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1.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 11(1): 101316, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677968

RESUMO

Anaplasma and Ehrlichia are tick-borne bacterial pathogens that cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis, and are severe threats to livestock economies like Mongolia. In this study, ticks were collected, identified, and pooled (n = 299) from three distinct environments across central Mongolia. Each pool was initially tested for Anaplasma/Ehrlichia using a 16S rRNA PCR assay that detects both genera, and specific PCR testing was done to identify those positive samples. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of infection rates of ticks collected from the environment in Selenge aimag (province) found infection rates of Ixodes persulcatus ticks to be 2.0% (95% CI: 0.7, 4.3%) for A. phagocytophilum and 0.8% (95% CI: 0.1, 2.5%) for both nonspecific Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. Ehrlichia muris was only detected in I. persulcatus ticks collected from the Selenge aimag, where the MLE was 1.2% (95% CI: 0.1, 2.5%). The calculated MLE infection rate of Anaplasma spp. in questing Dermacentor nuttalli ticks ranged from 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1, 9.1%) in the Tov aimag to 2.3% (95% CI: 1.3, 10.8%) in the Selenge aimag. However, when examining MLE in ticks removed from livestock, estimates increase substantially, ranging from 7.8% (95% CI: 4.2, 13.3%) in Dornogovi to 22.5% (95% CI: 14.3, 34.3%) in Selenge, suggesting that livestock play a key role in disease maintenance. Considering the collective economic losses that can result from these pathogens and the potential for illness in nomadic herdsmen, these results highlight the need for enhanced TBD surveillance and prevention measures within Mongolia.

2.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1094: 106-112, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761035

RESUMO

Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exists in multiple physiological processes. In order to further understand the action mechanism of H2S in cells and human body, we proposed a smart surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoprobe, Au core-4-mercaptobenzonitrile-Ag shell nanoparticle (Au@4-MBN@Ag), for the detection of endogenous H2S in living cells based on the reaction between Ag shell and sulfide species. 4-MBN was selected as the SERS reporter to avoid interference from cellular molecules. With the sulfide concentration increasing, the Ag2S constantly formed, and consequently the SERS signal intensity of Au@4-MBN@Ag gradually decreased owing to the weaker SERS activity of Ag2S. With the nanoprobes, this method not only offers a high sensitivity for H2S detection at an nM level, but also achieves the goal of non-background analysis. It displays satisfactory anti-interference capability and a good linear relationship with sulfide concentration ranging from 50 nM to 500 µM, and an estimated detection limit is 0.14 nM. The Au@4-MBN@Ag nanoprobes were successfully applied to detect endogenous H2S in living HepG2 cells stimulated by pyridoxal 5-phosphate monohydrate. This work offers a potential analytical method in the related research of H2S physiological function.

3.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 132: 109413, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731953

RESUMO

t-Butyl 6-cyano-(3R,5R)-dihydroxyhexanoate ((3R,5R)-2) is an important building-block of atorvastatin. In our previous work, a variant KlAKR-Y295W-W296 L (designated as M1) of Kluyveromyces lactis aldo-keto reductase (wild type (WT) KlAKR, M0) was developed, which possessed strict diastereoselectivity but moderate activity towards t-butyl 6-cyano-(5R)-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate ((5R)-1). To further improve its catalytic performance, semi-rational engineering of M1 was performed in present work, and the "best" varaint KlAKR-Y295W-W296L-I125V-S30P-Q212R-I63W (M8) was developed. M8's KmB towards (5R)-1 was 2.02 mM, and the catalytic efficiency (kcat/KmB) value was 36.31 s-1 mM-1, which was 1.9-fold higher than that of the parent M1. Compared with M1, the half-life t1/2, TS5050 and TP5050 of M8 were improved. Under the optimized conditions, (5R)-1 at load of up to 80 g L-1 was completely reduced in 1.5 h by M8 along with Exiguobacterium sibiricum glucose dehydrogenase (EsGDH) for cofactor regeneration, producing (3R,5R)-2 in dep > 99.5% and space-time yields (STY) of 660.0 g L-1d-1.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to investigate the effectiveness of active video games as an adjunct to pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. DESIGN: All entries to the following databases were searched up until 3 April, 2019: PubMed, EMBASE Ovid, the Cochrane Central Register of Randomized Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Wanfang, Weipu, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. RESULTS: A total of seven articles (three randomized controlled trials and four quasi-experimental studies) with 249 patients were included. Active video games can increase the 6-minute walk distance by 30.9 meters on average. Four studies assessed quality of life and showed significant improvement. Four studies have reported that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease found active video games to be enjoyable. Patient adherence was assessed in two studies and showed high adherence with active video games. No adverse events related to active video games were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The review demonstrated that active video games as an adjunct to pulmonary rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may prove to be useful and enjoyable. Additional studies should explore the differences between different types of active video games in order to create more effective game interventions for pulmonary rehabilitation.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224627, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682629

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic parasitic protist and poses a threat to human and animal health. This study investigated the occurrence of G. duodenalis infection in post-weaned calves from Sichuan province, China. Faecal samples were collected from a total of 306 post-weaned calves (3-12 months old) from 10 farms, including 4 intensive feeding farms and 6 free-ranging farms. The overall infection rate of G. duodenalis was 41.2% (126/306) based on the PCR results at any of the three genetic loci: beta-giardin (bg), triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. Giardia duodenalis assemblages E (n = 115, 91.3%), A (n = 3, 2.4%), and A mixed with E (n = 8, 6.3%) were identified among the 126 positive specimens. Multilocus sequence typing of G. duodenalis revealed 34 assemblage E multilocus genotypes (MLGs), 1 assemblage A MLG and 7 mixed assemblage (A and E) MLGs. The eBURST data showed a high degree of genetic diversity within assemblage E MLGs. The phylogenetic tree revealed that MLG E3 was the primary MLG subtype in Sichuan province and also the most widely distributed in China.

6.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 529, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some researchers have reported that Toxoplasma gondii can cause serious reproductive impairment in male animals. Specifically, T. gondii destroy the quality of sperm in the epididymis, which affects their sexual ability. However, among such studies, none have investigated the male reproductive transcriptome. Therefore, to investigate the relationship between T. gondii and sperm maturation, we infected mice with T. gondii prugniaud (PRU) strain and performed transcriptome sequencing of the epididymis. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, 431 upregulated and 229 downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found (P-value < 0.05, false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 and |log2 (fold change)| ≥ 1). According to results of a bioinformatics analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) function is divided into three categories: cellular component, molecular function and biological process. Upon performing GO analysis, we found that some DEGs correlated with an integral part of membrane, protein complex, cell surface, ATP binding, immune system process, signal transduction and metabolic process which are responsible for the epididymal injury. DEGs were mapped to 101 unique KEGG pathways. Pathways such as cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and apoptosis are closely related to sperm quality. Moreover, Tnfsf10 and spata18 can damage the mitochondria in sperm, which decreases sperm motility and morphology. CONCLUSIONS: We sequenced the reproductive system of male mice chronically infected with T. gondii, which provides a new direction for research into male sterility caused by Toxoplasma infection. This work provides valuable information and a comprehensive database for future studies of the interaction between T. gondii infection and the male reproductive system.

7.
Psych J ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722451

RESUMO

Involuntary mental time travel (MTT) refers to the phenomenon of mentally reliving past experiences or pre-living possible future events in an involuntary form. Few studies have explored involuntary MTT in individuals with schizotypal personality features. The present study aimed to first explore the psychometric properties of the Involuntary Autobiographic Memory Inventory (IAMI) in a Chinese sample (Study 1), and then to explore whether individuals with schizotypal personality features experience involuntary MTT more frequently than individuals without schizotypal features. Moreover, the study explored whether the aberrant frequency of involuntary MTT is correlated with positive schizotypal features (Study 2). The results showed that the IAMI had good structural validity and reliability in a Chinese sample. Individuals with schizotypal traits reported a significantly higher frequency, less positive emotion, and stronger emotional intensity for both involuntary memories and future thoughts compared with individuals without schizotypal features. Further analyses in individuals with schizotypal personality features showed that the frequencies of both involuntary memories and future thoughts were significantly correlated with positive schizotypal traits. These results have potential theoretical and clinical implications for a comprehensive understanding of involuntary MTT among individuals with schizotypal personality features.

8.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672431

RESUMO

CotA-laccases are potential enzymes that are widely used in decolorization of dyes and degradation of toxic substances. In this study, a novel CotA-laccase gene from Bacillus pumilus W3 was applied for rational design. After a series of site-directed genetic mutations, the mutant S208G/F227A showed a 5.1-fold higher catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) than the wild-type CotA-laccase did. The optimal pH of S208G/F227A was 3.5 with ABTS as substrate. The residual activity of mutant S208G/F227A was more than 80% after incubated for 10 h at pH 7-11. Mutant S208G/F227A showed optimal temperature at 80°C with ABTS as substrate. The thermal stability of mutant laccase S208G/F227A was lower than that of wild-type CotA-laccase. This study showed that Gly208 and Ala227 play key roles in catalytic efficiency and it is possible to improve catalytic efficiency of CotA-laccase through site-directed mutagenesis.

9.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734866

RESUMO

Nine new gastrodin derivatives, including seven p-hydroxybenzyl-modified gastrodin ethers (1-7), 6'-O-acetylgastrodin (8), and 4-[α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 →6)-ß-D-glucopyranosyloxy]benzyl alcohol (9), together with seven known derivatives, were isolated from an aqueous extract of Gastrodia elata ("tian ma") rhizomes. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-4, 7, 10, and 11 were also isolated from a reaction mixture by refluxing gastrodin and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol in H2O. As both gastrodin and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol exist in the plant, the reaction results provide evidence for the production and increase/decrease of potential effective/toxic components when "tian ma" is decocted solely or together with ingredients in Chinese traditional medicine formulations, though the isolates were inactive in the preliminarily cell-based assays at concentrations of 10 µM. Moreover, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRESIMS), 4, 7, 10, and 11, as well as component variations, were detectable in the freshly prepared extracts of different types of samples, including the freeze-dried fresh G. elata rhizomes.

10.
Int Heart J ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735781

RESUMO

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of the most common inherited cardiovascular diseases and possesses a high risk for sudden cardiac death. Although mutations in more than 20 genes have been reported to be associated with HCM thus far, the genetic backgrounds of most HCM patients are not fully understood. We performed a genetic analysis in a Chinese family that presented with HCM using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Clinical data, family histories, and blood samples were collected from the proband and family members. Five patients showed typical clinical symptoms of HCM. One subject was the victim of sudden cardiac death. By NGS, we determined that these subjects with HCM symptoms carried a missense heterozygous genetic mutation c.2632C>A (p.V878L) in the myosin heavy chain 7 (MYH7) gene with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Individuals without this mutation showed no symptoms or cardiac structural abnormalities related to HCM. Bioinformatics evaluation predicted this mutant as "damaging" and "disease causing". Additionally, sequence alignment showed that this mutant is located in an evolutionarily conserved region of MYH7 in multiple species. Our results describe a potentially pathogenic mutation associated with HCM, which may extend the spectrum of HCM phenotypes related to MYH7 gene mutations.

11.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758234

RESUMO

The bHLH transcription factor Olig2 is required for sequential cell fate determination of both motor neurons and oligodendrocytes and for progenitor proliferation in the central nervous system. However, the role of Olig2 in peripheral sensory neurogenesis remains unknown. We report that Olig2 is transiently expressed in the newly differentiated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and is down-regulated in the mature OSNs in mice from early gestation to adulthood. Genetic fate mapping demonstrates that Olig2-expressing cells solely give rise to OSNs in the peripheral olfactory system. Olig2 depletion does not affect the proliferation of peripheral olfactory progenitors and the fate determination of OSNs, sustentacular cells, and the olfactory ensheathing cells. However, the terminal differentiation and maturation of OSNs are compromised in either Olig2 single or Olig1/Olig2 double knockout mice, associated with significantly diminished expression of multiple OSN maturation and odorant signaling genes, including Omp, Gnal, Adcy3, and Olfr15. We further demonstrate that Olig2 binds to the E-box in the Omp promoter region to regulate its expression. Taken together, our results reveal a distinctly novel function of Olig2 in the periphery nervous system to regulate the terminal differentiation and maturation of olfactory sensory neurons.

12.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(22): 2664-2669, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) has become one of the major life-threatening complications in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). This study aimed to explore the clinical-pathologic similarities and differences in the IBD-associated CRC (IBD-CRC) between patients in China and Canada. METHODS: Data of 78 patients with IBD-CRC retrospectively retrieved from two representative medical institutions in Beijing (China) and Calgary (Canada) over the same past 13 years, including 25 (22 UC-associated and three CD-associated) from Beijing group and 53 (32 UC-associated and 21 CD-associated) from Calgary group, were compared with regards to their clinical and pathologic characteristics. RESULTS: Several known features of IBD-CRC were seen in both groups, including long duration and large extent of colitis, active inflammation background, multifocal lesions, and advanced tumor-node-metastasis stage. Beijing group showed a significantly higher percentage of UC (88.0% vs. 60.4%, P = 0.018), younger age at diagnosis of CRC (48.6 ±â€Š12.8 years vs. 61.6 ±â€Š14.7 years, P < 0.001), lower ratio of mucinous adenocarcinoma (7.1% vs. 42.4%, P = 0.001) compared with Calgary group. None of the Beijing group had concurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis, while 5.7% of Calgary group did. Surveillance colonoscopy favored the detection rate of precancerous lesions (41.4% vs.17.0%, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: As compared with patients from the Calgary group, the IBD-CRC patients in Beijing group were younger, less CD-associated and had less mucinous features, otherwise they were similar in many common features.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134705, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726341

RESUMO

Electricity generation may create high levels of pollution, but its consumption is completely clean. Long-distance electricity transfers make the allocation of environmental externalities caused by electricity generation unfair at the regional level. This paper provides a generalized approach that can be used to evaluate air pollution and health loss embodied in electricity transfers. Impact pathway approach is combined with a network approach to evaluate embodied direct health loss and a sophisticated evaluation of air pollution diffusion is implemented to assess indirect environmental impacts between regions. Using China's inter-provincial power transmission as an example, this paper also reveals various air pollutant and health loss transfer patterns among the nation's provinces. The results emphasize the importance of characterizing the embodied environmental effects in electricity transfer through health losses rather than air pollution emissions. The inter-regional indirect impacts due to the diffusion of pollutants must be considered when examining the embodied health losses, which is even higher than the direct impact on the local. Several central regions in China, adjacent to the major electricity-export provinces, do not export a large amount of electricity, yet their health losses have increased significantly due to nationwide power transfers. The direct external health costs of electricity generation in China's major power-exporting provinces are relatively low. However, when indirect impacts are considered, external costs in the central and northern regions increase significantly. Therefore, the regional environmental benefits of shifting electricity generation to resource-rich remote areas are greatly reduced for many pairs of provinces.

14.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 298, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy, especially immune checkpoint inhibition, has provided powerful tools against cancer. We aimed to detect the expression of common immune checkpoints and evaluate their prognostic values in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: The expression of 9 immune checkpoints consistent with 13 features was detected in the training cohort (n = 208) by immunohistochemistry and quantified by computational pathology. Then, the LASSO cox regression model was used to construct an immune checkpoint-based signature (ICS), which was validated in a validation cohort containing 125 patients. RESULTS: High positive expression of PD-L1 and B7-H4 was observed in tumour cells (TCs), whereas PD-L1, B7-H3, B7-H4, IDO-1, VISTA, ICOS and OX40 were highly expressed in tumour-associated immune cells (TAICs). Eight of the 13 immune features were associated with patient overall survival, and an ICS classifier consisting of 5 features (B7-H3TAIC, IDO-1TAIC, VISTATAIC, ICOSTAIC, and LAG3TAIC) was established. Patients with high-risk scores in the training cohort had shorter overall (P < 0.001), disease-free (P = 0.002), and distant metastasis-free survival (P = 0.004), which were confirmed in the validation cohort. Multivariate analysis revealed that the ICS classifier was an independent prognostic factor. A combination of the ICS classifier and TNM stage had better prognostic value than the TNM stage alone. In addition, the ICS classifier was significantly associated with survivals in patients with high EBV-DNA load. CONCLUSIONS: We determined the expression status of nine immune checkpoints consistent with 13 features in NPC and further constructed an ICS prognostic model, which might add prognostic value to the TNM staging system.

15.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8527-8533, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Polymorphisms in the UNC13B gene are associated with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in the European population. Asian populations are more likely to suffer from complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), including diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This case-control study aimed to investigate the association between UNC13B gene polymorphisms and DKD in a Chinese Han population. MATERIAL AND METHODS Five single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci (rs13293564, rs17360668, rs10114937, rs661712, and rs2281999) were genotyped in the UNC13B gene in 600 Chinese Han subjects. The study population included patients with T2DM with DKD (N=292) and control patients with T2DM without DKD (N=308). SNP genotyping was performed using a Sequenom MassARRAY system using chip-based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). RESULTS There were no significant differences in the distribution of allele or genotype frequencies in the five UNC13B SNP markers (rs13293564, rs17360668, rs10114937, rs661712, and rs2281999) between the DKD group and control group of patients with T2DM. Haplotype analysis identified eight haplotypes for the combined effect of the five SNP markers in the UNC13B gene. The haplotype GGCCG was significantly associated with an increased risk of DKD. CONCLUSIONS This was the first study to demonstrate an association between UNC13B gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to DKD in a Chinese Han population with T2DM. The haplotype GGCCG was significantly associated with an increased risk of DKD. The findings highlight the joint effect of SNP markers in the pathogenesis of DKD.

16.
Dalton Trans ; 48(46): 17408-17413, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742283

RESUMO

A new hydrated magnesium borate, Mg(H2O)6B4O5(OH)4(H2O)3, was synthesized successfully by a facile slow evaporation method. Its structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and it contains the functional building block (FBB) [B4O5(OH)4]. It possesses a short DUV cutoff edge (<175 nm) which benefits from the absence of dangling bonds in the crystal structure. Its properties were analyzed by IR spectroscopy and UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Moreover, theoretical calculations were carried out to analyze the relationship between the electronic structure and optical properties.

17.
Chem Biol Interact ; 315: 108871, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669218

RESUMO

Clopidogrel, a clinically used antiplatelet agent, can be readily hydrolyzed by human carboxylesterase 1A (CES1A) to release an inactive metabolite clopidogrel carboxylic acid (CCA). In this study, clopidogrel was used as a tool substrate to investigate the interspecies variation of clopidogrel hydrolysis in hepatic microsomes from various mammals including human and six laboratory animals (such as mouse, rat, rabbit, beagle dog, minipig and cynomolgus monkey). The results demonstrated that clopidogrel could be hydrolyzed into CCA by all tested hepatic microsomes from human or other mammals, but the hydrolytic rates greatly varied among species. Inhibition assays demonstrated that BNPP (an inactivator of mammalian CES) strongly inactivated clopidogrel hydrolytic activity in all tested hepatic microsomes, suggested that mammalian CES were major contributor(s) responsible for clopidogrel hydrolysis in hepatic preparations from all above-mentioned species. By contrast, the response of a reversible inhibitor of human CES1A on clopidogrel hydrolysis in these liver preparations varied significantly among different species. Moreover, the enzymatic kinetics and the apparent kinetic parameters of clopidogrel hydrolysis in hepatic microsomes from various animal species were evaluated and compared to each other. These findings provide crucial information for deeply understanding the differences in catalytic behaviors of mammalian CES, which will be very helpful for choosing suitable laboratory animal(s) for whole tests of CES1A substrate-drugs.

18.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 105973, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677992

RESUMO

Sepsis is a syndrome of life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by dysregulated host responses to infection. Macrophage polarization is a key process involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Recent evidence has demonstrated that autophagy participates in the regulation of macrophage polarization in different phases of inflammation. Here, we investigated whether trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, promotes the macrophage M2 phenotype by enhancing autophagy to counteract excessive inflammation in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) mouse model. TSA stimulation increased the proportions of M2 marker (CD206, CD124 and CD23)-labeled RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, with increasing TSA doses, autophagy was enhanced gradually. Interestingly, the autophagy activator rapamycin (Rap), also known as an mTOR inhibitor, unexpectedly decreased the proportions of M2 marker-labeled macrophages. However, TSA treatment reversed the Rap-induced decreases in CD206-labeled macrophages. Next, we stimulated different groups of RAW264.7 cells with the autophagy inhibitors MHY1485 or 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Inhibition of autophagy at any stage in the process suppressed TSA-induced macrophage M2 polarization, but the effect was not associated with mTOR activity. In vivo, TSA administration promoted peritoneal macrophage M2 polarization, increased LC3 II expression, attenuated sepsis-induced organ (lung, liver and kidney) injury, and altered systemic inflammatory cytokine secretion. However, 3-MA abolished the protective effects of TSA in CLP mice and decreased the number of M2 peritoneal macrophages. Therefore, TSA promotes the macrophage M2 phenotype by enhancing autophagy to reduce systemic inflammation and ultimately improves the survival of mice with polymicrobial sepsis.

19.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Vitamin D insufficiency and obesity are recognized as worldwide concerns and have been linked with each other. New anthropometric indices reflect visceral obesity better than traditional anthropometric indices. Our aim was to identify the specific correlations of novel and traditional anthropometric indices with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations by sex and age. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, clinical characteristics and biochemical measurements were collected for 12,617 Chinese adults. Four traditional anthropometric indices, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and two novel anthropometric indices, body roundness index (BRI) and body shape index (ABSI), were calculated. RESULTS: In both sexes, the mean values of BMI, WC, WHtR and BRI tended to increase with 25(OH)D insufficiency, regardless of adjustment (all P < 0.05). Males with insufficient 25(OH)D had increased odds of obesity (assessed by BMI, WC, WHtR, BRI and ABSI) compared to the odds of males with sufficient 25(OH)D. Females with insufficient 25(OH)D had a higher chance of general obesity (assessed by BMI). Low 25(OH)D status was associated with indicators of obesity only in participants aged 45-64 years in both sexes. CONCLUSION: A inverse association between obesity and lower vitamin D levels was found. Moreover, in addition to BMI, novel indicators of visceral adiposity, such as BRI and ABSI, were associated with lower 25(OH)D serum concentrations in males. The effects of optimizing vitamin D levels in obese Chinese adults need further examination, particularly in middle-aged males. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

20.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739842

RESUMO

Adipokines can affect intrauterine development while calf birthweight (CBW) is a breeding standard of calves, which reflects the status of fetal intrauterine development. To explore the correlation between placental adipokines and CBW, 54 healthy Chinese Holstein cows were used in the present study. The cows were grouped according to the CBW of their calves. Placentas were collected immediately after delivery and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the placental expression levels of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin and resistin. Our results show that the mRNA transcription and blood placental content of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin and resistin increased with increasing CBW. The analysis showed that the mRNA transcription levels of placental adiponectin, leptin and resistin were positively correlated with CBW. The mRNA and protein expression levels of adiponectin, leptin and visfatin between the three groups were significantly correlated. Placental resistin mRNA levels correlated positively with adiponectin mRNA, but not leptin or visfatin. The protein expression levels of resistin were significantly positively correlated with those of adiponectin, leptin and visfatin. These results suggest that placental adipokines play important roles in regulating calf intrauterine growth.

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