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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35572069

RESUMO

Brain cortical surfaces, which have an intrinsic spherical topology, are typically represented by triangular meshes and mapped onto a spherical manifold in neuroimaging analysis. Inspired by the strong capability of feature learning in Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), spherical CNNs have been developed accordingly and achieved many successes in cortical surface analysis. Motivated by the recent success of the transformer, in this paper, for the first of time, we extend the transformer into the spherical space and propose the spherical transformer, which can better learn contextual and structural features than spherical CNNs. We applied the spherical transformer in the important task of automatic quality assessment of infant cortical surfaces, which is a necessary procedure to identify problematic cases due to extremely low tissue contrast and strong motion effects in pediatric brain MRI studies. Experiments on 1,860 infant cortical surfaces validated its superior effectiveness and efficiency in comparison with spherical CNNs.

2.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 74(2): 225-236, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503070

RESUMO

This study was to investigate the changes of autophagy in pancreatic tissue cells from hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis (HLAP) rats and the molecular mechanism of autophagy to induce inflammatory injury in pancreatic tissue cells. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were intraperitoneally injected with caerulein to establish acute pancreatitis (AP) model and then given a high fat diet to further prepare HLAP model. The HLAP rats were treated with autophagy inducer rapamycin or inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Pancreatic acinar (AR42J) cells were treated with caerulein to establish HLAP cell model. The HLAP cell model were treated with rapamycin or transfected with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) siRNA. The inflammatory factors in serum and cell culture supernatant were detected by ELISA method. The histopathological changes of pancreatic tissue were observed by HE staining. The changes of ultrastructure and autophagy in pancreatic tissue were observed by electron microscopy. The expression levels of Beclin-1, microtubule- associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II), mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), and VEGF were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The results showed that, compared with control group, the autophagy levels and inflammatory injury of pancreatic tissue cells from HLAP model rats were obviously increased, and these changes were aggravated by rapamycin treatment, but alleviated by 3-methyladenine treatment. In HLAP cell model, rapamycin aggravated the autophagy levels and inflammatory injury, whereas VEGF siRNA transfection increased mTORC1 protein expression, thus alleviating the autophagy and inflammatory injury of HLAP cell model. These results suggest that VEGF-induced autophagy plays a key role in HLAP pancreatic tissue cell injury, and interference with VEGF-mTORC1 pathway can reduce the autophagy levels and alleviate the inflammatory injury. The present study provides a new target for prevention and treatment of HLAP.


Assuntos
Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , Animais , Autofagia , Ceruletídeo/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sirolimo/efeitos adversos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e229960, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503220

RESUMO

Importance: The lack of experienced ophthalmologists limits the early diagnosis of retinal diseases. Artificial intelligence can be an efficient real-time way for screening retinal diseases. Objective: To develop and prospectively validate a deep learning (DL) algorithm that, based on ocular fundus images, recognizes numerous retinal diseases simultaneously in clinical practice. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, diagnostic study at 65 public medical screening centers and hospitals in 19 Chinese provinces included individuals attending annual routine medical examinations and participants of population-based and community-based studies. Exposures: Based on 120 002 ocular fundus photographs, the Retinal Artificial Intelligence Diagnosis System (RAIDS) was developed to identify 10 retinal diseases. RAIDS was validated in a prospective collected data set, and the performance between RAIDS and ophthalmologists was compared in the data sets of the population-based Beijing Eye Study and the community-based Kailuan Eye Study. Main Outcomes and Measures: The performance of each classifier included sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, F1 score, and Cohen κ score. Results: In the prospective validation data set of 208 758 images collected from 110 784 individuals (median [range] age, 42 [8-87] years; 115 443 [55.3%] female), RAIDS achieved a sensitivity of 89.8% (95% CI, 89.5%-90.1%) to detect any of 10 retinal diseases. RAIDS differentiated 10 retinal diseases with accuracies ranging from 95.3% to 99.9%, without marked differences between medical screening centers and geographical regions in China. Compared with retinal specialists, RAIDS achieved a higher sensitivity for detection of any retinal abnormality (RAIDS, 91.7% [95% CI, 90.6%-92.8%]; certified ophthalmologists, 83.7% [95% CI, 82.1%-85.1%]; junior retinal specialists, 86.4% [95% CI, 84.9%-87.7%]; and senior retinal specialists, 88.5% [95% CI, 87.1%-89.8%]). RAIDS reached a superior or similar diagnostic sensitivity compared with senior retinal specialists in the detection of 7 of 10 retinal diseases (ie, referral diabetic retinopathy, referral possible glaucoma, macular hole, epiretinal macular membrane, hypertensive retinopathy, myelinated fibers, and retinitis pigmentosa). It achieved a performance comparable with the performance by certified ophthalmologists in 2 diseases (ie, age-related macular degeneration and retinal vein occlusion). Compared with ophthalmologists, RAIDS needed 96% to 97% less time for the image assessment. Conclusions and Relevance: In this diagnostic study, the DL system was associated with accurately distinguishing 10 retinal diseases in real time. This technology may help overcome the lack of experienced ophthalmologists in underdeveloped areas.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética , Doenças do Nervo Óptico , Doenças Retinianas , Adulto , Inteligência Artificial , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
New Phytol ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510797

RESUMO

• Protein sorting is an essential biological process in all organisms. Trafficking membrane proteins generally relies on the sorting machinery of the Golgi apparatus. However, many proteins have been found to be delivered to target locations via Golgi-independent pathways, but the mechanisms underlying this delivery system remain unknown. • Here, we report that Sec24C mediates the direct secretory trafficking of the phytochelatin transporters ABCC1 and ABCC2 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to prevacuolar compartments (PVCs) in Arabidopsis thaliana. • Genetic analysis showed that the sec24c mutants are hypersensitive to cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) treatments due to mislocalization of ABCC1 and ABCC2, which results in defects in the vacuole compartmentalization of the toxic metals. Furthermore, we found that Sec24C recognizes ABCC1 and ABCC2 through direct interactions to mediate their exit from the ER to PVCs, which is independent of BFA-sensitive post-Golgi trafficking pathway. • These findings expand our understanding of Golgi-independent trafficking, which also provide key insights regarding the mechanism of tonoplast protein sorting and open a new perspective on the function of Sec24 proteins.

5.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(5): 541-8, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of fire needling on psoriasis-like lesion and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway in mice and compare the therapeutic effect between different interventions of fire needling therapy (surrounding technique of fire needling, fire needling at "Dazhui" [GV 14] and "Zusanli" [ST 36]). METHODS: Thirty male BALB/c mice were randomized into a blank group, a model group, a dexamthasone group, a surrounding technique group and an acupoint group, 6 mice in each one. Except the blank group, the mice in the rest groups were established as psoriasis-like lesion model by topical application with imiquimod cream, once daily, consecutively for 8 days. From day 4 to day 8, in the dexamthasone group, gastric infusion with 0.2 mL dexamthasone was administered, once daily. On day 4, 6 and 8, in the surrounding technique group, fire needling was exerted around the skin lesion; and fire needling was applied to "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) in the acupoint group, once a day. The changes in skin lesion on the dorsal parts of mice were observed in each group to score the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). Using HE staining, the dermal morphological changes and epidermal thickness were observed in the mice of each group. The positive expression of proliferating cell-associated antigen Ki-67 was determined by immunofluorescence. Immunohistochemistry method was used to determine the expressions of , and T cells of skin tissue in each group. Using real-time PCR, the expressions of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) mRNA were determined. Western blot method was adopted to determine the protein expressions of STAT3 and p-STAT3 in skin tissue in each group. RESULTS: Compared with the blank group, the scores of each item and the total scores of PASI, as well as the epidermal thickness were all increased in the mice of the model group (P<0.01). Except for the erythema scores of the dexamethasone group and the surrounding technique group, the scores of each item and the total scores of PASI, as well as the epidermal thickness were all decreased in each intervention group as compared with the model group (P<0.01). The infiltration scores and the total scores in the dexamethasone group and the acupoint group were lower than those in the surrounding technique group respectively (P<0.01, P<0.05). In comparison with the blank group, Ki-67 positive cell numbers and the numbers of , and T cells in skin tissue were increased in the mice of the model group (P<0.01). Ki-67 positive cell numbers and the numbers of , and T cells were reduced in each intervention group as compared with the model group (P<0.01), and the numbers of and T cells in the acupoint group were less than the surrounding technique group (P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, the mRNA expressions of IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α and the ratio of p-STAT3 to STAT3 were all increased in the model group (P<0.01). The mRNA expressions of IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α and the ratio of p-STAT3 to STAT3 were all decreased in each intervention group as compared with the model group (P<0.01, P<0.05). The mRNA expressions of IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α in the acupoint group, as well as mRNA expression of IL-17 in the surrounding technique group were all lower than the dexamethasone group (P<0.01), while, the mRNA expression of IL-22 in the acupoint group was lower than the surrounding technique group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Fire needling therapy improves skin lesion severity in imiquimod induced psoriasis-like lesion of the mice, which is probably related to the inhibition of STAT3 pathway activation and the decrease of Th17 inflammatory factors expression. The systemic regulation of fire needling at "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) is superior to the local treatment.


Assuntos
Interleucina-17 , Psoríase , Animais , Dexametasona/metabolismo , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Imiquimode/efeitos adversos , Imiquimode/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Psoríase/induzido quimicamente , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/farmacologia , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
6.
Langmuir ; 38(19): 6209-6216, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508432

RESUMO

Probing the adlayer structures on an electrode/electrolyte interface is one of the most important tasks in modern electrochemistry for clarifying the electrochemical processes. Herein, we have combined cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy techniques to explore the potential-dependent adlayer structures on Au(111) in a room-temperature ionic liquid of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIPF6) without or with pyridine (Py). It is clearly found that the BMI+ cations strongly adsorb on the negatively charged surface with a flat-lying orientation, leaving a little space for Py adsorption. Upon increasing the potentials of the electrode, the variations of Raman band intensities and frequencies reveal that the interaction between the BMI+ cations and the Au surface becomes weak; meanwhile, the Py adsorption becomes strong, and its geometry turns from flat, tilted to vertical. Finally, BMI+ cations desorb and leave plenty of surface sites for Py adsorption in bulk solution, and a N-bonded compact Py adlayer is formed on the very positively charged surface. This causes obvious anodic peaks in cyclic voltammograms, and the peak currents increase with the square root of the scanning rate. The present work provides a fair molecular-level understanding of electrochemical interfaces and molecular adsorption of Py in ionic liquids.

8.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(11): 2518-2525, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535905

RESUMO

Administration of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) is believed to be an effective method for treating neurodevelopmental disorders. In this study, we investigated the possibility of hUC-MSCs treatment of neonatal hypoxic/ischemic brain injury associated with maternal immune activation and the underlying mechanism. We established neonatal rat models of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury by exposing pregnant rats to lipopolysaccharide on day 16 or 17 of pregnancy. Rat offspring were intranasally administered hUC-MSCs on postnatal day 14. We found that polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-1 (PTBP-1) participated in the regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced maternal immune activation, which led to neonatal hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. Intranasal delivery of hUC-MSCs inhibited PTBP-1 expression, alleviated neonatal brain injury-related inflammation, and regulated the number and function of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes, thereby promoting plastic regeneration of neurons and improving brain function. These findings suggest that hUC-MSCs can effectively promote the repair of neonatal hypoxic/ischemic brain injury related to maternal immune activation through inhibition of PTBP-1 expression and astrocyte activation.

9.
Endocrinology ; 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536227

RESUMO

Obesity has recently been defined as a chronic low-grade inflammatory disease. Obesity-induced inflammation of adipose tissue (AT) is an essential trigger for insulin resistance (IR) and related metabolic diseases. Although the underlying molecular basis of this inflammation has not been fully identified, there is consensus that the recruited and activated macrophages in AT are the most important culprits of AT chronic inflammation. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are highly plastic and could be polarized from an anti-inflammatory M2 to pro-inflammatory M1 phenotypes upon stimulation by micro-environmental signals from obese AT. Many efforts have been made to elucidate the molecular signaling pathways of macrophage polarization, however, the upstream drivers governing and activating macrophage polarization have rarely been summarized, particularly regulatory messages from the AT micro-environment. In addition to adipocytes, the AT bed also contains a variety of immune cells, stem cells, as well as vascular, neural and lymphatic tissues throughout, which together orchestrate the AT micro-environment. Here, we summarized how the aforesaid neighbors of ATMs in the AT micro-environment send messages to ATMs and thus regulate its phenotype during obesity. Deciphering the biology and polarization of ATMs in the obese environment is expected to provide a precise immunotherapy for adipose inflammation and obesity-related metabolic diseases.

10.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of Reduning Injection versus neuraminidase inhibitors in treatment of influenza. METHODS: The MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Chinese Bio-medical Literature and Retrieval System (Sinomed), China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform and ClinicalTrails.gov were systematically searched from inception dates to May 2021 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) exploring Reduning Injection alone or in combination with neuraminidase inhibitors in patients with influenza. Statistical analysis was performed using RevMan 5.4 and Stata 15.1. The qualities of the involved studies were assessed by the risk of bias according to the Cochrane handbook. The evidence quality of each outcome was evaluated by GRADEpro GDT. RESULTS: Twelve trials with 1,460 patients were included. The included studies had a certain unclear or high risk of bias. Reduning Injection appeared to be more effective in shortening the fever clearance time (MD: -16.20 h, 95% CI: -19.40 to -12.99, 7 trials, 814 patients, I2=94%, very low certainty), fever alleviation time (MD: -4.09 h, 95% CI: -4.22 to -3.96, 3 trials, 366 patients, I2=0%, low certainty), cough alleviation time (MD: -21.34 h, 95% CI: -41.56 to -1.11, 2 trials, 228 patients, I2=89%, very low certainty), fatigue alleviation time (MD: -31.83 h, 95% CI: -36.88 to -26.77, 2 trials, 270 patients, I2=0%, low certainty), sore throat alleviation time (MD: -28.66 h, 95% CI: -32.23 to -25.10, 1 trial, 150 patients, low certainty), and improving the total effective rate (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.25, 10 trials, 1,074 patients, I2=76%, very low certainty). Besides, Reduning Injection seemed generally safe. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided low or very low evidence indicating Reduning Injection may be effective in the treatment of influenza and might be safe. Further rigorously designed studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness and safety of Reduning Injection and support it as a recommendation for influenza.

11.
Chem Sci ; 13(15): 4364-4371, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509467

RESUMO

Besides gene-editing, the CRISPR/Cas12a system has also been widely used in in vitro biosensing, but its applications in live-cell biosensing are rare. One reason is lacking appropriate carriers to synchronously deliver all components of the CRISPR/Cas12a system into living cells. Herein, we demonstrate that MnO2 nanosheets are an excellent carrier of CRISPR/Cas12a due to the two important roles played by them. Through a simple mixing operation, all components of the CRISPR/Cas12a system can be loaded on MnO2 nanosheets and thus synchronously delivered into cells. Intracellular glutathione (GSH)-induced decomposition of MnO2 nanosheets not only results in the rapid release of the CRISPR/Cas12a system in cells but also provides Mn2+ as an accelerator to promote CRISPR/Cas12a-based biosensing of intracellular targets. Due to the merits of highly efficient delivery, rapid intracellular release, and the accelerated signal output reaction, MnO2 nanosheets work better than commercial liposome carriers in live-cell biosensing analysis of survivin messenger RNA (mRNA), producing much brighter fluorescence images in a shorter time. The use of MnO2 nanosheets might provide a good carrier for different CRISPR/Cas systems and achieve the rapid and sensitive live-cell biosensing analysis of different intracellular targets, thus paving a promising way to promote the applications of CRISPR/Cas systems in living cells.

12.
Front Oncol ; 12: 840144, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35515128

RESUMO

Objective: The study aims to investigate if a relationship exists between vaginal doses and vaginal stenosis (VS) using posterior-inferior border of symphysis (PIBS) points and the International Commission on Radiation Units-Rectum (ICRU-R) point evaluation system for definitive radio(chemo)therapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From a vaginal dose study in China, 351 patients were prospectively assessed. For every reference point of the PIBS system and ICRU-R point was calculated for all BT and summed with EBRT. Pearson's chi-square test and Student's unpaired t-test compared variables with and without vaginal stenosis (VS) G ≥2. The risk factors were assessed for VS G ≥2 in multi- and univariate analyses through Cox proportional hazards model followed by a dose-effect curve construction. The VS morbidity rate was compared via the log-rank test using the median vaginal reference length (VRL). Results: The patients (38-month median follow-up) had 21.3% three-year actuarial estimate for VS G ≥2. Compared to G <2 patients, VS G ≥2 patients received higher doses to PIBS points except for PIBS - 2 and had significantly shorter VRL. VRL (HR = 1.765, P = 0.038), total EBRT and BT ICRU-R point dose (HR = 1.017, p = 0.003) were risk factors for VS. With VRL >4.6 cm, the 3-year actuarial estimate was 12.8% vs. 29.6% for VRL ≤4.6 cm. According to the model curve, the risks were 21, 30, and 39% at 75, 85, and 95 Gy, respectively (ICRU-R point dose). Conclusions: PIBS system point doses correlated with late vaginal toxicity. VRL combined with both EBRT and BT dose to the ICRU-R point contribute to VS risk.

13.
Int J Nurs Pract ; : e13062, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545098

RESUMO

AIMS: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of home-based telehealth compared with usual care on six-minute walking distance (6MWD), health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: We identified randomized controlled trials through a systematic multidatabase search. Titles and abstracts were assessed for relevance. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias and quality of evidence. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager and Stata. RESULTS: We included 32 randomized controlled trials (n = 5232). Devices used for home-based telehealth interventions included telephones, videos, and combined devices. The quality of the evidence was downgraded due to high risk of bias, imprecision, and inconsistency. Home-based telehealth significantly increased 6MWD by 35 m (SD = 30.42) and reduced symptom burden by 3 points (SD = -2.30) on the COPD assessment test compared with usual care. However, no significant differences in anxiety and depression were noted between the home-based telehealth group and the standard care group. In subgroup analysis, home-based telehealth significantly improved 6MWD and health status after 6-12 months and >12 months. CONCLUSION: Low quality evidence showed that home-based telehealth interventions reduce symptom burden and increase walking distance to a clinically meaningful extent in patients with COPD. However, no effects on depression and anxiety were observed.

14.
Gene ; : 146514, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sunitinib is a first-line drug in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, but patients will inevitably develop drug resistance after 6-15 months of systematic treatment, which seriously affects the prognosis in KIRC. METHODS: During the study, the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database was used to perform a systematic bioinformatics analysis,so that we could determine the genes (DEGs) which are differentially expressed between sunitinib-sensitive and sunitinib-resistant RCC (SRRC) cells. RESULTS: A total of 31 DEGs were identified. Gene ontology (GO) was used to analyze the function of DEGS. These DEGs were found mainly enriched in organic aniontransmembrane transporter. The Cytohubba plug-in, STRING database and Cytoscape software were involved to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and the pivot genes were identified by single-gene and multi-gene Cox regression analysis. Finally, DDX58 and MX2 were identified as prognostic genes. Survival analysis was performed by using prognostic nomogram, prognostic histogram and GEPIA database to verify the relationship between DDX58 and MX2 expression and survival. The relationship between the two pivot genes and the prognosis of patients was further verified by using the KM survival analyses and Time Dependency ROC curve analyses from TCGA database. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that, in tumor tissues and normal tissues, DDX58 and MX2 were differentially expressed. The expression of these two genes have relationship with the immune checkpoint. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of SRRC, as well as the selection of therapeutic and prognostic biomarkers for SRRC.

16.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 818358, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547118

RESUMO

Phylogenetic analyses inferred from the nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS) data set and the combined 2-locus data set [5.8S + nuc 28S rDNA (nLSU)] of taxa of Trechisporales around the world show that Sistotremastrum family forms a monophyletic lineage within Trechisporales. Bayesian evolutionary and divergence time analyses on two data sets of 5.8S and nLSU sequences indicate an ancient divergence of Sistotremastrum family from Hydnodontaceae during the Triassic period (224.25 Mya). Sistotremastrum family is characterized by resupinate and thin basidiomata, smooth, verruculose, or odontoid-semiporoid hymenophore, a monomitic hyphal structure, and generative hyphae bearing clamp connections, the presence of cystidia and hyphidia in some species, thin-walled, smooth, inamyloid, and acyanophilous basidiospores. In addition, four new species, namely, Trechispora dentata, Trechispora dimitiella, Trechispora fragilis, and Trechispora laevispora, are described and illustrated. In addition, three new combinations, namely, Brevicellicium daweishanense, Brevicellicium xanthum, and Sertulicium limonadense, are also proposed.

17.
ACS Omega ; 7(17): 14875-14886, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35557692

RESUMO

Charge compensation mechanisms in the delithiation processes of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM111) are compared in detail by the first-principles calculations with GGA and GGA+U methods under different U values reported in the literature. The calculations suggested that different sets of U values lead to different charge compensation mechanisms in the delithiation process. Co3+/Co4+ couples were shown to dominate the redox reaction for 1 ≥ x ≥ 2/3 by using the GGA+U 1 method (U 1 = 6.0 3.4 3.9 for Ni, Co, and Mn, respectively). However, by using the GGA+U 2 (U 2 = 6.0 5.5 4.2) method, the results indicated that the redox reaction of Ni2+/Ni3+ took place in the range of 1 ≥ x ≥ 2/3. Therefore, according to our study, experimental charge compensation processes during delithiation are of great importance to evaluate the theoretical calculations. The results also indicated that all the GGA+U i (i = 1, 2, 3) schemes predicted better voltage platforms than the GGA method. The oxygen anionic redox reactions during delithiation are also compared with GGA+U calculations under different U values. The electronic density of states and magnetic moments of transition metals have been employed to illustrate the redox reactions during the lithium extractions in NCM111. We have also investigated the formation energies of an oxygen vacancy in NCM111 under different values of U, which is important in understanding the possible occurrence of oxygen release. The formation energy of an O vacancy is essentially dependent on the experimental conditions. As expected, the decreased temperature and increased oxygen partial pressure can suppress the formation of the oxygen vacancy. The calculations can help improve the stability of the lattice oxygen.

18.
Int J Phytoremediation ; : 1-13, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570740

RESUMO

Sponge iron (SI) is widely used in water treatment. As effluents from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) require advanced treatment methodology, three forms of constructed wetlands (CWs): wetlands with sponge iron (SI), copper sulfate modified sponge iron (Cu/SI), and sponge iron coupled with solid carbon sources (C/SI), have been investigated in this paper for the removal effects of organic matter and nutrients in WWTP effluents, and the corresponding mechanisms have been analyzed. The results showed the effect of baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetland (BSFCW) with SI dosing to purify the WWTP effluents after the stable operation. The water flow of this BSFCW is the repeated combination of upward flow and downward flow, which can provide a longer treatment pathway and microbial exposure time. The average removal rates of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) were 27.80%, 30.17%, and 44.83%, and the average removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 19.96%, 23.73%, and 18.38%. The average removal rates of total phosphorus (TP) were 85.94%, 82.14%, and 83.95%. Cu/SI improved the dissolution of iron, C/SI improved denitrification, and a winter indoor temperature retention measure was adopted to increase the effectiveness of wetland treatment during the winter months. After comprehensively analyzing X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and two-dimensional numerical simulation diagrams, a plausible conjecture that microbes use electrons from SI for autotrophic denitrification is presented. Moreover, the stress effect of wetlands dosed with SI on plants decreased stepwise along the course since C/SI used on wetlands had less impact on plant stress.


1. Treatment of sequencing batch biofilm reactor reaction effluent indoors in low temperature using a combination of three wetland fillers, sponge iron + gravel, copper sulfate modified sponge iron + gravel, and sponge iron coupled carbon source + gravel.2. The use of the baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetland, combined with the distribution simulation diagram, especially the distribution simulation diagram of iron, gives an explanation to the degradation mechanism of the pollutants and the transformation of iron into wetlands.3. An conjecture of electron transport during microbial autotrophic denitrification involving iron is presented, plausibly explaining the variation in treatment effects.

19.
Development ; 149(10)2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502748

RESUMO

Adventitious roots (ARs) are an important type of plant root and display high phenotypic plasticity in response to different environmental stimuli. It is known that photoreceptors inhibit darkness-induced hypocotyl adventitious root (HAR) formation by directly stabilizing Aux/IAA proteins. In this study, we further report that phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) plays a central role in HAR initiation by simultaneously inducing the expression of genes involved in auxin biosynthesis, auxin transport and the transcriptional control of root primordium initiation. We found that, on the basis of their activity downstream of phytochrome, PIFs are required for darkness-induced HAR formation. Specifically, PIFs directly bind to the promoters of some genes involved in root formation, including auxin biosynthesis genes YUCCA2 (YUC2) and YUC6, the auxin influx carrier genes AUX1 and LAX3, and the transcription factors WOX5/7 and LBD16/29, to activate their expression. These findings reveal a previously uncharacterized transcriptional regulatory network underlying HAR formation.

20.
Neural Plast ; 2022: 1483101, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574247

RESUMO

A mounting body of evidence suggests that prenatal inflammation may enhance the rate of age-associated cognitive decline and may involve aberrant amounts of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus, including synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc). However, little is known about the specific impact of adolescent environmental enrichment (EE) on age-associated cognitive decline and the changes in synaptic proteins caused by prenatal inflammation. In this study, CD-1 mice in late pregnancy were given intraperitoneal doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 µg/kg) or normal saline. Offspring arising from LPS dams were divided into a LPS group and a LPS plus EE (LPS-E) group. The LPS-E mice were exposed to EE from 2 months of age until the end of the experiment (3 or 15 months old). The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess the spatial learning and memory capacities of experimental mice, while western blotting and RNA-scope were used to determine the expression levels of Arc and Syt1 in the hippocampus at the protein and mRNA levels, respectively. Analysis revealed that at 15 months of age, the control mice experienced a reduction in cognitive ability and elevated expression levels of Arc and Syt1 genes when compared to control mice at 3 months of age. The LPS-E group exhibited better cognition and lower protein and mRNA levels of Arc and Syt1 than mice in the LPS group of the same age. However, the enriched environment mitigated but did not counteract, the effects of prenatal inflammation on cognitive and synaptic proteins when tested at either 3 or 15 months of age. Our findings revealed that long-term environmental enrichment improved the expression levels of synaptic proteins in CD-1 mice and that this effect was linked to the dysfunctional cognition caused by prenatal inflammation; this process may also be involved in the reduction of hippocampal Arc and Syt1 gene expression.

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