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1.
J Control Release ; 348: 825-840, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752255

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease with no currently approved treatment. The natural compound silybin (SLN) has versatile hepatoprotective efficacy with negligible adverse effects; however, poor absorption limits its clinical applications. Gut microbiota has been proposed to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of NAFLD and targeted for disease control. Cyclodextrins, the cyclic oligosaccharides, were documented to have various health benefits with potential prebiotic properties. This study aimed to develop a silybin-2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin inclusion (SHßCD) to improve the therapeutic efficacy of SLN and elucidate the mechanisms of improvement. The results showed that SLN formed a 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex with HP-ß-CD. The solubility of SLN was increased by generating SHßCD, resulting in improved drug permeability and bioavailability. In high-fat diet (HFD)-fed hamsters, SHßCD modulated gut health by restoring the gut microbiota and intestinal integrity. SHßCD showed superior anti-lipid accumulation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects compared with SLN alone. Transcriptome analysis in the liver tissue implied that the improved inflammation and/or energy homeostasis was the potential mechanism. Therefore, SHßCD may be a promising alternative for the treatment of NAFLD, attributing to the dual functions of HßCD on drug absorption and gut microbial homeostasis.

2.
J Org Chem ; 87(13): 8623-8632, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35702923

RESUMO

(+)- and (-)-Chlorahupetenes A (1a and 1b), B (2a and 2b), C (3a and 3b), and D (4a and 4b), four unique enantiomeric pairs of eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoid dimers with two new carbon skeletons, were isolated from the aerial parts of Chloranthus henryi var. hupehensis. Compounds 1 and 2 possess an unprecedented 6/6/5/6/6 pentacyclic carbon skeleton with a new dimerization pattern of two eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids. Compounds 3 and 4, which are fused with two eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids via an unprecedented five-membered O-heterocyclic ring, represent a new 6/6/5/5/6/6/5 heptacyclic ring system. The structures of the compounds were determined through spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1a-3b significantly inhibited NO production with IC50 values ranging from 9.62 to 12.91 µM. Moreover, compounds 1b and 3a suppressed the production of a proinflammatory mediator (TNF-α) and enzyme expression (iNOS) at the mRNA level.

4.
Insect Sci ; 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608046

RESUMO

The mechanism of sex pheromone reception in the male cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera has been extensively studied because it has become an important model system for understanding insect olfaction. However, the pathways of pheromone processing from the antenna to the primary olfactory center in H. armigera have not yet been clarified. Here, the physiology and morphology of male H. armigera olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) were studied using single sensillum recording along with anterograde filling and intracellular recording with retrograde filling. OSNs localized in type A sensilla responded to the major pheromone component cis-11-hexadecenal, and the axonal terminals projected to the cumulus (Cu) of the macroglomerular complex (MGC). The OSNs in type B sensilla responded to the behavioral antagonist cis-9-tetradecenal, and the axonal terminals projected to the dorsomedial anterior (DMA) unit of the MGC. In type C sensilla, there were 2 OSNs: one that responded to cis-9-tetradecenal and cis-11-hexadecenol with the axonal terminals projecting to the DMA, and another that responded to the secondary pheromone components cis-9-hexadecenal and cis-9-tetradecenal with the axonal terminals projecting to the dorsomedial posterior (DMP) unit of the MGC. Type A and type B sensilla also housed the secondary OSNs, which were silent neurons with axonal terminals projected to the glomerulus G49 and DMP. Overall, the neural pathways that carry information on attractiveness and aversiveness in response to female pheromone components in H. armigera exhibit distinct projections to the MGC units.

5.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 217: 114833, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594777

RESUMO

Zeng-Sheng-Ping (ZSP) tablets, made from six Chinese herbs, are widely used in the chemoprevention and treatment of precancerous lesions in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. However, sporadic cases of liver injury have occurred. Herein, the serum metabolites in hamsters with ZSP-induced liver damage were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. Twelve metabolites associated with ZSP-induced hepatoxicity were identified. Amino acid metabolism and the urea cycle were significantly altered, and three associated amino acid metabolic enzymes (PAH, GS, and GLS) were further validated by ELISA. Therefore, 12 metabolites and 3 amino acid metabolic enzymes were proposed as potential biomarkers in ZSP-induced liver injury. The chemical constituents of ZSP tablets were profiled using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The furanoids in two herbs, Dioscorea bulbifera L. and Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., were proposed to be the major hepatotoxic constituents in ZSP, leading to an improved preparation method with low hepatotoxicity for ZSP.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos
6.
Front Physiol ; 13: 877153, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574499

RESUMO

Improved knowledge on the regulation of reproductive diapause in Coccinella septempunctata, an important predator of aphids, is crucial for improving shelf-life and mass production of the ladybeetles. In many insects, the absence of juvenile hormone (JH) is a central regulator of reproductive diapause. JH is principally degraded by JH esterase (JHE) and JH epoxide hydrolase (JHEH). Previous studies have shown that genes encoding these enzymes were upregulated in early diapause of C. septempunctata, but whether increased JH degradation contributes to the reduction of JH levels and facilitates reproductive diapause remains unknown. Here, we investigate the role of JH and JH degradation genes during reproductive diapause in C. septempunctata females. Applying methoprene, a JH analogue, to the diapause preparation females clearly elevated JH signaling and reversed diapause program, suggesting that a lower level of JH is critical for the induction of reproductive diapause in the ladybeetle. Full-length cDNA sequences of JHE and JHEH were cloned and characterized, and their deduced proteins contain all the conserved active domains and typical motifs as identified in other insects. The expressions of JHE and JHEH were both significantly increased in diapause preparation and remained at a high level for a period throughout diapause, and then decreased after the termination of diapause. Knocking down these JH degradation genes clearly increased the expression levels of JH-inducible genes Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and vitellogenin (Vg), indicating an elevated JH level. Simultaneously, silencing JH degradation genes distinctly reduced diapause-related features and promotes reproduction, indicated by accelerated ovary growth, yolk deposition, and suppressed lipid accumulation. These results indicate that the enhanced JH degradation plays a critical role in regulating reproductive diapause of C. septempunctata.

7.
Chem Biodivers ; : e202200403, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35596060

RESUMO

Two new nor-seco isodhilarane meroterpenoids (NSIMs), purpurogenolides F (1) and G (2), along with three known meroterpenoid analogs (3-5), were isolated from the cultures of an endophytic fungus, Penicillium purpurogenum. Structures and absolute configurations of the new NSIMs were determined based on extensive spectroscopic data analyses, including HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR, NMR chemical shift calculations together with DP4+ probability analysis, as well as ECD calculations. All the isolated meroterpenoids were assessed for their anti-inflammatory activities, and compound 4 exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against the nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 20.85±2.31 µM.

8.
J Oncol ; 2022: 6586354, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35466315

RESUMO

Background: The specific role and prognostic value of DNA repair and replication-associated miRNAs in gastric cancer (GC) have not been clearly elucidated. Therefore, comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in GC is crucial for proposing therapeutic strategies and survival prediction. Methods: Firstly, clinical information and transcriptome data of TCGA-GC were downloaded from the database. In the entire cohort, we performed differential analysis in all miRNAs and support vector machine (SVM) was used to eliminate redundant miRNAs. Subsequently, we combined survival data and cox regression analysis to construct a miRNA signature in the training cohort. In addition, we used PCA, Kaplan-Meier, and ROC analysis to explore the prognosis value of risk score in the training and testing cohort. It is worth noting that multiple algorithms were used to evaluate difference of immune microenvironment (TME), microsatellite instability (MSI), tumor mutational burden (TMB), and immunotherapy in different risk groups. Finally, we investigated the potential mechanism about miRNA signature. Results: We constructed miRNA signature based on the following 4 miRNAs: hsa-miR-139-5p, hsa-miR-139-3p, hsa-miR-146b-5p, and hsa-miR-181a-3p. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses suggested that risk score is a risk factor and an independent prognostic factor in GC patients. The AUC value of ROC analysis showed a robust prediction accuracy in each cohort. Moreover, significant differences in immune functions, immune cell content, immune checkpoint, MSI status, and TMB score were excavated in different groups distinguished by risk score. Finally, based on the above four miRNA target genes, we revealed that the signature was enriched in DNA repair and replication. Conclusion: We have developed a robust risk-formula based on 4 miRNAs that provides accurate risk stratification and prognostic prediction for GC patients. In addition, different risk subgroups may potentially guide the choice of targeted therapy.

9.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459869

RESUMO

Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2), a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), is a multifunctional protein under physiological and pathological conditions. In this study we investigated the roles of AGR2 in regulating cholesterol biogenesis, lipid-lowering efficiency of lovastatin as well as in protection against hypercholesterolemia/statin-induced liver injury. We showed that AGR2 knockout significantly decreased hepatic and serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in mice with whole-body or hepatocyte-specific Agr2-null mutant, compared with the levels in their wild-type littermates fed a normal chow diet (NCD) or high-fat diet (HFD). In contrast, mice with AGR2 overexpression (Agr2/Tg) exhibited an increased cholesterol level. Mechanistic studies revealed that AGR2 affected cholesterol biogenesis via activation of AKT/sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP2), to some extent, in a PDI motif-dependent manner. Moreover, elevated AGR2 led to a significant decrease in the lipid-lowering efficacy of lovastatin (10 mg· kg-1· d-1, ip, for 2 weeks) in mice with hypercholesterolemia (hyperCho), which was validated by results obtained from clinical samples in statin-treated patients. We showed that lovastatin had limited effect on AGR2 expression, but AGR2 was inducible in Agr2/Tg mice fed a HFD. Further investigations demonstrated that drug-induced liver toxicity and inflammatory reactions were alleviated in hypercholesterolemic Agr2/Tg mice, suggesting the dual functions of AGR2 in lipid management and hyperCho/statin-induced liver injury. Importantly, the AGR2-reduced lipid-lowering efficacy of lovastatin was attenuated, at least partially, by co-administration of a sulfhydryl-reactive compound allicin (20 mg· kg-1· d-1, ip, for 2 weeks). These results demonstrate a novel role of AGR2 in cholesterol metabolism, drug resistance and liver protection, suggesting AGR2 as a potential predictor for selection of lipid-lowering drugs in clinic.

10.
Front Neuroanat ; 16: 844171, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35360650

RESUMO

The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (S. frugiperda) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a worldwide, disruptive, agricultural pest species. The larvae of S. frugiperda feed on seedling, leave, and kernel of crops with chewing mouthparts, resulting in reduced crop yields. Serotonin is an important biogenic amine acting as a neural circuit modulator known to mediate lots of behaviors including feeding in insects. In order to explore the serotonergic neural network in the nervous system of larval S. frugiperda, we performed immunohistochemical experiments to examine the neuropil structure of the brain and the gnathal ganglion with antisynapsin and to examine their serotonergic neurons with antiserotonin serum. Our data show that the brain of larval S. frugiperda contains three neuromeres: the tritocerebrum, the deutocerebrum, and the protocerebrum. The gnathal ganglion also contains three neuromeres: the mandibular neuromere, the maxillary neuromere, and the labial neuromere. There are about 40 serotonergic neurons in the brain and about 24 serotonergic neurons in the gnathal ganglion. Most of these neurons are wide-field neurons giving off processes in several neuropils of the brain and the gnathal ganglion. Serotonergic neuron processes are mainly present in the protocerebrum. A pair of serotonergic neurons associated with the deutocerebrum has arborizations in the contralateral antennal lobe and bilateral superior lateral protocerebra. In the gnathal ganglion, the serotonergic neuron processes are also widespread throughout the neuropil and some process projections extend to the tritocerebrum. These findings on the serotonergic neuron network in larval S. frugiperda allow us to explore the important roles of serotonin in feeding and find a potential approach to modulate the feeding behavior of the gluttonous pest and reduce its damage.

11.
Chin J Nat Med ; 20(3): 210-214, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35369965

RESUMO

Two new neolignans and one new lignan (1-3) were obtained from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora. Their structures were unambiguously elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and the calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Compound 1 was a racemic mixture and successfully resolved into the anticipated enantiomers via chiral-phase HPLC. Compound 3 demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against human carboxylesterase 2A1 (hCES2A1) with an IC50 value of 7.28 ± 0.94 µmol·-1.


Assuntos
Lignanas , Paeonia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Lignanas/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Estereoisomerismo
12.
Water Res ; 216: 118326, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364351

RESUMO

Chromate [Cr(VI)] and pentachlorophenol (PCP) coexist widely in the environment and are highly toxic to public health. However, whether Cr(VI) bio-reduction is accompanied by PCP bio-degradation and how microbial communities can keep long-term stability to mediate these bioprocesses in aquifer remain elusive. Herein, we conducted a 365-day continuous column experiment, during which the concurrent removals of Cr(VI) and PCP were realized under anaerobic condition. This process allowed for complete Cr(VI) bio-reduction and PCP bio-degradation at an efficiency of 92.8 ± 4.2% using ethanol as a co-metabolic substrate. More specifically, Cr(VI) was reduced to insoluble chromium (III) and PCP was efficiently dechlorinated with chloride ion release. Collectively, Acinetobacter and Spirochaeta regulated Cr(VI) bio-reduction heterotrophically, while Pseudomonas mediated not only Cr(VI) bio-reduction but also PCP bio-dechlorination. The bio-dechlorinated products were further mineralized by Azospira and Longilinea. Genes encoding proteins for Cr(VI) bio-reduction (chrA and yieF) and PCP bio-degradation (pceA) were upregulated. Cytochrome c and intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide were involved in Cr(VI) and PCP detoxification by promoting electron transfer. Taken together, our findings provide a promising bioremediation strategy for concurrent removal of Cr(VI) and PCP in aquifers through bio-stimulation with supplementation of appropriate substrates.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Pentaclorofenol , Anaerobiose , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cromatos , Cromo/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Pentaclorofenol/metabolismo
13.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 16: 795668, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35401120

RESUMO

Synapse-associated gene mutations of SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains protein 3 (SHANK3) may lead to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In some ASD cases, patients may also have vision disorders. However, the effects of SHANK3 in the retina are barely mentioned in the literature. In this study, we used wild-type mice to systematically map the distribution of SHANK3 expression in entire mouse retinas. Using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence double labeling, we identified a large number of prominent cells expressing high levels of SHANK3 in the inner retina, in particular, the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner nucleus layer. The inner plexiform layer and outer nucleus layer were also exhibited positive SHANK3 signals. In the inner layer, GABAergic amacrine cells (ACs) labeled by glutamate decarboxylase were colocalized with SHANK3-positive cells. Dopaminergic ACs (labeled by tyrosine hydroxylase) and cholinergic ACs (labeled by choline acetyltransferase) were also found to contain SHANK3-positive signals. Additionally, most GCs (labeled by Brn3a) were also found to be SHANK3 positive. In the outer retina, bipolar cells (labeled by homeobox protein ChX10) and horizontal cells (labeled by calbindin) were SHANK3 positive. In the outer nucleus layers, the somata of blue cones (labeled by S-opsin) were weekly co-labeled with SHANK3. The inner segments of blue cones and the outer segments of red/green cones (labeled by L/M-opsin) were partially colocalized with SHANK3 and the outer segments of rods (labeled by Rho4D2) were partially SHANK3 positive too. Moreover, SHANK3-positive labeling was also observed in Müller cells (labeled by cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein). These wide expression patterns indicate that SHANK3 may play an important role in the visual signaling pathway.

14.
Placenta ; 121: 155-163, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349915

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cell-cell fusion of cytotrophoblasts into the syncytiotrophoblast layer is a key process in placental development. Syncytin, an endogenous retroviral envelope protein, is expressed in placental trophoblasts and specifically mediates syncytiotrophoblast layer formation. Syncytin deficiency has been observed in fetal growth-restricted placentas. Abnormal fetal growth, especially fetal growth restriction, is associated with the decreased expression of glucose transporters. Here, we aimed to determine the role of syncytin in fetal growth restriction in placental glucose transport capacity. METHODS: To better explore the function of syncytin in fetal growth-restricted placenta, we generated an inducible knockout mouse model of syncytin-a gene. The expression levels of glucose transporters in BeWo cells were measured before and after HERV-W knockdown. RESULTS: Syncytin-A disruption was associated with significant abnormalities in placental and fetal development in mice. Syncytin-A destruction causes extensive abnormalities in the maternal-fetal exchange structures in the labyrinth, including an extremely reduced number and dramatically irregular distribution of fetal vessels. Moreover, glucose transporter 1, glucose transporters 3, and connexin 26 expression levels decreased after E14.5. Consistently, low glucose transporter 1, glucose transporter 3, and connexin 26 levels were observed in HERV-W-silenced BeWo cells. DISCUSSION: Syncytin-A is crucial for both syncytiotrophoblast layer development and morphogenesis, suggesting that syncytin-A disruption leads to fetal growth restriction associated with abnormalities in the maternal-fetal exchange barrier and decreased glucose transport.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Placenta , Animais , Conexina 26/metabolismo , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene env/genética , Produtos do Gene env/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Proteínas da Gravidez , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
15.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(3): 229, 2022 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277475

RESUMO

Metabolism has been reported to associate with the progression of vascular diseases. However, how vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is regulated by metabolic status remains poorly understood. Using a model of 5/6 nephrectomy, we demonstrated that the aortic tissues of CKD mice had a preference for using oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Both high phosphate and human uremic serum-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) had enhanced mitochondrial respiration capacity, while the glycolysis level was not significantly different. Besides, 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) exacerbated vascular calcification by upregulating OXPHOS. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) was higher in the aortic tissue of CKD mice than those of sham-operated mice. Moreover, the expression levels of COX15 were higher in CKD patients with aortic arch calcification (AAC) than those without AAC, and the AAC scores were correlated with the expression level of COX15. Suppressing COX sufficiently attenuated vascular calcification. Our findings verify the relationship between OXPHOS and calcification, and may provide potential therapeutic approaches for vascular calcification in CKD.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Calcificação Vascular , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Calcificação Vascular/metabolismo
16.
Biomacromolecules ; 23(4): 1723-1732, 2022 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324168

RESUMO

Porous structures are essential for some collagen-based biomaterials and can be regulated by crosslinkers. Herein, dialdehyde carboxymethyl cellulose (DCMC) crosslinkers with similar size but different aldehyde group contents were prepared through periodate oxidation of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with varying degrees of substitution (DS). They can penetrate into the hierarchy of fibril and form inter-molecular and intra-fibril cross-linking within the collagen matrix due to their nanoscale sizes and reactive aldehyde groups. The collagen matrices possessed higher porosity, significantly greater proportion of large pores (Φ > 10 µm), and shorter D-periodicity after cross-linking, showing greater potential for biomedical applications. In addition, the crosslinked collagen matrices showed satisfactory biocompatibility and biodegradation. The decreased DS of carboxymethyl cellulose, which led to the increased aldehyde content of corresponding DCMC, brought about an enhanced cross-linking degree, porosity, and proportion of large pores of the crosslinked collagen matrix. DCMC dosage of 6% was sufficient for cross-linking and pore formation. Excess DCMC would physically deposit in the matrix and decrease the porosity instead. Therefore, the desired pore properties of the collagen matrix could be obtained by regulating the structure of DCMC and thereby achieving the required functions of the biomaterial.


Assuntos
Carboximetilcelulose Sódica , Colágeno , Aldeídos , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Colágeno/química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Porosidade
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 826: 153692, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35182648

RESUMO

Nitrous acid (HONO) can significantly contribute to hydroxyl radicals (OH) and thus regulate atmospheric oxidation chemistry; however, ambient HONO sources are not well quantified and vary in different environments. In this study, we conducted comprehensive field observations at a coastal site in the South China Sea and performed chemical box modelling to demonstrate contrasting budgets and impacts of diurnal atmospheric HONO derived from the sea, coastline and continent. The ship emission ratio of HONO/nitrogen oxides (NOx) (1.21 ± 0.99%) was calculated from hundreds of night-time fresh plume measurements. Offshore marine air was frequently influenced by ship exhausts, and the sea acted as an HONO sink. Heterogeneous conversions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on underlying surfaces and photolysis of adsorbed nitric acid (HNO3(ads)) were the major HONO sources in coastal air, when heterogeneous NO2 conversions on the ground surface and the homogeneous NO + OH reaction dominated HONO formation in continental air. HONO photolysis was a significant source of reactive radicals (ROx = OH + HO2 + RO2) in these air masses. Atmospheric box model including only homogeneous HONO source of the NO + OH reactions significantly underpredicted the OH concentration and atmospheric oxidising capacity in coastal and continental air. This study provides new insights into the complex sources and significant impacts of HONO in the polluted coastal boundary layer.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Ácido Nitroso , Atmosfera , China , Ácido Nitroso/análise , Navios
18.
J Nat Prod ; 85(1): 248-255, 2022 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978193

RESUMO

Seco and nor-seco isodhilarane-type meroterpenoids (SIMs and NSIMs) are mainly found in Penicillium fungi and have been characterized by highly congested polycyclic skeletons and a broad range of bioactivities. However, the literature reports inconsistent configuration assignments for some SIMs and NSIMs, due to their complex polycyclic systems and multichiral centers. Herein, we described eight SIMs and NSIMs isolated from the EtOAc extract of Penicillium purpurogenum, which led to the configuration revisions of purpurogenolide C (1a), berkeleyacetal B (2a), chrysogenolide F (3a), and berkeleyacetal C (4a) as compounds 1-4, respectively. Furthermore, extensive re-evaluation of the experimental and computational 13C NMR chemical shifts of the reported 39 SIMs and NSIMs provided an empirical approach for determining the C-9 relative configuration, according to the 13C NMR chemical shifts of C-9, which contributed to the configuration revisions of another three SIMs (5a and 6a) and NSIMs (7a), denoted as compounds 5-7, respectively. Biological assays indicated that compound 3 exhibited cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and A549 cell lines with IC50 values of 5.58 and 6.80 µM, respectively. Compounds 2-4, 8, 9, and 32 showed moderate hepatoprotective activity at 10 µM in the APAP-induced HepG2 cell injury model.


Assuntos
Penicillium/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Fermentação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Terpenos/química
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 231: 113198, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033874

RESUMO

In this work, the use of chemical reduction combined with microbial stabilization to remediate Cr(VI) in contaminated soil was systematically investigated. The effectiveness, phytotoxicity and microbial diversity resulting from the combination of ferrous sulfate with microbial stabilization by biogas solid residue (BSR) were determined. The stabilization experiments showed that the optimum Cr(VI) conversion rate of 99.92% was achieved with an Fe (II)/Cr(VI) molar ratio of 3:1, a BSR dose of 5.2% (wt), and a water content of 40%. Under these conditions, the residual Cr(VI) content was 0.80 mg/kg, which satisfied the risk screening value (≤ 5.7 mg/kg) for soil contamination of land for general development in China. The remaining Cr(VI) level was stable for 90 days during the chemical reduction and biogenic stabilization process. Moreover, Zucconi test analysis suggested that the soil phytotoxicity to Brassica campestris L. disappeared. The results of microbial diversity analysis indicated that the bacterial community changed significantly during chemical reduction and microbial stabilization processes, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Psychrobacter may participate in the reduction of Cr(VI) into Cr(III).


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo , Biocombustíveis , Cromo/análise , Cromo/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
20.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 24(5): 445-456, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038936

RESUMO

Four minor undescribed terpenoids, including a monoterpenoid (1) and three triterpenoids (3, 6 and 7), together with 26 known terpenoids were isolated from the stems and twigs of Rhododendron Ovatum. Their structures were identified by extensive spectroscopic analyses and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) techniques. Compound 10 showed excellent cytotoxicity against human colon cancer cell (HCT-116) with IC50 value of 2.56 µM. Compounds 9 and 19 exhibited partly inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production stimulated by lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation in microglia cells at 10 µM with inhibition ratios of 39.70% and 28.08%, respectively.


Assuntos
Rhododendron , Triterpenos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico , Rhododendron/química , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/química
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