient TCM concept of top-geoherb and non-top-geoherb areas corresponds to genetically and chemically differentiated groups in rhubarb.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo Genético , Rheum/genética , Ecossistema , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Rheum/química
12.
AoB Plants ; 10(3): ply026, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765588

RESUMO

DNA barcoding is emerging as a useful tool not only for species identification but also for studying evolutionary and ecological processes. Although plant DNA barcodes do not always provide species-level resolution, the generation of large DNA barcode data sets can provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the generation of species diversity. Here, we study evolutionary processes in taxonomically complex British Euphrasia (Orobanchaceae), a group with multiple ploidy levels, frequent self-fertilization, young species divergence and widespread hybridization. We use a phylogenetic approach to investigate the colonization history of British Euphrasia, followed by a DNA barcoding survey and population genetic analyses to reveal the causes of shared sequence variation. Phylogenetic analysis shows Euphrasia have colonized Britain from mainland Europe on multiple occasions. DNA barcoding reveals that no British Euphrasia species has a consistent diagnostic sequence profile, and instead, plastid haplotypes are either widespread across species, or are population specific. The partitioning of nuclear genetic variation suggests differences in ploidy act as a barrier to gene exchange, while the divergence between diploid and tetraploid ITS sequences supports the polyploids being allotetraploid in origin. Overall, these results show that even when lacking species-level resolution, analyses of DNA barcoding data can reveal evolutionary patterns in taxonomically complex genera.

13.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 13: 2935-2943, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255361

RESUMO

Objective: The current study aimed to explore the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopamine receptors with schizophrenia and genetic association with risperidone treatment response. Methods: A total of 690 schizophrenic patients (case group) were selected and 430 healthy people were included as the controls. All patients received risperidone treatment continuously for 8 weeks. Next, peripheral venous blood samples were collected and were subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism to amplify and genotype the SNPs within COMT and dopamine receptors. Then, correlation analysis was conducted between Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale improvement rates and SNPs within COMT and the dopamine receptor gene. Results: The allele of DRD1 rs11749676 (A) emerged as a key element in reducing schizophrenia risk with statistical significance (P<0.001). Remarkably, alleles of COMT rs165774 (G), DRD2 rs6277 (T), and DRD3 rs6280 (C) were associated with raised predisposition to schizophrenia (all P<0.001). Regarding DRD1 rs11746641, DRD1 rs11749676, DRD2 rs6277, and DRD3 rs6280, the case group exhibited a lesser frequency of heterozygotes in comparison with wild homozygotes genotype (all P<0.001). SNPs (COMT rs4680, DRD2 rs6275, DRD2 rs1801028, and DRD2 rs6277) were remarkably associated with improvement rates of PANSS total scores (P<0.05). SNPs (COMT rs165599 and DRD2 rs1801028) were significantly associated with risperidone efficacy on negative symptoms (P<0.05). Conclusion: COMT SNPs and dopamine receptor SNPs were correlated with prevalence of schizophrenia and risperidone treatment efficacy of schizophrenia.

14.
Singapore Med J ; 57(5): 254-61, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26768170

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An accurate assessment of peer victimisation (i.e. bullying) is a necessary precondition for research and intervention. Most assessment instruments use the 'list of acts' measurement strategy, which does not account for the actual physical and psychological damage inflicted by bullying. To resolve this limitation, this study developed a peer victimisation scale (PVS) that includes harmful consequences for judgement and measurement of peer victimisation. METHODS: The PVS is a 40-item self-report questionnaire designed to assess the four aspects of peer victimisation: physical, verbal, relational, and interference and control. A total of 1,469 Grade 3-8 students (49.9% male) were recruited to test the psychometric properties of the PVS. Another 420 Grade 3-8 students were examined by a modified PVS supplemented with a semi-structured interview for scale validation and establishment of the cut-off points for severe bullying. Incidence, age and gender distribution of peer victimisation were also analysed. RESULTS: The PVS demonstrated good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.73-0.83) and test-retest reliability two weeks later (correlation coefficient [r] = 0.71-0.80). The scores for each dimension were significantly and positively correlated with the scores from the questionnaire-interview sample (r = 0.73-0.78), and modestly correlated with the scores for symptoms of anxiety and depression (r = 0.36-0.54). CONCLUSION: The results were consistent with the measurement constructs, demonstrating that the PVS is a reliable and effective instrument for assessing peer victimisation in children. It may enable more reliable longitudinal studies assessing the impact of peer victimisation to be conducted.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Grupo Associado , Psicometria/métodos , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Social , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal ; 27(4): 2935-6, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26153751

RESUMO

The complete chloroplast genome of the medicinal plant Rheum palmatum L. (Polygonaceae) has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. The genome is 161 541 bp in length, and exhibits a typical quadripartite structure of the large (LSC, 86 518 bp) and small (SSC, 13 111 bp) single-copy regions, separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 30 956 bp each). The chloroplast genome contains 131 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes (78 PCG species), eight ribosomal RNA genes (four rRNA species) and 37 transfer RNA genes (28 tRNA species). Phylogenetic tree based on the maximum parsimony (MP) analysis of 65 chloroplast protein-coding genes for 13 taxa demonstrated a close relationship between R. palmatum and Fagopyrum esculentum subsp. ancestrale in Polygonaceae.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Rheum/classificação , Rheum/genética , Composição de Bases , Genes de Cloroplastos , Genes de Plantas , Tamanho do Genoma , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26681963

RESUMO

Xueshuantong for Injection (Lyophilized) (XST), a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from Panax notoginseng (Burk.), is used extensively for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases such as acutely cerebral infarction clinically in China. In the present study, we evaluated the acute and extended protective effects of XST in different rat cerebral ischemic model and explored its effect on peroxiredoxin (Prx) 6-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling pathway. We found that XST treatment for 3 days could significantly inhibit transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced infarct volume and swelling percent and regulate the mRNA expression of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-17, IL-23p19, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in brain. Further study demonstrated that treatment with XST suppressed the protein expression of peroxiredoxin (Prx) 6-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and phosphorylation level of p38 and upregulated the phosphorylation level of STAT3. In permanent MCAO rats, XST could reduce the infarct volume and swelling percent. Moreover, our results revealed that XST treatment could increase the rats' weight and improve a batch of functional outcomes. In conclusion, the present data suggested that XST could protect against ischemia injury in transient and permanent MCAO rats, which might be related to Prx6-TLR4 pathway.

17.
Zhong Yao Cai ; 38(3): 467-72, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26495643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To predict the distribution patterns of the original plants of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma current and in future in China under climate change. METHODS: A maximum entropy modeling and variety of climate change scenarios were employed to predict its current and future distribution ranges in China. RESULTS: The resultant models exhibited excellent predictive power. The current suitable habitats for original plants of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma totaled 84. 20 x 10(4) km2 accounting for 8. 77% of the total area of China; 57. 05% of its current suitable habitats(i. e. low impact areas) would be relatively lowly impacted by the climate change. Compared with its current distribution pattern,its distribution ranges during 2020s, 2030s, 2040s, 2050, 2060s, 2070s and 2080s would be shrunk to some extent. However, the moderately suitable area would be expanded to a certain degree. CONCLUSION: Climate change has a negative impact on the total area and the habitat suitability for the original plants of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Rheum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizoma
18.
J Affect Disord ; 183: 339-46, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26052079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to investigate the clinical features of and risk factors for recurrent major depression (MD) with history of postpartum episodes (PPD) in Han Chinese women and the differences between first-onset postpartum MD (MD that has its first lifetime depressive episode in the postpartum period) and first-onset non-postpartum MD (MD with history of PPD and has its first lifetime depressive episode in a period other than postpartum). METHODS: Data were derived from the China, Oxford and Virginia Commonwealth University Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology (CONVERGE) study (N=6017 cases) and analyzed in two steps. We first examined the clinical features of and risk factors for MD patients with (N=981) or without (N=4410) a history of PPD. We then compared the differences between first-onset postpartum MD (N=583) and first-onset non-postpartum MD (N=398) in those with a history of PPD. Linear, logistic and multinomial logistic models were employed to measure the associations. RESULTS: A history of PPD was associated with more guilt feelings, greater psychiatric comorbidity, higher neuroticism, earlier onset and more chronicity (OR 0.2-2.8). Severe premenstrual symptoms (PMS) and more childbirths increased the risk of PPD, as did a family history of MD, childhood sexual abuse, stressful life events and lack of social support (OR 1.1-1.3). In the MD with history of PPD subsample, first-onset postpartum MD was associated with fewer recurrent major depressive episodes, less psychiatric comorbidity, lower neuroticism, less severe PMS and fewer disagreements with their husbands (OR 0.5-0.8), but more childbirths (OR 1.2). LIMITATIONS: Data were obtained retrospectively through interview and recall bias may have affected the results. CONCLUSIONS: MD with history of PPD in Han Chinese women is typically chronic and severe, with particular risk factors including severe PMS and more childbirths. First-onset postpartum MD and first-onset non-postpartum MD can be partly differentiated by their clinical features and risk factors, but are not clearly distinctive.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 9: 2101-17, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25960632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the overall effect of D-cycloserine (DCS) augmentation on exposure and response prevention (ERP) therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: Clinical studies on the effect of DCS augmentation on ERP therapy for OCD compared to placebo were included for meta analysis. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Meta-analyses were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model using the Cochrane Review Manager (RevMan, version 5.2) to calculate the odds ratio and the mean difference, with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: A total of six studies was included in the current meta-analyses, and their data were extracted. Among them, four were for analyses of DCS and Y-BOCS at midtreatment, six for analysis at posttreatment, and four at 3-month follow-up. Besides, three of the six eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis of the DCS and Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale at posttreatment, and three in the meta-analysis of DCS and proportions of treatment responders and of subjects attaining clinical remission status criteria at posttreatment. Our meta-analyses do not reveal a significant effect of DCS augmentation in ERP therapy for OCD patients, except when measured at midtreatment. Compared to the placebo group, DCS augmentation did show a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS; when measured at posttreatment and in the subpopulation of DCS taken before some of the ERP sessions, DCS augmentation showed a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS. CONCLUSION: Our result suggested that with the careful optimization of DCS-augmented ERP therapy by fine-tuning timing and dosing of DCS administration and number and frequency of ERP sessions, DCS may enhance the efficacy of ERP therapy in reducing the symptomatic severity of OCD patients, especially at early stage of the treatment; therefore, DCS augmentation could possibly reduce treatment cost, reduce treatment drop and refusal rate, and help to improve access to the limited number of experienced therapists.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Ciclosserina/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Neural Regen Res ; 9(15): 1453-9, 2014 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25317157

RESUMO

Danhong injection (DHI), a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and Flos Carthami tinctorii, is widely used in China for treating acute ischemic stroke. In the present study, we explored the neuroprotective efficacy of DHI in a rat model of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion, and evaluated the potential mechanisms underlying its effects. Pretreatment with DHI (0.9 and 1.8 mL/kg) resulted in a significantly smaller infarct volume and better neurological scores than pretreatment with saline. Furthermore, DHI significantly reduced the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, increased occludin protein expression and decreased neutrophil infiltration, as well as profoundly suppressing the upregulation of matrix metallopeptidase-9 expression seen in rats that had received vehicle. Matrix metallopeptidase-2 expression was not affected by ischemia or DHI. Moreover, DHI (1.8 mL/kg) administered 3 hours after the onset of ischemia also improved neurological scores and reduced infarct size. Our results indicate that the neuroprotective efficacy of DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury is mediated by a protective effect on the blood-brain barrier and the reversal of neutrophil infiltration.

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