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1.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(3)2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244889

RESUMO

The number of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing year by year, and MetS is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis. The demand for health supplements to treat or prevent MetS is also growing. Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh (CO) and Taiwanofungus camphoratus (TC) are endemic to Taiwan. Both have been shown to improve the symptoms of MetS, such as dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Herein, we investigated the effect of CO, TC and their formulations on diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks to induce MetS. After that, the mice were fed with HFD supplemented with CO, TC, and various CO/TC formulations, respectively, for 14 weeks. The changes in physiological parameters and the composition of the gut microbiome were investigated. The results indicated that CO, TC, and their formulations effectively reduced hyperglycemia, and tended to alleviate MetS in obese mice. Moreover, we also observed that CO, TC, and their formulations improved gut microbiota dysbiosis by decreasing the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio and increasing the abundance of Akkermansia spp. Our results revealed that CO and TC might have potential for use as a prebiotic dietary supplement to ameliorate obesity-related metabolic disorders and gut dysbiosis.

2.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235916

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways need to be tightly controlled to avoid excessive inflammation and unwanted damage to the host. Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) is a critical adaptor of TLR signaling. Here, we identified the speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) as a MyD88-associated protein. SPOP was recruited to MyD88 following TLR4 activation. TLR4 activation also caused the translocation of SPOP from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. SPOP depletion promoted the aggregation of MyD88 and recruitment of the downstream signaling kinases IRAK4, IRAK1 and IRAK2. Consistently, overexpression of SPOP inhibited the TLR4-mediated activation of NF-κB and production of inflammatory cytokines, whereas SPOP depletion had the opposite effects. Furthermore, knockdown of SPOP increased MyD88 aggregation and inflammatory cytokine production upon TLR2, TLR7 and TLR9 activation. Our findings reveal a mechanism by which MyD88 is regulated and highlight a role for SPOP in limiting inflammatory responses.

3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 374-382, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237321

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to obtain low toxicity and high efficiency anti-tumor Chinese medicine through screening the combination ratios of Momordicae Semen and Epimedii Folium, and to explore the anti-tumor mechanism of the combination of two drugs by observing their effect on apoptosis-related proteins in cancer cells. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay was used to observe the effect of drug combination on the proliferation of tumor cells from different tissue sources. The effects of the combination of the two drugs on tumor cells were analyzed by Compusyn software. Plate cloning assay was used to observe the effect of combination of these two drugs on the proliferation of A549 cells in vitro. The expression of reactive oxygen species(ROS) and apoptotic proteins p53, Bcl-2 and Bax were compared by using ROS kit and Western blot. Lewis lung cancer model was used to observe the anti-tumor effect of drugs in vivo. The results showed that the anti-tumor effect of their ethanol extract was more significant than that of water extract, and the anti-proliferation effect was strongest when the ratio was 1∶1(P<0.05). Compusyn analysis showed that the combination of the two drugs had synergistic effect. Further studies showed that after combined use, the number of clonogen formation in A549 cells was significantly reduced(P<0.01); ROS production was increased; the expression of apoptosis-related protein p53 was up-regulated, and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was decreased. In vivo animal study showed that the tumor inhibition rate was 53.06%(P<0.05) in the high dose group. As compared with the single use of the two drugs, the combination of the two drugs had more significant anti-proliferative effect on tumors, and the optimum ratio was 1∶1. The combination of the two drugs at a ratio of 1∶1 inhibited the proliferation of various tumor cells, and had no significant effect on normal liver cells LO2 when compared with other ratios. Therefore, it can be preliminarily inferred that the combination of the two drugs may have the effect of synergism and detoxification. Further studies showed that the combination of the two drugs can significantly inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells, and its mechanism may be related to the activation of endogenous apoptotic pathway. In vivo experiments also showed that the tumor inhibition rate increased with the increase of drug concentration.

4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 412-417, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237326

RESUMO

The bilirubin metabolism mediated by the phase Ⅱ metabolizing enzyme UGT1A1 in the liver was evaluated to study the potential hepatotoxicity risk based on investigation on the inhibitory effect of rhein and its metabolites on the UGT1A1 enzyme in Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. Firstly, in vitro liver microsomes incubation was used to initiate the phase Ⅱ metabolic reaction to investigate the inhibitory effect of rheinon UGT1A1 enzyme. Secondly, the phase Ⅰ and phase Ⅱ metabolic reactions were initiated to investigate the hepatotoxicity risk of rhein metabolites. It was found that the rhein and its phase Ⅱ metabolites had no significant inhibitory effect on UGT1A1 enzyme, but its phase Ⅰ metabolites significantly reduced UGT1A1 enzyme activity. Based on the metabolites analysis, it is speculated that the rhein phase Ⅰ metabolite rheinhydroxylate and its tautomers have certain hepatotoxicity risks, while the toxicity risk induced by the prototype and phase Ⅱ metabolites of rheinglucoside, rheinglucuronic acid and rhein sulfate is small.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223234

RESUMO

A water-soluble probe TPA-1OH with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) activity is synthesized and used for expedient real-time fluorescence in situ visualization of latent fingerprints (LFPs). TPA-1OH aqueous solution exhibits non-fluorescence in pure water while strong fluorescence upon molecular aggregating induced by addition of non-solvent. Fluorescence images of LFPs on variety of substrates, including rough surfaces such as walls, bricks, paper, are developed under 405 nm light, by im-mersing in or spraying with TPA-1OH aqueous solution (30 µM) without any necessity of organic co-solvent and post-treatment steps. The probe is non-cytotoxic at the concentration lower than 50 µM. The development process of LFPs is demonstrated by real-time fluorescence in situ imaging. The exponential relationship between the relative fluorescence intensity and time is deduced from the fitting curve. The LFP images developed by TPA-1OH are evident and intact enough to allow that the Level 1-3 details are displayed and analyzed. Noteworthily, the Level 3 details of LFPs such as the fingerprint ridge width, the characteristics of the sweat pores are evidently visible under fluorescence microscopy. Even the nanoscopic details exceed-ing Level 3 are visualized under super-resolution microscopy with sub-50 nm optical resolution, which is the very first report on LFPs.

6.
Int Orthop ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the treatment of primary osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoarthritis of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). METHODS: This study enrolled 77 KBD patients (77 knees, KBD-TKA) and 75 OA patients (75 knees, OA-TKA) who underwent TKA from September 2008 to June 2018. Clinical assessments for each patient were performed pre-operatively and last follow-up. The efficacy measures included the visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, range of motion (ROM), Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score, and short form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) as well as related influencing factors between the two groups. RESULTS: All patients were followed up; the follow-up time of KBD-TKA was 14-132 months, with an average of 72.68 ± 37.55 months; OA-TKA was 15-120 months, with an average of 49.2 ± 28.91 months. There was no difference in pre-operative VAS score (7.29 vs. 7.24) and SF-36 (PCS) score (4.87 vs. 5.49) between KBD-TKA and OA-TKA (P > 0.05), while compared with OA, KBD-TKA had significantly worse pre-operative ROM (75.48° vs. 82.87°), HSS score (36.40 vs. 41.84), and SF-36 (MCS) score (26.28 vs. 28.73) (P < 0.05). At the final follow-up, there was no significant difference in VAS score (1.13 vs. 1.16), ROM (105.79 vs. 105.79), and HSS score (92.06 vs. 92.25) between KBD-TKA and OA-TKA (P > 0.05), while compared with OA, KBD-TKA had significantly worse SF-36 (PCS) score (36.90 vs. 42.00) and SF-36 (MCS) score (55.16 vs. 59.70) (P < 0.05). In a multivariate regression, controlling for multiple potential confounders, diagnosis of KBD was associated with poor quality of life after surgery, whereas pre-operative pain was specifically associated with post-operative pain. However, preoperative gender, age, BMI, and the angles of knee prosthesis (before and after surgery) were not associated with post-operative outcome. CONCLUSION: Patients with KBD undergoing primary TKA have excellent outcomes, comparable with OA at the final follow-up, in spite of worse pre-operative ROM, HSS score, and SF-36(MCS) score. However, KBD patients are worse than OA in terms of general health. Pre-operative age, gender, BMI, and the angles of knee prosthesis were not the factors influencing the clinical efficacy of TKA. The diagnosis of KBD was an independent risk factor for poor quality of life after TKA. Pre-operative pain was a clinically important predictor of outcome.

7.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 133, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193507

RESUMO

Corneal curvature, a highly heritable trait, is a key clinical endophenotype for myopia - a major cause of visual impairment and blindness in the world. Here we present a trans-ethnic meta-analysis of corneal curvature GWAS in 44,042 individuals of Caucasian and Asian with replication in 88,218 UK Biobank data. We identified 47 loci (of which 26 are novel), with population-specific signals as well as shared signals across ethnicities. Some identified variants showed precise scaling in corneal curvature and eye elongation (i.e. axial length) to maintain eyes in emmetropia (i.e. HDAC11/FBLN2 rs2630445, RBP3 rs11204213); others exhibited association with myopia with little pleiotropic effects on eye elongation. Implicated genes are involved in extracellular matrix organization, developmental process for body and eye, connective tissue cartilage and glycosylation protein activities. Our study provides insights into population-specific novel genes for corneal curvature, and their pleiotropic effect in regulating eye size or conferring susceptibility to myopia.

8.
J Nat Prod ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141299

RESUMO

Twenty new chebulic acid and brevifolincarboxylic acid derivatives, including eight optically pure or achiral compounds (1-7 and 14) and six pairs of enantiomers (8a/8b-13a/13b), along with nine known analogues (15-23), were isolated from an EtOH extract of the aerial parts of Euphorbia hirta. The absolute configurations of the new compounds were assigned based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and comparison of the experimental and calculated ECD data. Racemic or scalemic mixtures of 8-13 were isolated, and their enantiomers were analyzed by chiral-phase HPLC-ECD measurements. Compound 12 possesses an unprecedented 2H-cyclopenta[de]chromene-2,5(4H)-dione scaffold. Compounds 12, 20, and 23 displayed moderate inhibitory effects against lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in BV-2 microglial cells, while all the isolates exhibited significant DPPH radical scavenging activities with EC50 values of 2.2-15.8 µM.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150404

RESUMO

Metal halide perovskites show promise for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) owing to their facile manufacture and excellent optoelectronic performance, including high color purity and spectral stability, especially in the green region. However, for blue perovskite LEDs, the emission spectrum line width is broadened to over 25 nm by the coexistence of multiple reduced-dimensional perovskite domains, and the spectral stability is poor, with an undesirable shift (over 7 nm) toward longer wavelengths under operating conditions, degradation that occurs due to phase separation when mixed halides are employed. Here we demonstrate chloride insertion-immobilization, a strategy that enables blue perovskite LEDs, the first to exhibit narrowband (line width of 18 nm) and spectrally stable (no wavelength shift) performance. We prepare bromide-based perovskites and then employ organic chlorides for dynamic treatment, inserting and in situ immobilizing chlorides to blue-shift and stabilize the emission. We achieve sky-blue LEDs with a record luminance over 5100 cd/m2 at 489 nm, and an operating half-life of 51 min at 1500 cd/m2. By device structure optimization, we further realize an improved EQE of 5.2% at 479 nm and an operating half-life of 90 min at 100 cd/m2.

10.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Post-operative concurrent chemoradiotherapy has become the standard treatment for patients with positive lymph nodes after radical surgery. The aim of this study was to explore the efficiency and safety of consolidation chemotherapy in early-stage cervical cancer patients with lymph node metastasis after radical hysterectomy. METHOD: We reviewed the medical records of patients with early-stage cervical cancer with lymph node metastasis after radical hysterectomy from January 2010 to January 2017. All patients underwent adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (n=49) or three cycles of platinum-based consolidation chemotherapy following concurrent chemoradiotherapy (n=89). The primary end points of the study were disease-free survival and overall survival. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 51 months (range 10-109). No significant difference was noted in disease-free survival, overall survival, or grade 3/4 gastrointestinal disorder between the consolidation chemotherapy group (78.1% vs 83.1% vs 6.7%) and the concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone group (75.4% vs 75.3% vs 4.1%), (p=0.42, 0.26, 0.80, respectively). However, the grade 3/4 myelosuppression rate in the consolidation group was higher than in the concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone group (40.4% vs 22.4%, p=0.03). For patients with >3 positive lymph nodes or patients with >2 positive lymph nodes+lymphovascular space invasion/≥1/3 stromal invasion, disease-free survival and overall survival were superior in the consolidation chemotherapy group compared with the concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: In patients with >3 positive lymph nodes or patients with >2 positive lymph nodes, lymphovascular space invasion, and greater than 1/3 stromal invasion, disease-free survival and overall survival were superior with consolidation chemotherapy. However, consolidation chemotherapy was also associated with an increased grade 3/4 myelosuppression rate.

11.
DNA Cell Biol ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175765

RESUMO

Carrot is an annual or biennial herbaceous plant of the Apiaceae family. Carrot is an important vegetable, and its fresh taproot, which contains rich nutrients, is the main edible part. In the life cycle of carrot, NAC family transcription factors (TFs) are involved in almost all physiological processes. The function of NAC TFs in carrot remains unclear. In this study, 73 NAC family TF members in carrot were identified and characterized using transcriptome and genome databases. These members were divided into 14 subfamilies. Multiple sequence alignment was performed, and the conserved domains, common motifs, phylogenetic tree, and interaction network of DcNAC proteins were predicted and analyzed. Results showed that the same group of NAC proteins of carrot had high similarity. Eight DcNAC genes were selected to detect their expression profiles under abiotic stress treatments. The expression levels of the selected DcNAC genes significantly increased under treatments with low temperature, high temperature, drought, and salt stress. Results provide potentially useful information for further analysis of the roles of DcNAC transcription factors in carrot.

12.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA120029071, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212900

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Ischemic stroke impairs endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function, causes ER stress, and activates the unfolded protein response. The unfolded protein response consists of 3 branches controlled by ER stress sensor proteins, which include PERK (protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase). Activated PERK phosphorylates eIF2α (eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha), resulting in inhibition of global protein synthesis. Here, we aimed to clarify the role of the PERK unfolded protein response branch in stroke. Methods- Neuron-specific and tamoxifen-inducible PERK conditional knockout (cKO) mice were generated by cross-breeding Camk2a-CreERT2 with Perkf/f mice. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion was used to induce stroke. Short- and long-term stroke outcomes were evaluated. Protein synthesis in the brain was assessed using a surface-sensing-of-translation approach. Results- After tamoxifen-induced deletion of Perk in forebrain neurons was confirmed in PERK-cKO mice, PERK-cKO and control mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and 3 days or 3 weeks recovery. PERK-cKO mice had larger infarcts and worse neurological outcomes compared with control mice, suggesting that PERK-induced eIF2α phosphorylation and subsequent suppression of translation protects neurons from ischemic stress. Indeed, better stroke outcomes were observed in PERK-cKO mice that received postischemic treatment with salubrinal, which can restore the ischemia-induced increase in phosphorylated eIF2α in these mice. Finally, our data showed that post-treatment with salubrinal improved functional recovery after stroke. Conclusions- Here, we presented the first evidence that postischemic suppression of translation induced by PERK activation promotes recovery of neurological function after stroke. This confirms and further extends our previous observations that recovery of ER function impaired by ischemic stress critically contributes to stroke outcome. Therefore, future research should include strategies to improve stroke outcome by targeting unfolded protein response branches to restore protein homeostasis in neurons.

13.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maintaining physical fitness is important for health of the elderly. How to implement an effective and efficient model is a practical issue. A healthy physical fitness promotion program with machine-assisted exercises was designed for elderly and executed in a community in 2015 and 2016. The program was implemented for 10~12 weeks with two (group 1) or three (group 2) sessions per week, and functional fitness tests were conducted before, at the end, and three months after the training. This study is to investigate the effectiveness of machine-assisted physical fitness promotion program for the community elderly. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the participants' data, including sex, age, height, weight, waist-hip ratio, grip strength, back stretch, chair sit-and-reach, 30-second chair stand, 30-second arm curl, 2-minute step, single-leg standing, 8-feet up-and-go, and body composition. The differences in test results before, at the end, and three months after the training and the percentage change at different time intervals between the two groups were compared. RESULTS: After training, body mass index in group 2, and the test completion time for 8-feet up-and-go in group 1 decline significantly; furthermore, significant increase was noted in the height and number of times of 2-minute step in both groups, grip strength and times of their 30-second arm curl, 30-second chair stand in group 2. The training effect sustained after the training 3 months in height and times of 2-minute step in both groups, and grip strength, times of their 30-second arm curl and 30-second chair stand in group 2. CONCLUSION: This study discovered that 10~12 weeks of machine-assisted exercise training can improve the elderly community members' body composition, muscle strength, muscle endurance, agility, dynamic balance, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Moreover, with 3 sessions per week, its effects were even maintained for 3 months after the training.

14.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; : 105946, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199877

RESUMO

It has been 2 months since the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. So far, COVID-19 has affected 85 403 patients in 57 countries/territories and has caused 2924 deaths in 9 countries. However, epidemiological data differ between countries. Although China had higher morbidity and mortality than other sites, the number of new daily cases in China has been lower than outside of China since 26 February 2020. The incidence ranged from 61.44 per 1 000 000 people in the Republic of Korea to 0.0002 per 1 000 000 people in India. The daily cumulative index (DCI) of COVID-19 (cumulative cases/no. of days between the first reported case and 29 February 2020) was greatest in China (1320.85), followed by the Republic of Korea (78.78), Iran (43.11) and Italy (30.62). However, the DCIs in other countries/territories were <10 per day. Several effective measures including restricting travel from China, controlling the distribution of masks, extensive investigation of COVID-19 spread, and once-daily press conferences by the government to inform and educate people were aggressively conducted in Taiwan. This is probably the reason why there was only 39 cases (as of 29 February 2020) with a DCI of 1 case per day in Taiwan, which is much lower than that of nearby countries such as the Republic of Korea and Japan. In addition, the incidence and mortality were correlated with the DCI. However, further study and continued monitoring are needed to better understand the underlying mechanism of COVID-19.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209585

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) accuracy is important for diabetes diagnosis and estimation of overall glycemia. The G6PD-Asahi variant which causes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has been shown to lower HbA1c independently of glycemia in African ancestry populations. As different G6PD variants occur in Asian ancestry, we sought to identify Asian-specific G6PD variants associated with HbA1c. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In eight Asian population-based cohorts, we performed imputation on the X chromosome using the 1000 Genomes reference panel and tested for association with HbA1c (10 005 East Asians and 2051 South Asians). Results were meta-analyzed across studies. We compared the proportion of individuals classified as having diabetes/pre-diabetes by fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dL or HbA1c ≥5.7% units among carriers and non-carriers of HbA1c-associated variants. RESULTS: The strongest association was a missense variant (G6PD-Canton, rs72554665, minor allele frequency=2.2%, effect in men=-0.76% unit, 95% CI -0.88 to -0.64, p=1.25×10-27, n=2844). Conditional analyses identified a secondary distinct signal, missense variant (G6PD-Kaiping, rs72554664, minor allele frequency=1.6%, effect in men=-1.12 % unit, 95% CI -1.32 to -0.92, p=3.12×10-15, pconditional_Canton=7.57×10-11). Adjusting for glucose did not attenuate their effects. The proportion of individuals with fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dL did not differ by carrier status of G6PD-Canton (p=0.21). Whereas the proportion of individuals with HbA1c ≥5.7% units was lower in carriers (5%) compared with non-carriers of G6PD-Canton (30%, p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: We identified two G6PD variants in East Asian men associated with non-glycemic lowering of HbA1c. Carriers of these variants are more likely to be underdiagnosed for diabetes or pre-diabetes than non-carriers if screened by HbA1c without confirmation by direct glucose measurements.

16.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(1): 85-94, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166669

RESUMO

Abundant studies have been conducted to identify how B-cell translocation gene 1 protein (BTG1) gene affects the differentiation, proliferation, metastasis of cancer cells, and how it further regulates the generation or development of diseases to influence the prognosis of patients. However, the data from single research were not powerful enough. The correlations between BTG1 expression and mechanisms of tumorigenesis or prognosis of patients are still in controversial. Our system review and meta-analysis provided a complete explanation about the association between BTG1 expression and clinicopathological features or prognosis of patients, which further laid a foundation for future research on BTG1. Fifteen eligible studies consisting of 1992 participants were included. We uncovered that BTG1 expression in solid tumors was associated with lymph node status (RR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.58-0.75, P=0.142), TMN stage status (RR=2.13, 95% CI: 1.71-2.65, P=0.001), T category (RR=1.90, 95% CI: 1.20-3.00, P=0.000), histological differentiation (RR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.55-2.37, P=0.012), vascular invasion (RR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.57-1.41, P=0.001). BTG1 low expression was significantly associated with overall survival (OS) (HR=0.47, 95% CI: 0.38-0.67, P=0.000). It concluded that BTG1 possessed the potential value for future research and could be recommended as a significant biomarker in solid tumor.

17.
Hepatology ; 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after surgical resection compromises the patient survival. Timely detection of HCC recurrence and its clonality is required to implement salvage therapies appropriately. This study examined the feasibility of virus-host chimera DNA (vh-DNA), generated from junctions of hepatitis B virus (HBV) integration in the HCC chromosome, as a circulating biomarker for this clinical setting. APPROACH & RESULTS: HBV integration in 50 HBV-related HCC patients was determined by the capture-next generation sequencing (NGS) platform. For individual HCC, the vh-DNA was quantified by specific droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay in plasma samples collected before and two months after surgery. HBV integrations were identified in 44 out of 50 HBV-related HCC patients. Tumor-specific ddPCR was developed to measure the corresponding vh-DNA copy number in baseline plasma from each patient immediately before surgery. vh-DNA was detected in 43 patients (97.7%), and the levels correlated with the tumor sizes (detection limit at 1.5 cm). Among the plasma collected at 2 months after surgery, 10 cases (23.3%) still contained the same signature vh-DNA detected at baseline, indicating the presence of residual tumor cells. Nine of them (90%) experienced HCC recurrence within one year, supporting vh-DNA as an independent risk factor in predicting early recurrence. Analysis of circulating vh-DNA at recurrence further helped identify the clonal origin. 81.8% of recurrences came from original HCC clones sharing the same plasma vh-DNA, whereas 18.2% were from de novo HCC. CONCLUSIONS: vh-DNA was shown to be a new circulating biomarker for detecting the tumor load in majority of HBV-related HCC patients and aided in monitoring residual tumor and recurrence clonality after tumor resection.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173241

RESUMO

Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (formerly known as the 2019 novel coronavirus [2019-nCoV]) in Wuhan, China in December 2019, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), more than 75,000 cases have been reported in 32 countries/regions, resulting in more than 2000 deaths worldwide. Despite the fact that most COVID-19 cases and mortalities were reported in China, the WHO has declared this outbreak as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. The COVID-19 can present as an asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia. Adults represent the population with the highest infection rate; however, neonates, children, and elderly patients can also be infected by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, nosocomial infection of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers, and viral transmission from asymptomatic carriers are possible. The most common finding on chest imaging among patients with pneumonia was ground-glass opacity with bilateral involvement. Severe cases are more likely to be older patients with underlying comorbidities compared to mild cases. Indeed, age and disease severity may be correlated with the outcomes of COVID-19. To date, effective treatment is lacking; however, clinical trials investigating the efficacy of several agents, including remdesivir and chloroquine, are underway in China. Currently, effective infection control intervention is the only way to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2.

19.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that amyloid-ß (Aß) burden influenced white matter (WM) integrity before the onset of dementia. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the effects of Aß burden on WM integrity in cognitively normal (CN) individuals were regionally specific. METHODS: Our cohort consisted of 71 CNs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database who underwent both AV45 amyloid-PET and diffusion tensor imaging. Standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) was computed across four bilateral regions of interest (ROIs) corresponding to four stages of in vivo amyloid staging model (Amyloid stages I-IV). Linear regression models were conducted in entire CN group and between APOEɛ4 carriers and non-carriers. RESULTS: Our results indicated that higher global Aß-SUVR was associated with higher mean diffusivity (MD) in the entire CN group (p = 0.023), and with both higher MD (p = 0.015) and lower fractional anisotropy (FA) (p = 0.026) in APOEɛ4 carriers. Subregion analysis showed that higher Amyloid stage I-II Aß-SUVRs were associated with higher MD (Stage-1: p = 0.030; Stage-2: p = 0.016) in the entire CN group, and with both higher MD (Stage-1: p = 0.004; Stage-2: p = 0.010) and lower FA (Stage-1: p = 0.022; Stage-2: p = 0.014) in APOEɛ4 carriers. No associations were found in APOEɛ4 non-carriers and in Amyloid stage III-IV ROIs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that the effects of Aß burden on WM integrity in CNs might be regionally specific, particularly in Amyloid stage I-II ROIs, and modulated by APOEɛ4 status.

20.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(11): 2054-2057, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150204

RESUMO

A base-promoted addition of DMA (N,N-dimethylacetamide) to 1,1-diarylethylenes has been developed, and it provides a new strategy for the synthesis of N,N-dimethyl-4,4-diarylbutanamides from 1,1-diarylethylenes at room temperature. This method allows us to achieve the goal of synthesizing (-)-sacidumlignan B, and provides simple operation and broad substrate scope by avoiding the use of transition metal catalysts.

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