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1.
Planta Med ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086389

RESUMO

Moringa oleifera is known as a drumstick tree and is cultivated in the subtropics and tropics. It exhibits antihypertensive and antidiabetic effects. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of 9 phytochemicals in M. oleifera leaves and marketed products. The efficient separation was achieved within 7 min with a temperature of 45 °C by using a C-18 column as the stationary phase and water/acetonitrile with 0.05% formic acid as the mobile phase. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The limits of detections of phenolic compounds 1:  - 9: were as low as 0.2 µg/mL. The photodiode array detector at 220 and 255 nm wavelengths was recruited for quantification. The key phytochemicals were detected in the range of 0.42 to 2.57 mg/100 mg sample weight in 13 dietary supplements. This study considers the quantitative analysis for lignans in M. oleifera for the first time. Isoquercitrin (5: ) and quercetin 3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-ß-D-glucopyranoside (6: ) predominates the leaves of M. oleifera with inherent degradable nature detected for compound 6: . Niazirin (2: ) was detected in amounts between 0.010 - 0.049 mg/100 mg while compound 1: was undetectable and potentially an artifact because of the fractionation process. The characterization and confirmation of components were achieved by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry with extractive ion monitoring for the positive and negative ion modes. The developed and validated method is robust and rapid in the conclusive quantification of phytochemicals and authentication of the Moringa samples for quality assurance.

2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(11): 5143-5150, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124258

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) contamination in the agricultural soils of China is a serious and growing environmental problem that urgently needs to be controlled and completely remediated. The biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and iron (Fe), and the coupled cycles of Fe-N and Fe-S have been reported to control Cd transportation in the soil-rice system. Exploring practical remediation strategies for Cd from the perspective of the application of nutrients such as N, S, and Fe for rice growth is expected to obtain farm-specific and state-of-the-art technologies and products to reduce the accumulation of Cd in rice grains. Using our earlier study as a basis, the rhizosphere bag-pot experiment with ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) and ferric nitrate[Fe(NO3)3] treatments was conducted to investigate Cd bioavailability in rhizosphere soil and Cd translocation in rice plants, and to highlight some possible factors and mechanisms controlling Cd accumulation in rice grains. The results showed that both FeSO4 and Fe(NO3)3 treatments reduced the bioavailable Cd (NH4Ac-Cd) content in rhizosphere soil, with the decreasing extent being significantly lower in the former (55.6%) than in the latter (76.0%). Both FeSO4 and Fe(NO3)3 treatments changed the distribution characteristics of Cd in rice tissues, and the FeSO4 treatment increased the Cd content in brown rice (0.6 mg·kg-1), but the Fe(NO3)3 treatment decreased the Cd content in brown rice (0.1 mg·kg-1). Adsorption or co-precipitation of Cd by iron plaque, increased accumulations of Cd in root, stem, and leaf, and enhanced translocations of Cd from root, stem, and nodule to brown rice occurred with the increased Cd content in brown rice of the FeSO4 treatment. However, the decreased Cd content in brown rice with the Fe(NO3)3 treatment was ascribed to adsorption or co-precipitation of Cd by poorly crystalline Fe oxides and solid Fe sulfides, decreased accumulations of Cd in stem and nodule, and weakened translocations of Cd from root, leaf, and nodule to brown rice. These findings provide a scientific basis for the exploration and application of nutritive soil amendment, and will have significance in regards to the remediation of Cd-contaminated agricultural soils in China.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , China , Compostos Férricos , Compostos Ferrosos , Nitratos , Rizosfera , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
3.
J Ovarian Res ; 13(1): 110, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer (OC) has been regarded as the most malignant gynecological neoplasm and often confers grave outcomes owing to the frequent metastasis and high recurrence. A previous study has demonstrated that miR-1271-5p is implicated in OC progression, however, the possible mechanism of it remains unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to explore how miR-1271-5p regulates the progression of OC. METHODS: Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases were employed to analyze the differentially expressed miRNAs or genes as well as their corresponding prognostic values. miR-1271-5p expression in OC cells was examined by qRT-PCR. Cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8), colony formation, and transwell tests were conducted to evaluate the proliferation, migration and invasion potentials. Bioinformatics prediction and luciferase activity analysis were utilized to predict and verify the target gene of miR-1271-5p. Western blot assay was carried out to measure protein expression. RESULTS: miR-1271-5p was significantly decreased in OC and its down-regulation was associated with the grave outcome of OC patients. Upregulation of miR-1271-5p inhibited cell viability, but miR-1271-5p knockdown promoted the proliferation of OC cells. TIAM1 was a direct target gene of miR-1271-5p and expressed in OC tissues at higher level. High expression of TIAM1 induced the poorer prognosis of patients with OC. Further functional analyses showed that the suppressive role of miR-1271-5p on OC cell malignant behaviors was overturned by the upregulation of TIAM1. The protein levels of Cyclin D1, HES1, NOTCH and NUMB were remarkably changed due to the abnormal expression of miR-1271-5p and TIAM1. CONCLUSION: To sum up, miR-1271-5p inhibits proliferation, invasion and migration of OC cells by directly repressing TIAM1 to inactivate the Notch signaling pathway, which provides an alternative therapeutic candidate for the advancement of OC treatment.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829142

RESUMO

Coffea liberica possesses stimulant properties without accumulating the methylxanthine caffeine. The basis for this peculiar observation is that methylurates (e.g., theacrine and methylliberine) have replaced caffeine. The stimulant properties of methylurates, alone and in combination with caffeine, have recently been investigated. However, human pharmacokinetics and LC-MS/MS methods for simultaneous measurement of methylxanthines and methylurates are lacking. To address this deficiency, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study in which subjects (n = 12) were orally administered caffeine (150 mg), methylliberine (Dynamine™, 100 mg), and theacrine (TeaCrine®, 50 mg) followed by blood sampling over 24 h. Liquid-liquid extraction of plasma samples containing purine alkaloids and internal standard (13C-Caffeine) were analyzed using a C18 reversed-phase column and gradient elution (acetonitrile and water, both containing 0.1% formic acid). A Waters Xevo TQ-S tandem mass spectrometer (positive mode) was used to detect caffeine, methylliberine, theacrine, and IS transitions of m/z 195.11 â†’ 138.01, 225.12 â†’ 168.02, 225.12 â†’ 167.95, and 198.1 â†’ 140.07, respectively. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, selectivity, and linearity and was successfully applied to characterize the oral pharmacokinetics of caffeine, methylliberine, and theacrine in human plasma. Successful development and application of LC-MS/MS-based methods such as ours for the simultaneous measurement of methylxanthines and methylurates are essential for the characterization of potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(9): 2046-2049, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495552

RESUMO

Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex is perennial deciduous arbors, herbaceous medicinal plants are perennial. It is a rational disposition of Chinese materia medica planting colonies by inter cropping of Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex and herbaceous medicinal plants, based on their different plant height. According to the different demand of sunlight in density and periodicity, the heliophilous and shade-requiring plants, perennial arbors and herbaceous, short and long-term growth plants were intercropping in this kind of the ecological planting pattern. It can efficiently enhance the ecological, economic and social benefits by making full use of nutrients and land sources, as well as increasing the biodiversity in Chinese materia medica planting areas.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Plantas Medicinais , Agricultura , Estudos de Viabilidade
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 321, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by an exacerbated but ineffective inflammatory response, which can be classified as primary and secondary HLH. HLH associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncommon. This case report accounted an immunocompetent patient who was confirmed to be Mycobacterium infection, or rather, highly suspected tuberculosis (TB) associated HLH, with a favorable outcome. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old man presented with persistent fever, pancytopenia, and hyperferritinemia. A bone marrow smear demonstrated hemophagocytosis, and pathological examination of lung biopsy was positive for acid-fast bacilli, which established the diagnosis of Mycobacterium infection and HLH. Then the patient treated successfully with anti-TB therapy, along with 8 weeks of etoposide. CONCLUSION: This case emphasizes that HLH should be kept in mind when clinicians encounter a patient with severe infection presenting with pancytopenia and hyperferritinemia. Given the high mortality, early diagnosis and appropriate therapy can provide patients with a favorable prognosis.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/complicações , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Ferritinas/sangue , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/microbiologia , Masculino , Pancitopenia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/microbiologia
7.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(9): e4840, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251526

RESUMO

Vangueria agrestis is a shrub indigenous to tropical Africa, belonging to family Rubiaceae and is traditionally used as a decoction for treatment of fever, pain, and malaria. This study was undertaken to investigate the chemical constituents based on precursor exact mass and fragment ion information. The chemical profiling and structural characteristics of chemical constituents from methanolic extracts of dried aerial parts and roots of V. agrestis and dietary supplements were analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with UNIFI platform and multivariate analysis in both negative and positive ion modes. A non-targeted ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was carried out to profile the chemical constituents of crude extracts of V. agrestis, and 73 compounds, including reference compounds, were identified. The fragments of flavonoids, monoterpene, and triterpene glycosides revealed the characteristic cleavage of glycosidic linkages, and the fragmentation pattern provided the identity of the sugars. This analytical method provides a quick method for quality assessment of dietary supplements. Finally, a chemometrics approach with multivariate statistical tools was used to visualize the differences between root and aerial parts of plant samples and to find the potential chemical markers that differentiate among these parts of V. agrestis samples and dietary supplements.

8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 463-471, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237501

RESUMO

Gastrodia elata is a heterotrophic plant that needed to be symbiotic with Armillaria. The obstacle of continuous cropping in G. elata is serious during the G. elata cultivation, and the mechanism of obstacle in G. elata continuous cropping had not been solved. The planting of G. elata-Phallus impudicus is a new sequential planting pattern adopted in Guizhou province, but the effect of the cultivation on soil microbial community structure is still unclear. In this study, we collected four soil samples for the research including the soil without planted G. elata as control(CK), rhizosphere soil samples tightly adhering to the G. elata surface(GE), rhizosphere soil samples tightly adhering to Armillaria which was symbiotic with G. elata(AGE), the rhizosphere soil of P. impudicus planting after G. elata cultivation(PI). In order to explore the mechanism, the research study on the soil of G. elata-P. impudicus by using ITS and 16 S rDNA high-throughput sequencing technologies to detect soil microbial community structure including fungi and bacteria in the soil of CK, AGE, GE and PI. OTU clustering and PCA analysis of soil samples showed that the soil microbial diversity was relatively similar in AGE and GE. And the soil microbial in PI and CK clustered together. The results showed that AGE and GE had similar soil microbial diversity, as well as PI and CK. Compared with CK, the soil microbial diversity and abundance in AGE and GE were significantly increased. But the microbial diversity and abundance decreased in PI compared with AGE and GE. The annotation indicated that the abundance of Basidiomycota, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi decreased, and that of Ascomycota, Zygomycota and Proteobacteria increased in AGE and GE compared with CK. In contrast to AGE and GE, PI was the opposite. The abundance of Basidiomycota, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi increased in PI compared with AGE and GE. The abundance of microorganisms in the soil of PI and CK was similar. In addition, the co-culture of Armillaria and P. impudicus indicated that P. impudicus had obvious antagonistic effects on the growth of Armillaria. Therefore, it is speculated that the mechanism of G. elata-P. impudicus planting pattern related to the change of soil microbial. And we supposed that P. impudicus might inhibit the growth of Armillaria and change the soil microbial community structure and the abundance of soil microbial. And the soil microbial community structure was restored to a state close to that of uncultivated G. elata. Thus, the structure of soil microbial community planting G. elata could be restored by P. impudicus planting.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gastrodia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Fungos/classificação , Gastrodia/microbiologia , Rizosfera
9.
Phytochemistry ; 175: 112367, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339958

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of Glandularia x hybrida roots resulted in the isolation and identification of five previously undescribed saponins, 3-O-ß-ᴅ-xylopyranosyl-hederagenin-28-O-ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-O-ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-ß-ᴅ-xylopyranosyl-hederagenin-28-O-ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-[ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl (1→6)]-ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl ester, hederagenin-28-O-ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-[ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl (1→6)]-ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl ester, 23-O-acetyl-3-O-ß-ᴅ-xylopyranosyl-pomolic acid-28-O-ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl ester, and 23-O-acetyl-pomolic acid-3-O-ß-ᴅ-xylopyranoside, along with eleven structurally diverse compounds. The structural characterizations of the isolated compounds were determined using physical data, comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis, and HRESIMS. All isolated saponins are hederagenin or pomolic acid glycosides conjugated with differentiable sugar units bound to C-3 and/or C-28 of the aglycone through ether and/or ester glycosidic linkages, respectively. Structural diversity of these isolated secondary metabolites would have a great impact on the future chemosystematic studies of this plant. Four saponins, obtained in good yield were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities in a rat model using the carrageenan-induced paw edema protocol. Two of these exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activities demonstrated through inhibition of the paw edema by 64 and 60%.


Assuntos
Saponinas , Triterpenos , Verbenaceae , Animais , Glicosídeos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Raízes de Plantas , Ratos
10.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213805

RESUMO

Avocado oil is prized for its high nutritional value due to the substantial amounts of triglycerides (TGs) and unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) present. While avocado oil is traditionally extracted from mature fruit flesh, alternative sources such as avocado seed oil have recently increased in popularity. Unfortunately, sufficient evidence is not available to support the claimed health benefit and safe use of such oils. To address potential quality issues and identify possible adulteration, authenticated avocado oils extracted from the fruit peel, pulp and seed by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), as well as commercial avocado pulp and seed oils sold in US market were analyzed for TGs and FAs in the present study. Characterization and quantification of TGs were conducted using UHPLC/ESI-MS. Thirteen TGs containing saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in avocado oils were unambiguously identified. Compared to traditional analytical methods, which are based only on the relative areas of chromatographic peaks neglecting the differences in the relative response of individual TG, our method improved the quantification of TGs by using the reference standards whenever possible or the reference standards with the same equivalent carbon number (ECN). To verify the precision and accuracy of the UHPLC/ESI-MS method, the hydrolysis and transesterification products of avocado oil were analyzed for fatty acid methyl esters using a GC/MS method. The concentrations of individual FA were calculated, and the results agreed with the UHPLC/ESI-MS method. Although chemical profiles of avocado oils from pulp and peel are very similar, a significant difference was observed for the seed oil. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on TG and FA compositional data allowed correct identification of individual avocado oil and detection of possible adulteration.

11.
Planta Med ; 86(7): 489-495, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219777

RESUMO

The hepatotoxic potential of the methanolic extract of the stems of Tinospora crispa and of its furano-diterpenoid-borapetosides B, C, and F-was investigated in normal and health-compromised mice. Health-compromised condition was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (6 mg/kg). Two different sets of experiments were conducted to evaluate the hepatotoxic potential. A 21-day study where the mice were dosed with the extract of T. crispa (1 gm/kg b. wt./day) or standardized combination of borapetosides B, C and F (500 mg/kg b. wt.) with or without a single dose of LPS (1 gm/kg b. wt./day). In the acute toxicity study, mice were dosed with borapetosides B, C, and F (500 mg/kg b. wt.). Results showed that the ALT levels were normal and liver histopathology unaltered. No conclusive hepatotoxicity was observed in the methanolic extract or pure compounds tested under the given experimental conditions.


Assuntos
Tinospora , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais
12.
J Altern Complement Med ; 26(4): 265-272, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119795

RESUMO

Background: Dietary supplements targeting brain health have quickly emerged in the marketplace as cognitive performance becomes an important public health issue. While manufacturers are required to report the exact ingredients and formulations listed on the Supplement Facts labels of products, many reports have indicated such labels are not always truthful, and the content of some products is inconsistent with the ingredients listed on the Supplement Facts label. Objectives: To identify dietary supplement products and ingredients marketed for brain health and cognitive performance and perform analyses of select products to verify whether purported claims are truthful and product labels accurate. Design: A scoping review was performed to identify products and ingredients. Products were selected for content analysis, investigated for scientific-sounding claims made, and assessed using an educational tool for potential red flags when reading Supplement Facts labels. Results: Twelve products were selected from the 650 products being marketed for brain health and queried about by Service Members. Eight (67%) had at least one ingredient listed on the Supplement Facts label not detected through analysis. Compounds not reported on the label were detected in 10 (83%) products. Scientific-sounding claims made are not supported by science and red flags are presented. Conclusions: There are dietary supplements targeting brain health being marketed to consumers that should be considered adulterated and misbranded. Advertisements and product labels may be deceiving and could put the public at risk. Education is required so that the public can recognize red flags while the U.S. Food and Drug Administration works to "modernize" the current regulations for dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Estados Unidos
13.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 14, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of free tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment, TB care still generates substantial costs that push people into poverty. We investigated out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for TB care and assessed the resulting economic burden and economic consequences for those with varying levels of household income in eastern China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among TB patients in the national TB programme networks in eastern China. TB-related direct OOP costs, time loss, and coping strategies were investigated across households in different economic strata. Analysis of Variance was used to examine the differences in various costs, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the difference in total costs as a percentage of annual household income. RESULTS: Among 435 patients, the mean OOP total costs of TB care were USD 2389.5. In the lower-income quartile, OOP payments were lower, but costs as a percentage of reported annual household income were higher. Medical costs and costs prior to treatment accounted for 66.4 and 48.9% of the total costs, respectively. The lower the household income was, the higher the proportion of medical costs to total costs before TB treatment, but the lower the proportion of medical costs patients spent in the intensive phase. TB care caused 25.8% of TB-affected households to fall below the poverty line and caused the poverty gap (PG) to increase by United States Dollar (USD) 145.6. Patients in the poorest households had the highest poverty headcount ratio (70.2%) and PG (USD 236.1), but those in moderately poor households had the largest increase in the poverty headcount ratio (36.2%) and PG (USD 177.8) due to TB care. Patients from poor households were more likely to borrow money to cope with the costs of TB care; however, there were fewer social consequences, except for food insecurity, in poor households. CONCLUSIONS: Medical and pretreatment costs lead to high costs of TB care, especially among patients from the poorest households. It is necessary to train health system staff in general hospitals to promptly identify and refer TB patients. Pro-poor programmes are also needed to protect TB patients from the medical poverty trap.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Seguro Saúde/economia , Pobreza , Tuberculose/economia , Adulto , China , Feminino , Financiamento Pessoal , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126246, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097811

RESUMO

A piscicide, rotenone (RT), is frequently used for clear and management of aquatic systems such as fish pond, and even for illegal fishing throughout the world. The effects of RT on submerged macrophytes remain elusive although the effects of RT on many kinds of animals are well documented. We wanted to determine the effects of RT on the growth and metabolism of three submerged plants (Vallisneria natans, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton maackianus) and try to find the reasons of these effects. The results showed that the shoot height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, root:shoot ratios, contents of soluble protein and soluble carbohydrate of the three tested submerged plants were significantly negatively affected by RT and the effects were different among the studied species. Furthermore, pH rised a little and light transmission was greatly reduced in the water with RT treatment. We think that the negative effects of RT on the growth and metabolism of submerged species is partially attributing to the lower light caused by RT application. Accordingly, we highlight that submerged species may be greatly suppressed by RT, and we should apply RT in water ecosystems with great caution.


Assuntos
Hydrocharitaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Potamogetonaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Rotenona/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Hydrocharitaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hydrocharitaceae/metabolismo , Potamogetonaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/metabolismo
15.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 58(10): 991-996, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990212

RESUMO

Context: Public health concerns are emerging surrounding huperzine A commonly found in dietary supplements. We sought to determine the actual content of products claiming to contain huperzine A and whether the ingredients on the supplement facts labels matched the analyses.Methods: We identified and analyzed 22 dietary supplement products listing huperzine A on product labels. We found these products were listed in Natural Medicines and Dietary Supplement Databases and being queried by Military Service Members for enhanced mental focus, alertness and energy. Analyses were conducted by using Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.Results: Sixteen (73%) products had at least one ingredient claimed on the supplement facts label not detected through analysis. Compounds not reported on the label were detected in 16 (73%) products analyzed. Nine products (41%) listed ingredients not meeting the regulations for being a dietary supplement ingredient according to the FDA. Ingredients of most concern detected include stimulants: demelverine, 1,5-dimethylhexylamine, 1,3-dimethylhexylamine, N-phenethyl dimethylamine, halostachine, higenamine, noopept, ß-PEA, vinpocetine, sulbutiamine; and hordenine, currently on the FDA advisory list. Quantitative analysis showed the presence of huperzine A in the range from detected under the limits of quantification (DUL) to 267.1 µg/serving. Only two supplements showed huperzine A content within 10% of the declared amount.Conclusions: In a study of dietary supplements claiming to contain huperzine A, we found products that had at least one ingredient claimed on the supplement facts label not detected through analysis. Moreover, some ingredients not on the label could be dangerous and likely do not meet the definition of a dietary supplement ingredient according to the FDA. Quantitative analysis of huperzine A showed the amount detected was not in line with what appeared on the product label. Consumers should be aware of deceptive label claims and warned not to purchase products containing potentially dangerous ingredients.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(11): 1673-1676, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939454

RESUMO

Methylene blue (MB) with a 10-N-carbamoyl linkage was discovered and developed as a multifunctional far-red (660 nm) photocleavable ligand capable of rendering a series of MB-conjugated compounds with off-to-on fluorescence switch properties through the controlled release of MB.

17.
Phytochemistry ; 172: 112273, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981957

RESUMO

Eleven diarylpentanoid/norlignan glucosides, along with five other specialized metabolites, were isolated and characterized from the hydro-alcoholic extract of Hypoxis hemerocallidea corms. Hypoxhemerolosides A-F were found to be undescribed compounds. Curcapicycloside was isolated and identified for the first time in its original form, previously it was reported as a methylated derivative. In addition, (1S,2R)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-ß-D-glucopyranoxy-3-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methoxypent-4-yn-2-ol and (1S,2R)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-ethoxy-5-(4-ß-D-glucopyranoxy-3-hydroxyphenyl)pent-4-yn-2-ol were isolated and characterized as artifacts, generated during extraction/isolation procedures from possible 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-ß-D-glucopyranoxy-3-hydroxyphenyl)pent-4-yne-1,2-diol. Structure elucidation was mainly achieved by the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS data. The isolated compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity in terms of iNOS and NF-κB inhibition as well as for cytotoxicity. Hypoxhemerolosides C-E and obtuside A moderately inhibited nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7).


Assuntos
Hypoxis , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Glucosídeos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B , Óxido Nítrico , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II , Extratos Vegetais
18.
Planta Med ; 86(2): 144-150, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766069

RESUMO

A UHPLC-photodiode array-MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of one chromone and six anthraquinone type of compounds from Bulbine natalensis plant samples and dietary supplements. Metabolites 1:  -  7: were identified based on their retention times and electrospray ionization-MS spectra compared with a mix of previously isolated compounds. The quantification of 1:  -  7: was based on photodiode array detection. The optimized separation was achieved using a CORTECS C18 column with a gradient of water/acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Seven compounds were separated within 15 minutes with detection limits of 50 pg on the column. The analytical method was validated for linearity, repeatability, accuracy, limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day experiments were less than 5% and the recovery efficiency was 98 - 101%. Nine dietary supplements labeled as containing B. natalensis were examined. Anthraquinone-type compounds were detected in only five out of nine dietary supplements, with the total amount ranging from 11.3 to 90.4 mg per daily dose. The analytical method is simple, economic, rapid, and can be applied for quality assessment of B. natalensis and dietary supplements. Electrospray ionization-MS was used for the identification of these compounds in plant samples and dietary products.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Xanthorrhoeaceae/química , Limite de Detecção , Estrutura Molecular
19.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112843, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509788

RESUMO

An UHPLC method was developed for the determination of 15 prenylflavonoids from aerial parts of Epimedium grandiflorum and related species (Berberidaceae). The separation was achieved using a reverse phased column and water/acetonitrile gradient as a mobile phase at a temperature of 40°C. The developed analytical method was validated for linearity, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ), stability and repeatability. The LOD and LOQ were found to be in the range from 0.1-0.5 µg/mL and 0.3-1 µg/mL, respectively. The wavelength used for quantification with the photodiode array detector was 269 nm. The total content of 15 prenylflavonoids was 9.1-20.6 mg/g for E. grandiflorum (except for sample #2899 and #20862), 5.6-35.4 mg/g for E. brevicornu and 10.8-30.5 mg/g for E. sagittatum. Twenty dietary supplements contained in the range from 0.1 to 81.7 mg/day. The developed method is simple, rapid and especially suitable for quality assessment of E. grandiflorum and dietary supplements containing E. grandiflorum. Liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QToF) is described for the identification and confirmation of compounds in plant samples and dietary supplements. This technique is also used for chemical profiling of Epimedium samples. This method involved the use of protonated ions in the positive ion mode and deprotonated ions in the negative ion mode with extracted ion chromatogram (EIC). Chemometric analytical tools for visualizing the plant and commercial samples quality were used for discriminating between Epimedium species and dietary supplements with regards to the relative content or presence of components. A HPTLC method was also developed for the fast chemical fingerprint analysis of Epimedium species.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Epimedium/química , Flavonoides/análise , Controle de Qualidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Flavonoides/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
20.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 178: 112894, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606561

RESUMO

Tinospora species are morphologically similar. Several cases of human toxicity have been reported in association with T. crispa. A chemical fingerprint was developed to differentiate T. crispa from its closely related species and to quantitate its major furanoditerpenes namely as borapetosides B, C and F. The rapid, sensitive and repeatable method was established using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and single quadrupole electrospray mass spectrometry detectors using a flavonoid, two alkaloids, an amide and six diterpenoids. Qualitative and quantitative determination was performed by UHPLC-UV and confirmed by MS. The intra-day RSD for replicates was between 0.9 and 6.8% and inter-day RSD was between 1.2 and 9.1%. Recovery was 97-103 %. The method is useful to achieve decisiveness in not only identifying but also differentiating T. crispa from T. sinensis and other closely related Tinospora species. Seventeen Tinospora plant samples and seventeen dietary supplements claiming T. crispa, T. sinensis and T. cordifolia were analyzed. The newly developed and validated method successfully resulted in the conclusive identification of two dietary supplements to be mislabeled.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Tinospora/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
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