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1.
Heliyon ; 9(1): e12757, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36685395

RESUMO

Plant invasive success is attributed to invaders' ecological advantages over their native neighbors. However, increasing evidence suggests that these advantages are expected to attenuate over time because of natural enemy accumulation, ecological evolution of native species and autotoxicity. We determined how an invasive Ageratina adenophora could remain its competitive advantages over time by avoiding its autotoxicity. Our results highlighted that the autotoxicity of A. adenophora in its invaded soil was reduced by some microbes. Moreover, an autotoxic allelochemical, 2-coumaric acid glucoside, detected in the invaded soil, demonstrated distinctly autotoxic effects on its seed germination and seedling growth. However, the autotoxic effects were greatly alleviated by a bacterium Bacillus cereus, accumulated by A. adenophora. Furthermore, the allelochemical could be almost completely degraded by B. cereus within 96 h. Accordingly, we speculate that A. adenophora could aggregate B. cereus to release its autotoxicity maintaining its competitive advantages over time.

2.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677813

RESUMO

The application of essential oils has historically been limited to topical (massage therapy) and inhalational (aromatherapy) routes of administration. More recently, however, evaluation of the therapeutic effects of essential oils has expanded to include the oral route of administration, which increases the herb-drug interaction potential. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the herb-drug interaction potential of lavender essential oil and two of its primary phytoactive constituents, namely linalool and linalyl acetate. The metabolic stability of linalool and linalyl acetate was determined in human liver microsomes (HLM) and S9 fractions by quantitative analysis using UPLC-MS/MS system. Linalool was metabolically unstable in HLM and S9 fractions with an intrinsic clearance of 31.28 mL·min-1·kg-1, and 7.64 mL·min-1·kg-1, respectively. Interestingly, it was observed that linalyl acetate converted to linalool both in HLM and S9 fractions. Lavender oil showed weak inhibitory effect on the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 enzymes (IC50 12.0 and 21.5 µg/mL). Linalyl acetate inhibited CYP3A4 (IC50 4.75 µg/mL) while linalool did not show any inhibitory effect on any of the enzymes. The lavender oil and its constituents did not activate PXR to a considerable extent, and no activation of AhR was observed, suggesting a lack of potential to modify the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of conventional medications if used concurrently.


Assuntos
Lavandula , Óleos Voláteis , Humanos , Cromatografia Líquida , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
3.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280866, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689420

RESUMO

Allelopathy has been considered a good explanation for the successful invasion of some invasive plants. However, the real latitudinal and longitudinal allelopathic effects on native species have rarely been documented since many exotics have spread widely. We conducted a Petri dish experiment to determine the latitudinal and longitudinal allelopathic patterns of an invasive alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) on a common crop (Lactuca sativa) in China, and find what determines the allelopathic intensity. The results showed that the allelopathic effects of A. philoxeroides increased with the latitude while decreased with the longitude. This indicated that A. philoxeroides used its allelopathy to gain competitive advantages more in its recent invaded communities than that in its early invaded ones as A. philoxeroides is expanding from southeast China to northwest China. Furthermore, we found that the allelopathic intensity of A. philoxeroide was negatively correlated to the leaf contents of soluble carbohydrate (SC), carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), but that was positively correlated to the leaf contents of soluble protein (SP), free amino acids (FAA), plant polyphenol (PP), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). These results suggested that the allelopathic intensity of A. philoxeroide was more determined by the limited P and K nutrients as well as the intermediate allelochemicals (SP, FAA, PP) rather than the unlimited C, N and SC. Thus, we can speculate that the negative or positive effects of plant aqueous extracts are a function of not only the extract concentrations but also the trade-offs between inhibition and promotion of all components in the extracts. Then we could reduce the allelopathic effects of A. philoxeroide by controlling the component contents in the plant tissues, by fertilization or other managements, especially in the plant recent invaded communities.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Amaranthaceae , Animais , Plantas Daninhas , Espécies Introduzidas , Alelopatia , China , Extratos Vegetais
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343612

RESUMO

Primaquine (PQ), a prototype 8-aminoquinoline (8-AQ) drug used to treat malaria, is rapidly metabolized into different inactive and active metabolites. Due to the hemolytic toxicity, the uses of PQ have been confined. To understand its overall metabolism and its relation to drug efficacy and toxicity, profiling of urine for the parent drug and its metabolites is important. The current study presents a convenient and rapid method for simultaneously quantifying primaquine (PQ) and its metabolites in human urine. A simple liquid-liquid extraction followed by chromatographic separation and quantification through ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated to quantify PQ and its eleven metabolites in the urine of healthy human volunteers who received a single oral dose of PQ. The developed method separated fourteen analytes, including internal standards, within nine minutes of run time. The linearity of all analytes was suitable in the range of 1-500 ng/mL. The extraction recovery for all concentrations of analytes from urine was ranged from 90.1 to 112.9 %. The relative standard deviation for intra- and inter-day precision were < 9.8 and < 10.7 %, respectively. Along with PQ, its different metabolites were detected in urine. Primaquine-5,6-orthoquinone, the N-carbamoylglucuronide conjugate of PQ and carboxyprimaquine were the major metabolites found in urine. Significant enantiomeric differences in the urinary excretion profiles for PQ and metabolites were observed. This analytical method can be implemented in the pharmacokinetic analysis of PQ to explain its toxicity and clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Primaquina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Estereoisomerismo
5.
World J Diabetes ; 13(8): 622-642, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36159224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a metabolic disease with a high complication rate. Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) seriously affect the quality of life of patients. A total of 15%-20% of diabetic patients develop DFUs, which heal with difficulty over a long time and can result in amputation and disability. Traditional Chinese medicine has a unique effect in the treatment of skin ulcerative diseases. Ruyi Jinhuang powder (RHP) is one of the classic prescriptions in traditional Chinese medicine and is widely used in clinical practice. AIM: To verify the ability of RHP to promote wound healing by electron microscopy analysis in animal models and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The effective components of RHP were extracted and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the obtained chemical components were analyzed by network pharmacology methods to predict its therapeutic mechanism. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were injected with streptozotocin to establish the DFU model. HE staining was used to observe the wound tissue under an electron microscope. The chemical constituents of RHP were extracted first by supercritical fluid extraction and alcohol extraction, and then, GC-MS and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-MS were used to separately identify the chemical constituents. In addition, the "herb-component-target" link was established through the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology database to obtain the target information, and the molecular docking of important components and key targets was performed in Discovery Studio software. Cytoscape software was used to visualize and analyze the relationship between the chemical composition, targets and Traditional Chinese Medicine network. RESULTS: RHP promoted DFU healing in rats by affecting fibroblasts and nerve cells. A total of 89 chemical components were obtained by GC-MS. Network pharmacological analysis revealed that RHP was associated with 36 targets and 27 pathways in the treatment of DFU, of which the important components were luteolin, trans caryophyllene, ar-turmerone, palmitic acid, methyl palmitate, gallic acid, demethoxycurcumin, berberine, and rheic acid. The key targets were posttranscriptional silencing, topoisomerase II alpha, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor and retinoic X receptor alpha, and the key pathways were the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-protein kinase B signaling pathway, neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions, and the forkhead box O signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that RHP may play a role in the treatment of DFU through these target pathways by affecting insulin resistance, altering the nervous system and immune system, participating in inflammatory responses and regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis through other specific mechanisms.

6.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(17): 5732-5740, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35979126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palato-radicular groove (PRG) is defined as an anomalous formation of teeth. The etiology of PRG remains unclear. The prognosis of a tooth with a PRG is unfavorable. The treatment of combined periodontal-endodontic lesions requires multidisciplinary management to control the progression of bone defects. Some researchers reported cases that had short-term observations. The management of teeth with PRGs is of great clinical significance. However, to date, no case reports have been documented on the use of bone regeneration and prosthodontic treatment for PRGs. CASE SUMMARY: This case reported the management of a 40-year-old male patient with the chief complaint of slight mobility and abscess in the upper right anterior tooth for 15 d and was diagnosed with type II PRG of tooth 12 with combined endodontic-periodontal lesions. The accumulation of plaque and calculus caused primary periodontitis and a secondary endodontic infection. A multidisciplinary management approach was designed that included root canal therapy, groove sealing, a periodontal regenerative procedure, and prosthodontic treatment. During a 2-year follow-up period, a good prognosis was observed. CONCLUSION: This report indicates that bone regeneration and prosthodontic treatment may contribute to the long-term favorable prognosis of teeth with PRGs.

7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 110: 108971, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777268

RESUMO

T Cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin Containing Protein-3 (TIM-3) is an important immune checkpoint protein that is expressed in Tregs and affects their function. However, the expression and role of TIM-3 in modulating regulatory T cells (Tregs) in lupus nephritis (LN) are still unknown. In this study, we found that the percentage of TIM-3+ cells among spleen lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells and Tregs was higher in MRL/lpr mice than in MpJ mice. TIM-3high CD4+ T cells and TIM-3high Tregs were mainly responsible for the increase. The percentage of Tregs in TIM-3high CD4+ T cells was lower than that in TIM-3low CD4+ T cells, and the expression of CTLA-4 and IL-10 was lower in TIM-3high Tregs than in the TIM-3low Tregs in MRL/lpr mice. Blockade of TIM-3 in vivo significantly increased the Treg population and the expression of CTLA-4 and IL-10 in Tregs, thus relieving the LN symptoms and pathology in MRL/lpr mice. Additionally, bioinformatics analysis indicated that TIM-3 regulates Treg cells in LN mainly through cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, the T cell receptor signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation and the FoxO signaling pathway. Together, our study has demonstrated that TIM-3 regulates Tregs in LN and that overexpression of TIM-3 in CD4+ T cells and Tregs leads to Treg quantity and quality deficiency in MRL/lpr mice. Blockade of TIM-3 protects against LN by expanding Tregs and enhancing their suppressive capacity. Finally, TIM-3 might be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of LN.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Nefrite Lúpica , Animais , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos MRL lpr , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores
8.
Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 45: 100463, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709685

RESUMO

Primaquine (PQ) is a racemic drug used in treatment of malaria for six decades. Recent studies suggest that the two enantiomers of PQ are differentially metabolized in animals, and this results in different pharmacological and toxicological profiles. The current study characterizes the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, metabolism and tolerability of the individual enantiomers of PQ in healthy human volunteers with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity. Two cohorts (at two dose levels), each with 18 subjects, participated in three study arms in a crossover fashion: a single dose of the (-)-R enantiomer (RPQ), a single dose of the (+)-S enantiomer (SPQ), and a single dose of racemic PQ (RSPQ). PQ and its key metabolites carboxyprimaquine (cPQ) and PQ-N-carbamoyl glucuronide (PQ-N-CG) were analyzed. Clear differences were observed in PK and metabolism of the two enantiomers. Relative PQ exposure was higher with SPQ as compared to RPQ. PQ maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve were higher for SPQ, while the apparent volume of distribution and total body clearance were higher for RPQ. Metabolism of the two enantiomers showed dramatic differences: plasma PQ-N-CG was derived solely from SPQ, while RPQ was much more efficiently converted to cPQ than was SPQ. Cmax of cPQ and PQ-N-CG were 10 and 2 times higher, respectively, than the parent drugs. The study demonstrates that the PK properties of PQ enantiomers show clear differences, and metabolism is highly enantioselective. Such differences in metabolism suggest potentially distinct toxicity profiles in multi-dose regimens, especially in G6PD-deficient subjects.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Primaquina , Animais , Antimaláricos/metabolismo , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Primaquina/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo
9.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 31(1): 96-99, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35587678

RESUMO

PORPOSE: To investigate the effect of Insignia system in customized orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A total of 71 patients with malocclusion undergoing orthodontic treatment in Dalian Stomatological Hospital from March 2018 to August 2019 were enrolled, and divided into two groups according to random number table methods. Patients in non-customized group received Damon Q self-locking brackets, while patients in customized group received individualized brackets combined with Insignia appliance. The patients were revisited every 8 weeks in initial phase and thereafter every 6 weeks. The clinical efficacy, number of visits, time required for treatment planning and treatment duration were compared between the two groups. The severity of malocclusion, changes after treatment and improvement before and after treatment were evaluated by peer assessment rating (PAR). The complications and loose brackets during treatment were observed. SPSS 20.0 software package was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The total effective rate of customized group was significantly higher than that of non-customized group (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in treatment duration between the two groups(P>0.05). The number of visits and time required for treatment planning of customized group were significantly longer than those of non-customized group(P<0.05). After treatment, the midline, tooth dislocation, molar buccal occlusion, overbite, overjet and weighted PAR total scores increased in both groups, and the increase was more significant in customized group(P<0.05). The gingival bleeding rate showed no significant difference between the two groups(P>0.05), while the rate of loose brackets was significantly higher in customized group than in non-customized group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with non-customized system, insignia customized system has more visits, longer treatment planning time and higher bracket loosening rate, but its effect is better. In general, it has little effect on the treatment duration and does not increase the bracket shedding rate.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle , Má Oclusão , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Sobremordida , Oclusão Dentária , Humanos , Má Oclusão/terapia , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Braquetes Ortodônticos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(9): 2281-2287, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531673

RESUMO

Tuber rot has become a serious problem in the large-scale cultivation of Gastrodia elata. In this study, we compared the resistance of different ecotypes of G. elata to tuber rot by field experiments on the basis of the investigation of G. elata diseases. The histological observation and transcriptome analysis were conducted to reveal the resistance differences and the underlying mechanisms among different ecotypes. In the field, G. elata f. glauca had the highest incidence of tuber rot, followed by G. elata f. viridis, and G. elata f. elata and G. elata f. glauca×G. elata f. elata showed the lowest incidence. Tuber rot showcased obvious plant source specificity and mainly occurred in the buds and bottom of G. elata plants. After infection, the pathogen spread hyphae in host cortex cells, which can change the endophytic fungal community structure in the cortex and parenchyma of G. elata. G. elata f. glauca had thinner lytic layer and more sugar lumps in the parenchyma than G. elata f. elata. The transcription of genes involved in immune defense, enzyme synthesis, polysaccharide synthesis, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, hydroxylase activity, and aromatic compound synthesis had significant differences between G. elata f. glauca and G. elata f. elata. These findings suggested that the differences in resis-tance to tuber rot among different ecotypes of G. elata may be related to the varied gene expression patterns and secondary metabolites. This study provides basic data for the prevention and control of tuber rot and the improvement of planting technology for G. elata.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Ecótipo , Gastrodia/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Tubérculos/genética
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(9): 2288-2295, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531674

RESUMO

Brown rot is a common disease in the cultivation and production of Gastrodia elata, but its pathogens have not been fully revealed. In this study, the pathogenic fungi were isolated and purified from tubers of 77 G. elata samples with brown rot. Pathogens were identified by the pathogenicity test and morphological and molecular identification. The pathogenicity of each pathogen and its inhibitory effects on Armillaria gallica were compared. The results showed that 119 strains of fungi were isolated from tubers of G. elata infected with brown rot. Among them, the frequency of separation of Ilyonectria fungi was as high as 42.01%. The pathogenicity test showed that the pathogenicity characteristics of six strains of fungi were consistent with the natural symptoms of brown rot in G. elata. The morphological and molecular identification results showed that the six strains belonged to I. cyclaminicola and I. robusta in the Nectriaceae family of Sordariomycetes class, respectively. Both types of fungi could produce pigments, conidia, and chlamycospore, and the growth rate of I. cyclaminicola was significantly higher than that of I. robusta. The comparison of pathogenicity showed that the spots formed by I. cyclaminicola inoculation were significantly larger than those of I. robusta inoculation, suggesting I. cyclaminicola was superior to I. robusta in pathogenicity. The results of confrontation culture showed that I. cyclaminicola and I. robusta could signi-ficantly inhibit the germination and cordage growth of A. gallica. A. gallica also inhibited the growth of pathogens, and I. cyclaminicola was less inhibited as compared with I. robusta. The results of this study revealed for the first time that I. cyclaminicola and I. robusta were the pathogens responsible for G. elata brown rot.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Fungos , Tubérculos , Esporos Fúngicos , Virulência
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(9): 2296-2303, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531675

RESUMO

The continuous cropping obstacle of Gastrodia elata is outstanding, but its mechanism is still unclear. In this study, microbial changes in soils after G. elata planting were investigated to explore the mechanism correlated with continuous cropping obstacle. The changes of species and abundance of fungi and bacteria in soils planted with G. elata after 1, 2, and 3 years were compared. The pathogenic fungi that might cause continuous cropping diseases of G. elata were isolated. Finally, the prevention and control measures of soil-borne fungal diseases of G. elata were investigated with the rotation planting pattern of "G. elata-Phallus impudicus". The results showed that G. elata planting resulted in the decrease in bacterial and fungal community stability and the increase in harmful fungus species and abundance in soils. This change was most obvious in the second year after G. elata planting, and the soil microbial community structure could not return to the normal level even if it was left idle for another two years. After G. elata planting in soils, the most significant change was observed in Ilyonectria cyclaminicola. The richness of the Ilyonectria fungus in soils was significantly positively correlated with the incidence of G. elata diseases. When I. cyclaminicola was inoculated in the sterile soil, the rot rate of G. elata was also significantly increased. After planting one crop of G. elata and one to three crops of P. impudicus, the fungus community structure in soils gradually recovered, and the abundance of I. cyclaminicola decreased year by year. Furthermore, the disease rate of G. elata decreased. The results showed that the cultivation of G. elata made the Ilyonectria fungi the dominant flora in soils, and I. cyclaminicola served as the main pathogen of continuous cropping diseases of G. elata, which could be reduced by rotation planting with P. impudicus.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Micobioma , Bactérias , Fungos , Gastrodia/microbiologia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
13.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 216: 114806, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533533

RESUMO

Simultaneous identification and quantification of phenolic acid (chlorogenic acid), sesquiterpene lactone (cnicin), lignan (arctiin), and flavonoids (bracteoside, 6-methoxybracteoside, isokaempferide, and viscosine) in mixed parts of Centaurea benedicta (Syn. Cnicus benedictus) were performed for the first time. The liquid chromatography method showed an adequate performance for the separation of seven compounds. The method was validated for linearity (0.5-100 µg/mL), precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ) as well as robustness. Cnicin and arctiin were detected at concentrations as low as 0.25 µg/mL. Remaining flavonoids and chlorogenic acid were detected at 0.025 µg/mL. The method demonstrated good performance in terms of intra- and inter-day precision (0.1-3.4%), accuracy (98.0-105.0%), lower and upper limits of quantification for all compounds. Analysis of various samples showed considerable variation of 0.9-10.3 mg/g for the marker compound, cnicin. Twenty-one dietary supplements, claiming to contain C. benedictus extract, were analyzed for authenticity. Thirteen (62%) of 21 products showed the presence of all analyzed compounds and were confirmed to contain C. benedictus. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) is described for the identification of compounds in plant samples. This method involved the use of protonated, deprotonated, and adduct ions for compounds in positive and negative ion modes with extractive ion chromatogram (EIC). The application of liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF) provided useful information to characterize sixty-four compounds. The developed methods were also applicable for quality assessment of raw materials and dietary supplements containing C. benedictus.


Assuntos
Centaurea benedicta , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Ácido Clorogênico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Flavonoides/química , Lactonas , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
14.
AoB Plants ; 14(2): plac009, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414861

RESUMO

The negative effects, caused by high light, on algae, terrestrial and marine aquatic plants are well documented; those negative effects on freshwater submerged plants are, however, not well known. We determined the negative effects of two common submerged species, Myriophyllum spicatum and Vallisneria natans, on their growth and reproduction in a shallow water experiment along an irradiance gradient. Our results highlighted that the plant mass, relative growth rate and shoot height of V. natans and M. spicatum, and root mass and root length:root mass of M. spicatum and leaf mass and shoot height:shoot mass of V. natans were significantly negatively affected in shallow water with high-light regime (>50 % of full light). While the ramet number of the two species was stimulated by from 20.0 to 36.4 %, and root length, root:shoot, chlorophyll (a:b), chlorophyll (a + b), leaf carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the two studied macrophytes were not significantly impacted by light. Our results indicated that the high-light inhibition of plant growth was greater on the shoots than on the roots of the plants, although these effects were significantly different between the two studied submerged species and among the measured traits. Accordingly, we should avoid negative effects caused by high light to improve the performance of submerged species when we conduct submerged aquatic vegetation restoration programmes in eutrophic lakes.

15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 797121, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35321334

RESUMO

Objective: Elective single embryo transfer (eSET) has been increasingly advocated to achieve the goal of delivering a single healthy baby. A novel endometrial preparation approach down-regulation ovulation-induction (DROI) proposed by our team was demonstrated in an RCT that DROI could significantly improve the reproductive outcome compared with modified natural cycle. We aimed to evaluate whether DROI improved clinic pregnancy rate in this single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer RCT compared with hormone replace treatment (HRT). Method: Eligible participants were recruited and randomized into one of two endometrial preparation regimens: DROI or HRT between March 15, 2019 and March 12, 2021. The primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). The secondary endpoints included ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR), biochemical miscarriage and first trimester pregnancy loss. This trial is registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, number ChiCTR2000039804. Result s: A total of 330 women were randomized in a 1:1 ratio between two groups and 289 women received embryo transfer and completed the study (142 DROI; 147HRT). Pregnancy outcomes were significantly different between the two groups. The CPR and OPR in the DROI group were significantly higher than those of the HRT group (64.08% versus 46.94%, P<0.01; 56.34% versus 38.78%,P<0.01). The biochemical miscarriage and first trimester pregnancy loss were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion s: The findings of this RCT support the suggestion that the DROI might be a more efficient and promising alternative endometrial preparation approach for FET. Moreover, DROI could play a critical role in promoting uptake of single embryo transfer strategies in FET.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Criopreservação , Regulação para Baixo , Transferência Embrionária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ovulação , Gravidez
16.
Malar J ; 21(1): 33, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35123453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primaquine (PQ) has been used for the radical cure of relapsing Plasmodium vivax malaria for more than 60 years. PQ is also recommended for prophylaxis and prevention of transmission of Plasmodium falciparum. However, clinical utility of PQ has been limited due to toxicity in individuals with genetic deficiencies in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). PQ is currently approved for clinical use as a racemic mixture. Recent studies in animals as well as humans have established differential pharmacological and toxicological properties of the two enantiomers of PQ. This has been attributed to differential metabolism and pharmacokinetics of individual PQ enantiomers. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the comparative pharmacokinetics (PK), tissue distribution and metabolic profiles of the individual enantiomers in mice. METHODS: Two groups of 21 male Albino ND4 Swiss mice were dosed orally with 45 mg/kg of S-(+)-PQ and R-(-)PQ respectively. Each of the enantiomers was comprised of a 50:50 mixture of 12C- and 13C- stable isotope labelled species (at 6 carbons on the benzene ring of the quinoline core). Three mice were euthanized from each group at different time points (at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 h) and blood was collected by terminal cardiac bleed. Liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys and brain were removed, extracted and analysed using UPLC/MS. The metabolites were profiled by tandem mass (MS/MS) fragmentation profile and fragments with 12C-13C twin peaks. Non-compartmental analysis was performed using the Phoenix WinNonLin PK software module. RESULTS: The plasma AUC0-last (µg h/mL) (1.6 vs. 0.6), T1/2 (h) (1.9 vs. 0.45), and Tmax (h) (1 vs. 0.5) were greater for SPQ as compared to RPQ. Generally, the concentration of SPQ was higher in all tissues. At Tmax, (0.5-1 h in all tissues), the level of SPQ was 3 times that of RPQ in the liver. Measured Cmax of SPQ and RPQ in the liver were about 100 and 40 times the Cmax values in plasma, respectively. Similar observations were recorded in other tissues where the concentration of SPQ was higher compared to RPQ (2× in the spleen, 6× in the kidneys, and 49× in the lungs) than in the plasma. CPQ, the major metabolite, was preferentially generated from RPQ, with higher levels in all tissues (> 10× in the liver, and 3.5× in the plasma) than from SPQ. The PQ-o-quinone was preferentially formed from the SPQ (> 4× compared to RPQ), with higher concentrations in the liver. CONCLUSION: These studies show that in mice, PQ enantiomers are differentially biodistributed and metabolized, which may contribute to differential pharmacologic and toxicity profiles of PQ enantiomers. The findings on higher levels of PQ-o-quinone in liver and RBCs compared to plasma and preferential generation of this metabolite from SPQ are consistent with the higher anti-malarial efficacy of SPQ observed in the mouse causal prophylaxis test, and higher haemolytic toxicity in the humanized mouse model of G6PD deficiency. Potential relevance of these findings to clinical use of racemic PQ and other 8-aminoquinolines vis-à-vis need for further clinical evaluation of individual enantiomers are discussed.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Primaquina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Distribuição Tecidual
17.
Bioorg Chem ; 120: 105606, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045368

RESUMO

Inhibition of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced vascular endothelial cell (VEC) injury is one of the effective strategies for treating atherosclerosis. In the present study, a series of novel marine phidianidine-inspired indole-1,2,4-oxadiazoles was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their effects against oxLDL-induced injury in VECs. Among them, compound D-6, displaying the most effective protective activity, was found to inhibit oxLDL-induced apoptosis and the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in VECs. Mechanistic studies showed that D-6 could trigger Nrf2 nuclear translocation, subsequently resulting in increased expression of Nrf2 target gene HO-1. Meanwhile, D-6 suppressed the increase of ROS level and nuclear translocation of NF-κB induced by oxLDL. Importantly, Nrf2 knockdown attenuated the inhibition effects of D-6 on oxLDL-induced apoptosis, ROS production and NF-κB nuclear translocation. Collectively, our studies demonstrated that compound D-6 protected against oxLDL-induced endothelial injury by activating Nrf2/HO-1 anti-oxidation pathway.


Assuntos
Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , NF-kappa B , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 472-480, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989532

RESUMO

The bioavailability of heavy metals in soil and the physiological activities of rice determine the accumulation of heavy metals in brown rice. In this study, a field experiment was conducted in a rice paddy in which the total amount of Cd in the soil did not exceed the national standard, whereas the Cd in rice grains was at risk of overreaching in the suburbs of Guangzhou city. The bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil and the physiological barrier of rice were taken as the starting point. The early and late rice yield, brown rice heavy metal content, Cd and Pb enrichment coefficient, total soil heavy metals, soil physical and chemical properties, and soil Cd and Pb species distribution were investigated under the Si-rich amendment (JD), Ca-Mg amendment (YY), Si-rich amendment+flooding irrigation (JD+YS), and Ca-Mg amendment+flooding irrigation (YY+YS) treatments. The results showed that:① the total ω(Cd) in the soil was only 0.13 mg·kg-1 in the CK treatment. However, the average ω(Cd) in the grain of early rice reached up to 0.19 mg·kg-1. The early rice varieties (hybrid rice) had a more vital ability to accumulate Cd and total As in brown rice than that in late rice varieties (conventional rice) but a lower capacity for Pb accumulation. ② JD and YY application alone had no noticeable inhibitory effect on the accumulation of Cd and Pb in brown rice; however, JD+YS and YY+YS treatments significantly inhibited the accumulation of Cd and Pb in brown rice in both early and late rice, especially in the JD+YS treatment, which decreased the Cd and Pb accumulation by 65.8% and 68% for early rice and by 71.43% and 49.15% for late rice, respectively. The primary mechanism of JD+YS was to increase soil pH and maintain a low redox potential to promote soil Cd and Pb to be transformed from acid-soluble to a reduced state and residue state, thus decreasing Cd and Pb to migrate from the soil to the rice. At the same time, it effectively suppressed the absorption and transportation of Cd and Pb by early and late rice via the physiological barrier effect of Si nutrition and the competition for transportation channels between calcium and magnesium ions and cadmium and inhibited the accumulation of Cd and Pb in the brown rice of early and late rice. These results provide a theoretical basis for the exploration and application of the control technologies in the brown rice Cd and Pb resistance and have important practical significance for guiding the safe production in the rice-growing area in South China.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Chumbo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Água , Abastecimento de Água
20.
J Diet Suppl ; 19(4): 515-533, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764265

RESUMO

The presence of bio-macromolecules as major ingredients is a primary factor in marketing many biologically derived macromolecular supplements. Workflows for analyzing these supplements for quality assurance, adulteration, and other supply-chain difficulties must include a qualitative assessment of small-molecule and macromolecular components; however, no such integrated protocol has been reported for these bio-macromolecular supplements. Twenty whey protein supplements were analyzed using an integrated workflow to identify protein content, protein adulteration, inorganic elemental content, and macromolecular and small-molecule profiles. Orthogonal analytical methods were employed, including NMR profiling, LC-DAD-QToF analysis of small-molecule components, ICP-MS analysis of inorganic elements, determination of total protein content by a Bradford assay, SDS-PAGE protein profiling, and bottom-up shotgun proteomic analysis using LC-MS-MS. All 20 supplements showed a reduced protein content compared to the claimed content but no evidence of adulteration with protein from an unclaimed source. Many supplements included unlabeled small-molecule additives (but nontoxic) and significant deviations in metal content, highlighting the importance of both macromolecular and small-molecule analysis in the comprehensive profiling of macromolecular supplements. An orthogonal, integrated workflow allowed the detection of crucial product characteristics that would have remained unidentified using traditional workflows involving either analysis of small-molecule nutritional supplements or protein analysis.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteômica , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/análise , Fluxo de Trabalho
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