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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 706220, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803669

RESUMO

Gut microbiota plays important roles in several metabolic processes, such as appetite and food intake and absorption of nutrients from the gut. It is also of great importance in the maintenance of the health of the host. However, much remains unknown about the functional mechanisms of human gut microbiota itself. Here, we report the identification of one anticancer gut bacterial strain AD16, which exhibited potent suppressive effects on a broad range of solid and blood malignancies. The secondary metabolites of the strain were isolated and characterized by a bioactivity-guided isolation strategy. Five new compounds, streptonaphthalenes A and B (1-2), pestaloficins F and G (3-4), and eudesmanetetraiol A (5), together with nine previously known compounds, were isolated from the effective fractions of AD16. Structures of the new compounds were established by 1D and 2D NMR and MS analysis, and the absolute configurations were determined by the CD method. The analysis of network pharmacology suggested that 3, 2, and 13 could be the key components for the anti-NSCLC activity of AD16. In addition to the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, the proteoglycans in cancer pathway could be involved in the anti-NSCLC action of AD16.

2.
Opt Express ; 29(23): 38567-38581, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808907

RESUMO

In ultra-low concentration suspensions, particle number fluctuations in the scattering volume add a long delay component to the intensity autocorrelation function (ACF) in dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. This gives a strong artifact peak in the particle size distribution (PSD) recovered. To improve the accuracy of DLS at ultra-low concentrations, we analyzed the different decay characteristics of particle Brownian motion and particle number fluctuation in the ACF. By differentiating the ACF we were able to identify and separate the number fluctuation term and then analyze the ACF to recover the PSD. The results for simulated DLS data at 151nm and 690nm diameters with average particle numbers of 6, 12, 24 and 48 in the scattering volume at four noise levels show that, compared with the usual DLS data processing method, inversion of the ACF after the separation of the number fluctuation term effectively eliminates the strong artifact peaks, and the relative errors of peak positions and distribution errors are significantly reduced. This was further verified with experimental results from samples of standard polystyrene spheres.

3.
Circ Res ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763521

RESUMO

Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients suffer systemic metabolic dysfunction via incompletely understood mechanisms. Adipocytes play critical role in metabolic homeostasis. The impact of AMI upon adipocyte function is unclear. Small extracellular vesicles (sEV) critically contribute to organ-organ communication. Whether and how sEV mediate post-MI cardiomyocyte/adipocyte communication remain unknown.Methods Plasma sEV were isolated from sham control (Pla-sEVSham) or 3 hours after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (Pla-sEVMI/R) and incubated with adipocytes for 24 hours. Compared to Pla-sEVSham, Pla-sEVMI/R significantly altered expression of genes known to be important in adipocyte function, including a well-known metabolic regulatory/cardioprotective adipokine, adiponectin (APN). Pla-sEVMI/R activated two (PERK-CHOP and ATF6-EDEM pathways) of the three endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways in adipocytes. These pathological alterations were also observed in adipocytes treated with sEVs isolated from adult cardiomyocytes subjected to in vivo MI/R (Myo-sEVMI/R). Bioinformatic/RT-qPCR analysis demonstrates that the members of miR-23-27-24 cluster are significantly increased in Pla-sEVMI/R, Myo-sEVMI/R, and adipose tissue of MI/R animals. Administration of cardiomyocyte-specific miR-23-27-24 sponges abolished adipocyte miR-23-27-24 elevation in MI/R animals, supporting the cardiomyocyte origin of adipocyte miR-23-27-24 cluster. In similar fashion to Myo-sEVMI/R, a miR-27a mimic activated PERK-CHOP and ATF6-EDEM mediated ER stress. Conversely, a miR-27a inhibitor significantly attenuated Myo-sEVMI/R-induced ER stress and restored APN production. Results: An unbiased approach identified EDEM3 as a novel downstream target of miR-27a. Adipocyte EDEM3 deficiency phenocopied multiple pathological alterations caused by Myo-sEVMI/R, whereas EDEM3 overexpression attenuated Myo-sEVMI/R-resulted ER stress. Finally, administration of GW4869 or cardiomyocyte-specific miR-23-27-24 cluster sponges attenuated adipocyte ER stress, improved adipocyte endocrine function, and restored plasma APN levels in MI/R animals. Conclusion: We demonstrate for the first time that MI/R causes significant adipocyte ER stress and endocrine dysfunction by releasing miR-23-27-24 cluster-enriched sEV. Targeting sEV-mediated cardiomyocyte-adipocyte pathologic communication may be of therapeutic potential to prevent metabolic dysfunction after MI/R.

4.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 567, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753496

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pluripotent stem cells derived from mesoderm during early development that are characterized by high self-renewal ability and multidirectional differentiation potential. These cells are present various tissues in the human body and can be cultured in vitro. Under specific conditions, MSCs can differentiate into osteoblasts, neuron-like cells, adipocytes and muscle cells and so on, therefore, have a great application value in cell replacement therapy and tissue repair. In recent years, the application of MSCs in rheumatic diseases has received increasing attention. On the one hand, MSCs have the ability to differentiate into bone and cartilage cells; on the other hand, these stem cells are also involved in immune regulation, resulting in the alleviation of inflammation and anti-fibrotic properties and the promotion of vascular repair, thus bringing new hope for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. This article reviews the clinical progress in MSC application for the treatment of rheumatic diseases.

5.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640079

RESUMO

Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a popular method of particle size measurement, but at ultra-low particle concentrations, the occurrence of number concentration fluctuations limits the use of the technique. Number fluctuations add a non-Gaussian term to the scattered light intensity autocorrelation function (ACF). This leads to an inaccurate particle size distribution (PSD) being recovered if the normal DLS analysis model is used. We propose two methods for inverting the DLS data and recovering the PSDs when number fluctuations are apparent. One is to directly establish the relationship between the non-Gaussian ACF and the PSD by the kernel function reconstruction (KFR) method while including the non-Gaussian term to recover the PSD. The other is to remove the effect of the non-Gaussian term in the ACF by the baseline reset (BR) method. By including the number fluctuation term, the ideal recovered PSD can be obtained from the simulated data, but this will not happen in the experimental measurement data. This is because the measured intensity ACF contains more noise than the simulated ACF at ultra-low concentration. In particular, the baseline noise at the tail of long delay time of ACF overwhelms the number fluctuation term, making it difficult to recover reliable PSD data. Resetting the baseline can effectively remove the digital fluctuation term in ACF, which is also a feasible method to improve PSD recovery under ultra-low concentration. However, increasing noise at ultra-low concentrations can lead to errors in determining an effective baseline. This greatly reduces the accuracy of inversion results. Results from simulated and measured ACF data show that, for both methods, noise on the ACF limits reliable PSD recovery.

6.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 38(5): 893-902, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713657

RESUMO

Breathing pattern parameters refer to the characteristic pattern parameters of respiratory movements, including the breathing amplitude and cycle, chest and abdomen contribution, coordination, etc. It is of great importance to analyze the breathing pattern parameters quantificationally when exploring the pathophysiological variations of breathing and providing instructions on pulmonary rehabilitation training. Our study provided detailed method to quantify breathing pattern parameters including respiratory rate, inspiratory time, expiratory time, inspiratory time proportion, tidal volume, chest respiratory contribution ratio, thoracoabdominal phase difference and peak inspiratory flow. We also brought in "respiratory signal quality index" to deal with the quality evaluation and quantification analysis of long-term thoracic-abdominal respiratory movement signal recorded, and proposed the way of analyzing the variance of breathing pattern parameters. On this basis, we collected chest and abdomen respiratory movement signals in 23 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and 22 normal pulmonary function subjects under spontaneous state in a 15 minute-interval using portable cardio-pulmonary monitoring system. We then quantified subjects' breathing pattern parameters and variability. The results showed great difference between the COPD patients and the controls in terms of respiratory rate, inspiratory time, expiratory time, thoracoabdominal phase difference and peak inspiratory flow. COPD patients also showed greater variance of breathing pattern parameters than the controls, and unsynchronized thoracic-abdominal movements were even observed among several patients. Therefore, the quantification and analyzing method of breathing pattern parameters based on the portable cardiopulmonary parameters monitoring system might assist the diagnosis and assessment of respiratory system diseases and hopefully provide new parameters and indexes for monitoring the physical status of patients with cardiopulmonary disease.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Pulmão , Respiração , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
7.
Nanoscale ; 13(37): 15731-15742, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528054

RESUMO

The storage of sodium ions with carbon materials has huge potential for large-scale application due to its resource-rich and environmental advantages. However, how to realize high power density, high energy density and long cycle life are the bottlenecks restricting its development. Herein, by using a facile synthesis strategy, a carbon-based framework with a hierarchical structure and intrinsic heteroatom sites which are the characteristics contributing to ultrahigh rate and capacity has been achieved. As a result, the hierarchical carbon-based material exhibits excellent performance when used as both the anode and cathode for sodium-ion capacitors (SICs), which can deliver a high energy density of 224 W h kg-1 (at 180 W kg-1), an ultrahigh power density of 17 160 W kg-1 (at 128 W h kg-1) and ultralong cycle life (91% capacity retention after 10 000 cycles at 2 A g-1), outperforming most of the previously reported SICs with other configurations.

8.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573493

RESUMO

To better understand the transition of rumen function during the weaning period in dairy calves, sixteen Holstein dairy calves were selected and divided into two groups: pre-weaning (age = 56 ± 7 day, n = 8) and post-weaning (age = 80 ± 6 day, n = 8). The rumen fluid was obtained by an oral gastric tube. The rumen fermentation profile, enzyme activity, bacteria composition, and their inter-relationship were investigated. The results indicated that the post-weaning calves had a higher rumen acetate, propionate, butyrate, and microbial crude protein (MCP) than the pre-weaning calves (p < 0.05). The rumen pH in the post-weaning calves was lower than the pre-weaning calves (p < 0.05). The protease, carboxymethyl cellulase, cellobiohydrolase, and glucosidase in the post-weaning calves had a lower trend than the pre-weaning calves (0.05 < p < 0.1). There was no difference in α and ß diversity between the two groups. Linear discriminant analysis showed that the phylum of Fibrobacteres in the post-weaning group was higher than the pre-weaning group. At the genus level, Shuttleworthia, Rikenellaceae, Fibrobacter, and Syntrophococcus could be worked as the unique bacteria in the post-weaning group. The rumen bacteria network node degree in the post-weaning group was higher than the pre-weaning group (16.54 vs. 9.5). The Shuttleworthia genus was highly positively correlated with MCP, propionate, total volatile fatty acid, glucosidase, acetate, and butyrate (r > 0.65, and p < 0.01). Our study provided new information about the rumen enzyme activity and its relationship with bacteria, which help us to better understand the effects of weaning on the rumen function.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(44): 23729-23734, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467617

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks provide versatile templates for the fabrication of various metal/carbon materials, but most of the derived composites possess only microspores, limiting the accessibility of embedded active sites. Herein, we report the construction of cobalt/nitrogen-doped carbon composites with a three-dimensional (3D) ordered macroporous and hollow-wall structure (H-3DOM-Co/NC) using a single-crystal ordered macropore (SOM)-ZIF-8@ZIF-67 as precursor. During the pyrolysis, the interconnected macroporous structure of SOM-ZIF-8@ZIF-67 is mostly preserved, whereas the pore wall achieves a solid-to-hollow transformation with Co nanoparticles formed in the hollow walls. The 3D-ordered macroporous carbon skeleton may effectively promote long-range mass transfer and the hollow wall can facilitate local accessibility of active sites. This unique structure can greatly boost its catalytic activity in the selective hydrogenation of biomass-derived furfural to cyclopentanol, much superior to its counterparts without this well-designed hierarchically porous structure.

10.
Psych J ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530499

RESUMO

The therapeutic effect of antidepressants has been demonstrated for anhedonia in patients with depression. However, antidepressants may cause side-effects, such as cardiovascular dysfunction. Although physical activity has minor side-effects, it may serve as an alternative for improving anhedonia and depression. We sought to investigate whether physical activity reduces the level of anhedonia in individuals with depression. Fifty-six university students with moderate depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory total score > 16) were divided into three training groups: the Running Group (RG, n = 19), the Stretching Group (SG, n = 19), and the Control Group (n = 18). We employed the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task and the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) to evaluate hedonic capacity. All participants in the RG and SG received 8 weeks of jogging and stretching training, respectively. The RG experienced an increase in the level of arousal during anticipation of a future reward and recalled less negativity towards the loss condition. The SG exhibited enhanced scores on the Anticipatory and Consummatory Pleasure subscales of the TEPS after training. Moreover, in the RG, greater improvements in anticipatory arousal ratings for pleasure and remembered valence ratings for negative affect were associated with longer training duration, lower maximum heart rate, and higher consumed calories during training. To conclude, physical activity is effective in improving anticipatory anhedonia in individuals with depressive symptoms.

11.
Life Sci ; 284: 119935, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerotic vascular disease remains the principal cause of death and disability among patients with type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, the problem is not adequately resolved by therapeutic strategies with currently available drugs or approaches that solely focus on optimal glycemic control. To identify the key contributors and better understand the mechanism of diabetic atherosclerotic vascular disease, we aimed to elucidate the key genetic characteristics and pathological pathways in atherosclerotic vascular disease through nonbiased bioinformatics analysis and subsequent experimental demonstration and exploration in diabetic atherosclerotic vascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-eight upregulated and 23 downregulated genes were identified from the analysis of gene expression profiles (GSE30169 and GSE6584). A comprehensive bioinformatic assay further identified that ferroptosis, a new type of programmed cell death and HMOX1 (a gene that encodes heme oxygenase), were vital factors in atherosclerotic vascular disease. We further demonstrated that diabetes significantly increased ferroptosis and HMOX1 levels compared to normal controls. Importantly, the ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) effectively attenuated diabetic atherosclerosis, suggesting the causative role of ferroptosis in diabetic atherosclerosis development. At the cellular level, Fer-1 ameliorated high glucose high lipid-induced lipid peroxidation and downregulated ROS production. More importantly, HMOX1 knockdown attenuated Fe2+ overload, reduced iron content and ROS, and alleviated lipid peroxidation, which led to a reduction in ferroptosis in diabetic human endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that HMOX1 upregulation is responsible for the increased ferroptosis in diabetic atherosclerosis development, suggesting that HMOX1 may serve as a potential therapeutic or drug development target for diabetic atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/enzimologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/enzimologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Ferroptose , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/patologia , Cicloexilaminas/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Progressão da Doença , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Sobrecarga de Ferro/complicações , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , NADP/metabolismo , Fenilenodiaminas/farmacologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/genética
12.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(9)2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564669

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of moderate risk level (8 µg/kg) AFB1 in diet supplemented with or without adsorbents on lactation performance, serum parameters, milk AFM1 content of healthy lactating cows and the AFM1 residue exposure risk in different human age groups. Forty late healthy lactating Holstein cows (270 ± 22 d in milk; daily milk yield 21 ± 3.1 kg/d) were randomly assigned to four treatments: control diet without AFB1 and adsorbents (CON), CON with 8 µg/kg AFB1 (dry matter basis, AF), AF + 15 g/d adsorbent 1 (AD1), AF + 15 g/d adsorbent 2 (AD2). The experiment lasted for 19 days, including an AFB1-challenge phase (day 1 to 14) and an AFB1-withdraw phase (day 15 to 19). Results showed that both AFB1 and adsorbents treatments had no significant effects on the DMI, milk yield, 3.5% FCM yield, milk components and serum parameters. Compared with the AF, AD1 and AD2 had significantly lower milk AFM1 concentrations (93 ng/L vs. 46 ng/L vs. 51 ng/L) and transfer rates of dietary AFB1 into milk AFM1 (1.16% vs. 0.57% vs. 0.63%) (p < 0.05). Children aged 2-4 years old had the highest exposure risk to AFM1 in milk in AF, with an EDI of 1.02 ng/kg bw/day and a HI of 5.11 (HI > 1 indicates a potential risk for liver cancer). Both AD1 and AD2 had obviously reductions in EDI and HI for all population groups, whereas, the EDI (≥0.25 ng/kg bw/day) and HI (≥1.23) of children aged 2-11 years old were still higher than the suggested tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.20 ng/kg bw/day and 1.00 (HI). In conclusion, moderate risk level AFB1 in the diet of healthy lactating cows could cause a public health hazard and adding adsorbents in the dairy diet is an effective measure to remit AFM1 residue in milk and its exposure risk for humans.

13.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14663, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical and pathological features of multiple primary malignant neoplasms (MPMNs) cases. METHODS: The clinical data of 24 105 tumour patients admitted to Jiangsu Cancer Hospital in 2018 were retrospectively reviewed, and 270 patients with MPMNs were selected as the research subjects. Among them, 101 cases of synchronous carcinoma (SC) and 92 cases of metachronous carcinoma (MC) were divided into groups for statistical analysis. Univariate and multivariate cox regression analyses were conducted using SPSS 22.0 software. RESULTS: Among 24 105 cases, there was a male-to-female ratio of 1.45:1. Compared with MC cases, SC patients have a higher proportion of male cases. Primary neoplasms in gastric cancer, head and neck cancer, oesophageal cancer and colon cancer occupied most cases in male MPMNs, while primary breast cancer ranked first in female MPMNs. In addition, the leading secondary neoplasms were duodenal carcinoma, lung cancer and male MPMNs and lung cancer in female MPMNs. As for SC MPMNs, primary neoplasms were occupied by lung cancer, gastric cancer and oesophageal cancer, while the secondary neoplasms were mostly consisted of oesophageal cancer and lung cancer. Finally, the MC MPMNs were mostly consisted of breast cancer and gastric cancer as primary neoplasms, while lung cancer and oesophageal cancer as secondary neoplasms. CONCLUSIONS: Screening for primary cancer should be strengthened over the age of 50 years for male patients with gastric cancer or female patients with breast cancer to reduce or monitor the occurrence of MPMNs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Carbohydr Polym ; 272: 118483, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420742

RESUMO

Novel superhydrophobic sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) modified polyurethane (MPU) was developed as the membrane material for controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) by cross-linking polymerization of 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and CMC-based modified polyol (CMP) which was made by grafting CMC onto polyether polyol (TMN-450). The modified polyurethane coated fertilizer (MPUCF) was prepared by using MPU as the membrane material through a fluidized bed device. Analysis results of 13C NMR showed that the coatings of PUCF and MPUCF were prepared by connecting hydroxyl to isocyanate groups to form a carbamate. MPU had lower water absorption rates than PU, and MPUCF coating showed excellent hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that MPUCF coating surface was much more smooth and flat than that of PUCF. Furthermore, the nitrogen (N) release longevity of MPUCF can increased to 140 days when the coating rate was 5%. It is concluded that MPU was an excellent superhydrophobic coating material for CRF.

16.
Gland Surg ; 10(7): 2180-2191, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422589

RESUMO

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and immunohistochemical (IHC) examination provides useful information for the risk stratification of endometrial cancer (EC). However, the use of the combination of MRI and IHC for the prediction of high-risk EC is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of preoperative MRI and IHC examination in prediction of patients with high-risk EC. Methods: This retrospective case-control study was conducted from January 1, 2018 to May 1, 2021 at two hospitals. A primary cohort (n=102) comprised patients with histologically confirmed EC in one hospital between January 1, 2018 and May 31, 2020. An additional external cohort (n=35) comprising patients with histologically confirmed EC in a different hospital from January 1, 2020 to May 1, 2021 was included for validation. Imaging features including tumor size, tumor margin, relative T2 value, tumor signal intensity on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) were determined from preoperative MRI images. IHC markers including ER, PR, p53 and Ki67 were determined through IHC staining of preoperative curettage specimen. Patients were divided into high-risk and low-intermediate- risk group based on the final histological results. Differences between categorical and numerical variables were assessed using chi-square test and independent-sample t-test, respectively. Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were used for construction of the prediction model A fusion prediction model was constructed by combining MRI features and IHC markers. The predictive performance of the model was then validated using the external cohort. Results: Imaging and IHC markers were significantly associated with risk ranks. Model 1 based on MRI features showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.822 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.741-0.903] whereas Model 2 based on IHC markers showed an AUC of 0.894 (95% CI, 0.829-0.960). Notably, model 3 integrating independent MRI and IHC risk factors demonstrated good calibration and high differentiation ability with an AUC of 0.958 (95% CI, 0.923-0.993), and showed good discrimination with an AUC of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.677-0.942) using the external validation set. Conclusions: This study proposes a comprehensive predictive model comprising MRI and IHC features as a powerful tool for preoperative risk stratification to assist in clinical decision-making for EC patients.

17.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438858

RESUMO

High-yield dairy cows with high-concentrate diets are more prone to experiencing health problems associated with rumen microbial imbalance. This study assessed the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture (SC), a food supplement, on ruminal pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA), inflammatory cytokines, and performance of high-yield dairy cows. Forty Holstein cows with similar characteristics (e.g., milk yield, days of milk, and parity) were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental group fed the basal ration supplemented with the SC of 100 g of SC per cow per day (hour, SC group), and a control group fed the same basal ration diet without SC (i.e., CON group). On average, the supplementation of SC started at 73 days of lactation. The experimental period lasted approximately 70 days (from 18 January to 27 March 2020), including 10 days for dietary adaptation. Milk yield was recorded daily. Rumen fluid and milk samples were collected after 2 h of feeding in the morning of day 0, 15, 30, and 60. The data showed that rumen pH increased (p < 0.05) when cows were provided with SC. On average, the cows in the SC group produced 1.36 kg (p < 0.05) more milk per day than those in the CON group. Milk fat content of cows in the SC group was also higher (4.11% vs. 3.96%) (p < 0.05). Compared with the CON group, the concentration of acetic acid in the rumen fluid of dairy cows in the SC group was significantly higher (p < 0.05). There were no differences (p > 0.05) found in milk protein content and propionic acid between groups. The SC group had a tendency increase in butyric acid (p = 0.062) and total VFA (p = 0.058). The result showed that SC supplementation also enhanced the ratio between acetic and propionic. Most of the mean inflammatory cytokine (IL-2, IL-6, γ-IFN, and TNF-α) concentrations (p < 0.05) of the SC group were lower than CON group. This study demonstrated that high-yield cows receiving supplemental SC could produce more milk with higher fat content, have higher rumen acetate, and potentially less inflammatory cytokines.

18.
Microorganisms ; 9(8)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34442867

RESUMO

To understand the effects of diet and age on the rumen bacterial community and function, forty-eight dairy cattle at 1.5 (M1.5), 6 (M6), 9 (M9), 18 (M18), 23 (M23), and 27 (M27) months old were selected. Rumen fermentation profile, enzyme activity, and bacteria community in rumen fluid were measured. The acetate to propionate ratio (A/P) at M9, M18, and M23 was higher than other ages, and M6 was the lowest (p < 0.05). The total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) at M23 and M27 was higher than at other ages (p < 0.05). The urease at M18 was lower than at M1.5, M6, and M9, and the xylanase at M18 was higher than at M1.5, M23, and M27 (p < 0.05). Thirty-three bacteria were identified as biomarkers of the different groups based on the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) when the LDA score >4. The variation partitioning approach analysis showed that the age and diet had a 7.98 and 32.49% contribution to the rumen bacteria community variation, respectively. The richness of Succinivibrionaceae_UCG-002 and Fibrobacter were positive correlated with age (r > 0.60, p < 0.01) and positively correlated with TVFA and acetate (r > 0.50, p < 0.01). The Lachnospiraceae_AC2044_group, Pseudobutyrivibrio, and Saccharofermentans has a positive correlation (r > 0.80, p < 0.05) with diet fiber and a negative correlation (r < -0.80, p < 0.05) with diet protein and starch, which were also positively correlated with the acetate and A/P (r > 0.50, p < 0.01). The genera of Lachnospiraceae_AC2044_group, Pseudobutyrivibrio, and Saccharofermentans could be worked as the target bacteria to modulate the rumen fermentation by diet; meanwhile, the high age correlated bacteria such as Succinivibrionaceae_UCG-002 and Fibrobacter also should be considered when shaping the rumen function.

19.
Toxicology ; 461: 152906, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450209

RESUMO

Fluoride is one of the most widely distributed elements in nature, while some fluorine-containing compounds are toxic to several vertebrates at certain levels. The current study was performed to evaluate the nephrotoxic effects of fluoride exposure in ducks. The results showed that the renal index was decreased in NaF group, and fluoride exposure significantly decreased the levels of serum Albumin, Glucose, Total cholesterol, Urea, protein and Triglycerides, confirming that NaF exhibited adverse effects on the kidney. The overall structure of renal cells showed damage with the signs of nuclelytic, vacuolar degeneration, atrophy, renal cystic cavity widening after fluoride induction. Renal vascular growth was impaired as the expression of VEGF and HIF-1α decreased (p > 0.05). More importantly, autophagy and apoptosis levels of CYT C, LC3, p62, Beclin, M-TOR, Bax and Caspase-3 were increased (p < 0.05) in the NaF treated group. Interestingly, our results showed that Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC) activated the M-TOR autophagy pathway. Meanwhile, the PE acted on Atg5/ LC3 autophagy factor, followed by the auto-phagosome generation and activation of cell autophagy. These results indicate that NaF exposure to duck induced nephron-toxicity by activating autophagy, apoptosis and glucolipid metabolism pathways, which suggest that fluorine exposure poses a risk of poisoning.

20.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 675492, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248887

RESUMO

Escherichia coli is a common mastitis-causing pathogen that can disrupt the blood-milk barrier of mammals. Although Lactobacillus casei Zhang (LCZ) can alleviate mice mastitis, whether it has a prophylactic effect on E. coli-induced mastitis through intramammary infusion, as well as its underlying mechanism, remains unclear. In this study, E. coli-induced injury models of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) and mice in lactation were used to fill this research gap. In vitro tests of BMECs revealed that LCZ significantly inhibited the E. coli adhesion (p < 0.01); reduced the cell desmosome damage; increased the expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-1, claudin-4, occludin, and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1; p < 0.01); and decreased the expression of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-6 (p < 0.01), thereby increasing trans-epithelial electric resistance (p < 0.01) and attenuating the lactate dehydrogenase release induced by E. coli (p < 0.01). In vivo tests indicated that LCZ significantly reduced the injury and histological score of mice mammary tissues in E. coli-induced mastitis (p < 0.01) by significantly promoting the expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-3, occludin, and ZO-1 (p < 0.01), which ameliorated blood-milk barrier disruption, and decreasing the expression of the inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) in mice mammary tissue (p < 0.01). Our study suggested that LCZ counteracted the disrupted blood-milk barrier and moderated the inflammatory response in E. coli-induced injury models, indicating that LCZ can ameliorate the injury of mammary tissue in mastitis.

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