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1.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 114772, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454359

RESUMO

The effects and mechanisms of biochars with different silicon (Si) contents on Cadmium (Cd) uptake, translocation and accumulation in rice plants are not fully understood. Herein, we report a pot study to disentangle the interaction mechanisms of Si-rich biochars (Sichar RH300, RH700) and Si-deficient biochars (WB300, WB700) with high-Si soil (HSS) and low-Si soil (LSS) on Cadmium (Cd) and Si accumulation in rice (including grains, straw, and roots). Sichar was found to be better than Si-deficient biochars in reducing Cd uptake and accumulation in rice, and RH300 amendment was better than the RH700 treatment. The surface complexation of Cd with carboxyl groups and Si from biochar led Cd immobilization in soil, as portrayed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The high Si content of biochars indicates a relatively lower bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor of Cd. The Sichar (e.g., RH300) treatment significantly increases the silicon concentration in rice (including grains, straw, and roots), but the Si concentrations of rice grains and roots decrease with WB700-amended LSS. Negative correlations between the concentrations of rice Si and Cd were observed, which could be related to lower expression as observed by Si transport genes (Lsi1 and Lsi3) in rice by Sichar amendment. These findings suggest that the Si released from Sichars can reduce the gene expression of Si transport channel of rice roots and inhibit the transport channel of Si, thus thereby inhibiting the Cd uptake, probably due to the utilization of same channel for Cd and Si. Integrative mechanisms of Sichar (RH300 and RH700) reduced Cd plant accumulation can be proposed by soil immobilization, inhibition of root transport, and prevention of plant translocation.

2.
Cell Rep ; 30(1): 25-36.e6, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914391

RESUMO

Known as a histone H3K9 methyltransferase, SETDB1 is essential for embryonic development and pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) establishment. However, its function in pluripotency regulation remains elusive. In this study, we find that under the "ground state" of pluripotency with two inhibitors (2i) of the MEK and GSK3 pathways, Setdb1-knockout fails to induce trophectoderm (TE) differentiation as in serum/LIF (SL), indicating that TE fate restriction is not the direct target of SETDB1. In both conditions, Setdb1-knockout activates a group of genes targeted by SETDB1-mediated H3K9 methylation, including Dux. Notably, Dux is indispensable for the reactivation of 2C-like state genes upon Setdb1 deficiency, delineating the mechanistic role of SETDB1 in totipotency restriction. Furthermore, Setdb1-null ESCs maintain pluripotent marker (e.g., Nanog) expression in the 2i condition. This "ground state" Setdb1-null population undergoes rapid cell death by activating Ripk3 and, subsequently, RIPK1/RIPK3-dependent necroptosis. These results reveal the essential role of Setdb1 between totipotency and pluripotency transition.

3.
Autophagy ; 16(3): 562-574, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234709

RESUMO

Selective elimination of mitochondria by autophagy is a critical strategy for a variety of physiological processes, including development, cell-fate determination and stress response. Although several mechanisms have been identified as responsible for selective degradation of mitochondria, such as the PINK1-PRKN/PARKIN- and receptor-dependent pathways, aspects of the mechanisms and particularly the principles underlying the selection process of mitochondria remain obscure. Here, we addressed a new selection strategy in which the selective elimination of mitochondria is dependent on organellar topology. We found that populations of mitochondria undergo different topological transformations under serum starvation, either swelling or forming donut shapes. Swollen mitochondria are associated with mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and PRKN recruitment, which promote their selective elimination, while the donut topology maintains mitochondrial membrane potential and helps mitochondria resist autophagy. Mechanistic studies show that donuts resist autophagy even after depolarization through preventing recruitment of autophagosome receptors CALCOCO2/NDP52 and OPTN even after PRKN recruitment. Our results demonstrate topology-dependent, bifurcated mitochondrial recycling under starvation, that is swollen mitochondria undergo removal by autophagy, while donut mitochondria undergo fission and fusion cycles for reintegration. This study reveals a novel morphological selection for control of mitochondrial quality and quantity under starvation.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113409, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672365

RESUMO

As a soil amendment, the prospect of biochar application is excellent. However, environmental risks of biochar need to be investigated for its substantial use. The environmental risks of BNPs need urgent attention because at present little knowledge is available. Therefore, the effects of six types of BNPs on seed germination and growth of rice, tomato and reed seedlings were investigated. The BNPs were collected from biochars derived from two feedstocks (rice straw and wood sawdust) under 300 °C (low-temperature), 500 °C (mid-temperature) and 700 °C (high-temperature). The BNPs collected from high-temperature biochar inhibited seed germination of rice. However, all of the BNPs had a stimulating effect on rice seedling growth that significantly increasing the length of its root and shoot. Furthermore, the BNPs collected from high-temperature biochar and lignin-rich feedstock had an inhibiting effect on reed that dramatically decreased shoot length and biomass. Inhibitory effects of BNPs were caused not only by phenolic compounds on its surface, but also by the blocking effect on epidermal openings resulting in a reduced transfer of nutrients and water. No evidence was found that BNPs would affect the seed gemination and seedling growth of tomato plants. This study indicates that the eco-toxicity of BNPs is a potential environmental risk of biochar. Our findings provide new evidence for the necessity of establishing environmental risk management of biochar.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/toxicidade , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Lignina , Nanopartículas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes , Solo , Temperatura , Água , Madeira
5.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 113(3): 377-388, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630297

RESUMO

Acne is a common inflammatory skin disease, especially in adolescents. Certain Cutibacterium acnes subtypes are associated with acne, although more than one subtype of C. acnes strains may simultaneously reside on the surface of the skin of an individual. To better understand the relationship between the genomic characteristics of C. acnes subtypes and acnes, we collected 50 C. acnes strains from the facial skin of 10 people (5 healthy individuals, 5 patients with acne) in Liaoning, China and performed whole genome sequencing of all strains. We demonstrated that the six potential pathogenic C. acnes strains were all Type II subtype, and discovered 90 unique genes of the six strains related to acne using pan-genome analysis. The distribution of 2 of the 90 genes was identified by PCR in bacterial cultures collected from the facial skin of 171 individuals (55 healthy individuals, 52 patients with mild acne and 64 patients with moderate to severe acne). Both the genes were significantly associated with acne (Chi square test, P < 0.01). We conclude that Type II strains are associated with acne in Chinese patients.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 58(24): 16722-16726, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773950

RESUMO

For the first time, Th@Td(19151)-C76, a highly symmetric C76 cage encapsulating an actinide metal ion, has been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The single-crystal crystallographic analysis unambiguously assigned the fullerene cage as Td(19151)-C76 and confirmed Th@Td(19151)-C76 as the first IPR (isolated-pentagon rule) C76-based monometallofullerene. The crystallographic results further revealed that the optimal Th site resides over a sumanene-type hexagon, similar to that of the Th@C1(11)-C86 but different from the previously reported Th@C3v(8)-C82. In addition, electrochemical study found that Th@Td(19151)-C76 processes an unusually low first oxidation potential (0.03 V), suggesting its strong electron donating ability.

7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(23): 13570-13582, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657912

RESUMO

Biochar is increasingly gaining attention for its potential environmental benefits. In addition to carbon (C), silicon (Si) is a major elemental component in biochar with abundant precursor sources and remarkable properties. Due to the abundance and utilization of silicon-rich biochar (Sichar), as well as the significant function of Si in agricultural production and environmental remediation, it is indispensable to understand the environmental effects of Si within Sichar. Therefore, this review focused on carbon-silicon coupling in Sichar and summarized the advanced studies on Si within Sichar regarding characterization, soil improvement, pollution remediation, and C-Si coupling interactions. After an understanding of Si content, morphology, species and releasing behaviors, the environmental effects on soil Si balance, the plant uptake of Si, and remediation potentials of inorganic pollutants (Al, As, Cd, and Cr) were summarized. The C-Si coupling interactions were highlighted in the processes of Sichar preparation, pollution remediation, and soil C sequestration. The coupling relationship of C and Si from biomass under natural, pyrolysis and geological processes for the biogeochemical cycling of C and Si can obtain four "F" benefits of farm, food, fuel, and finance. To better understand the environmental effects and maximize the benefits of the designed utilization of Sichar, more investigations are required with an extension to microbes and more interactions with different ions via quantitative modeling.


Assuntos
Carbono , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Carvão Vegetal , Silício , Solo
8.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(20): 1901352, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637168

RESUMO

A new class of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) based on Dy-oxide clusterfullerenes is synthesized. Three isomers of Dy2O@C82 with C s(6), C 3v(8), and C 2v(9) cage symmetries are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which shows that the endohedral Dy-(µ2-O)-Dy cluster has bent shape with very short Dy-O bonds. Dy2O@C82 isomers show SMM behavior with broad magnetic hysteresis, but the temperature and magnetization relaxation depend strongly on the fullerene cage. The short Dy-O distances and the large negative charge of the oxide ion in Dy2O@C82 result in the very strong magnetic anisotropy of Dy ions. Their magnetic moments are aligned along the Dy-O bonds and are antiferromagnetically (AFM) coupled. At low temperatures, relaxation of magnetization in Dy2O@C82 proceeds via the ferromagnetically (FM)-coupled excited state, giving Arrhenius behavior with the effective barriers equal to the AFM-FM energy difference. The AFM-FM energy differences of 5.4-12.9 cm-1 in Dy2O@C82 are considerably larger than in SMMs with {Dy2O2} bridges, and the Dy∙∙∙Dy exchange coupling in Dy2O@C82 is the strongest among all dinuclear Dy SMMs with diamagnetic bridges. Dy-oxide clusterfullerenes provide a playground for the further tuning of molecular magnetism via variation of the size and shape of the fullerene cage.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(63): 9271-9274, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298675

RESUMO

A novel actinide endohedral fullerene with an unexpected chiral cage, Th@C1(11)-C86, was synthesized and characterized. DFT calculations suggest that this low symmetry cage was favoured as a consequence of the strong interaction between Th and the cage, which makes the predictions by the ionic model less reliable for these endohedral mono-metallofullerenes.

10.
Cell Rep ; 27(12): 3473-3485.e5, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216469

RESUMO

Reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotency by Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and Myc represent a paradigm for cell fate determination. Here, we report a combination of Jdp2, Jhdm1b, Mkk6, Glis1, Nanog, Essrb, and Sall4 (7F) that reprogram mouse embryonic fibroblasts or MEFs to chimera competent induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) efficiently. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and ATAC-seq reveal distinct mechanisms for 7F induction of pluripotency. Dropout experiments further reveal a highly cooperative process among 7F to dynamically close and open chromatin loci that encode a network of transcription factors to mediate reprogramming. These results establish an alternative paradigm for reprogramming that may be useful for analyzing cell fate control.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 248: 823-833, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856498

RESUMO

For the soil-plant ecosystem, knowledge about the effects of biochars on the soil silicon (Si) cycle is still tenuous. In this study, the effect of biochars on the yield, Si uptake and Si distribution within different tissues of rice plants and the soil Si cycles in a soil-plant system were investigated. Si-rich (RH300-700) and Si-deficient (WB300-700) biochars prepared from rice husk and wood sawdust were applied to high-Si soil (HSS) and low-Si soil (LSS). Biochar addition increased the yield of grain and straw and had no effect on the yield of root, and the increase in the yield with Si-rich biochars was obvious; this effect had a high response to LSS. Si-rich biochars increased the plant Si content of grain and root and had no effect on straw. RH300 amendment increased the Si concentration in grains, compared to RH500 and RH700. The addition of Si-deficient biochar to HSS had little effect on the Si content, while Si-deficient biochar-amended LSS had a great impact on the reduced Si content in rice straw and root, and WB700 decreased the Si concentration in grains, compared to WB300 and WB500. Finally, the Si-rich biochars increased the total Si uptake within rice, while Si-deficient biochars decreased the total Si uptake in LSS. According to the FTIR and SEM-EDX spectra of biochars before and after rice harvest, a new band of SiOSi at 471 cm-1 was found after aged WB700, and the minerals of iron and Si were found on the surface of aged WB700; biochars can fix the dissolved Si on its surface as a temporary store to prevent Si loss. Therefore, biochars can be considered reservoirs of soil Si, which is a slow release source of available Si, to impact the speed of biogeochemical cycling of soil Si in agricultural paddy soil.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Grão Comestível/química , Oryza/química , Silício/química , Solo/química , Ecossistema , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Silício/metabolismo
12.
Apoptosis ; 24(3-4): 312-325, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710195

RESUMO

Gasdermin E (GSDME) has an important role in inducing secondary necrosis/pyroptosis. Upon apoptotic stimulation, it can be cleaved by activated caspase-3 to generate its N-terminal fragment (GSDME-NT), which executes pyroptosis by perforating the plasma membrane. GSDME is expressed in many human lung cancers including A549 cells. Paclitaxel and cisplatin are two representative chemotherapeutic agents for lung cancers, which induce apoptosis via different action mechanisms. However, it remains unclear whether they can induce GSDME-mediated secondary necrosis/pyroptosis in lung A549 cancer cells. Here we showed that both paclitaxel and cisplatin evidently induced apoptosis in A549 cells as revealed by the activation of multiple apoptotic markers. Notably, some of the dying cells displayed characteristic morphology of secondary necrosis/pyroptosis, by blowing large bubbles from the cellular membrane accompanied by caspase-3 activation and GSDME-NT generation. But the ability of cisplatin to induce this phenomenon was much stronger than that of paclitaxel. Consistent with this, cisplatin triggered much higher activation of caspase-3 and generation of GSDME-NT than paclitaxel, suggesting that the levels of secondary necrosis/pyroptosis correlated with the levels of active caspase-3 and GSDME-NT. Supporting this, caspase-3 specific inhibitor (Ac-DEVD-CHO) suppressed cisplatin-induced GSDME-NT generation and concurrently reduced the secondary necrosis/pyroptosis. Besides, GSDME knockdown significantly inhibited cisplatin- but not paclitaxel-induced secondary necrosis/pyroptosis. These results indicated that cisplatin induced higher levels of secondary necrosis/pyroptosis in A549 cells than paclitaxel, suggesting that cisplatin may provide additional advantages in the treatment of lung cancers with high levels of GSDME expression.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Células A549 , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Necrose/tratamento farmacológico , Necrose/metabolismo
14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(51): 18039-18050, 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453733

RESUMO

For the first time, actinide endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) with non-isolated-pentagon-rule (non-IPR) carbon cages, U@C80, Th@C80, and U@C76, have been successfully synthesized and fully characterized by mass spectrometry, single crystal X-ray diffractometry, UV-vis-NIR and Raman spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Crystallographic analysis revealed that the U@C80 and Th@C80 share the same non-IPR cage of C1(28324)-C80, and U@C76 was assigned to non-IPR U@ C1(17418)-C76. All of these cages are chiral and have never been reported before. Further structural analyses show that enantiomers of C1(17418)-C76 and C1(28324)-C80 share a significant continuous portion of the cage and are topologically connected by only two C2 insertions. DFT calculations show that the stabilization of these unique non-IPR fullerenes originates from a four-electron transfer, a significant degree of covalency, and the resulting strong host-guest interactions between the actinide ions and the fullerene cages. Moreover, because the actinide ion displays high mobility within the fullerene, both the symmetry of the carbon cage and the possibility of forming chiral fullerenes play important roles to determine the isomer abundances at temperatures of fullerene formation. This study provides what is probably one of the most complete examples in which carbon cage selection occurs through thermodynamic control at high temperatures, so the selected cages do not necessarily coincide with the most stable ones at room temperature. This work also demonstrated that the metal-cage interactions in actinide EMFs show remarkable differences from those previously known for lanthanide EMFs. These unique interactions not only could stabilize new carbon cage structures, but more importantly, they lead to a new family of metallofullerenes for which the cage selection pattern is different to that observed so far for nonactinide EMFs. For this new family, the simple ionic A q+@C2 n q- model makes predictions less reliable, and in general, unambiguously discerning the isolated structures requires the combination of accurate computational and experimental data.

15.
Cell Metab ; 28(6): 935-945.e5, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174306

RESUMO

Reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells reconfigures chromatin modifications. Whether and how this process is regulated by signals originating in the mitochondria remain unknown. Here we show that the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), a key regulator of mitochondrial homeostasis, undergoes short-term opening during the early phase of reprogramming and that this transient activation enhances reprogramming. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts, greater mPTP opening correlates with higher reprogramming efficiency. The reprogramming-promoting function of mPTP opening is mediated by plant homeodomain finger protein 8 (PHF8) demethylation of H3K9me2 and H3K27me3, leading to reduction in their occupancies at the promoter regions of pluripotency genes. mPTP opening increases PHF8 protein levels downstream of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and miR-101c and simultaneously elevates levels of PHF8's cofactor, α-ketoglutarate. Our findings represent a novel mitochondria-to-nucleus pathway in cell fate determination by mPTP-mediated epigenetic regulation.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/metabolismo , Metilação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
Inorg Chem ; 57(18): 11597-11605, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156833

RESUMO

Mixed-metal cluster fullerenes have been extensively studied in recent years for their rich structural variability of the encaged clusters and have shown great potential in applied studies such as biomedicine and molecular electronic devices. However, the studies in this field have mostly concentrated on the nitride cluster fullerene, and very few other types of mixed-metal cluster fullerenes have been reported so far. Herein, we report the synthesis and isolation of the first mixed-metal oxide cluster fullerene, ScGdO@C82, and a novel mixed dimetallic carbide cluster fullerene, ScGdC2@C82. Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations assigned the molecular structure of the two cluster fullerenes (CFs) to ScGdO@ C3v(8)-C82 and ScGdC2@ C2v(9)-C82, respectively. DFT calculations also suggested that these two mixed-metal clusters are likely to be found in any of the three isolated pentagon rule Cs(6)-C82, C3v(8)-C82 and/or C2v(9)-C82 cages. The electrochemical studies show that the electrochemical gap of ScGdO@ C3v(8)-C82 and ScGdC2@ C2v(9)-C82 are 1.49 and 1.08 V. Moreover, comparative studies of ScGdO@ C3v(8)-C82 and Sc2O@ C3v(8)-C82, ScGdC2@ C2v(9)-C82 and Sc2C2@ C2v(9)-C82 showed that, despite their close structural resemblance, the replacement of one Sc ion by a Gd ion resulted in notable changes in their electrochemical behaviors as well as their 45Sc NMR spectra.

17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2753, 2018 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013067

RESUMO

Unsupported non-bridged uranium-carbon double bonds have long been sought after in actinide chemistry as fundamental synthetic targets in the study of actinide-ligand multiple bonding. Here we report that, utilizing Ih(7)-C80 fullerenes as nanocontainers, a diuranium carbide cluster, U=C=U, has been encapsulated and stabilized in the form of UCU@Ih(7)-C80. This endohedral fullerene was prepared utilizing the Krätschmer-Huffman arc discharge method, and was then co-crystallized with nickel(II) octaethylporphyrin (NiII-OEP) to produce UCU@Ih(7)-C80·[NiII-OEP] as single crystals. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals a cage-stabilized, carbide-bridged, bent UCU cluster with unexpectedly short uranium-carbon distances (2.03 Å) indicative of covalent U=C double-bond character. The quantum-chemical results suggest that both U atoms in the UCU unit have formal oxidation state of +5. The structural features of UCU@Ih(7)-C80 and the covalent nature of the U(f1)=C double bonds were further affirmed through various spectroscopic and theoretical analyses.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8040, 2018 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795122

RESUMO

Effects of biochars on soil silicon dissolution kinetics remain unaddressed. Si-rich rice husk (RH) and rice straw (RS), and Si-deficient wood sawdust (WB) and orange peel (OP) were applied to prepare biochars at 300-700 °C. The silicon dissolution of Si-rich biochars was relatively high in comparison with Si-deficient biochars, and increased with the pyrolysis temperature. The mechanism of silicon release is suggested to be controlled by a protective carbon-silicon interaction, as accompanied by carbon release. After mixing with soil, the addition of Si-rich biochar leads up to 72.7-121% improvement in silicon dissolution in a high-silicon soil (HSS) compared to 147-243% improvement in a low-silicon soil (LSS). The total cumulative amount of silicon dissolved decreased compared to the theoretical value due to the adsorption of silicic acid by the biochar. The addition of WB700 or OP700 as Si-deficient biochars leads to a cumulative Si dissolution decrease of 15.7 and 12.1%, respectively. The adsorption of silicic acid in the biochar and the protection of soil dissolved Fe make biochar a reservoir of soil silicon. Thus, Si-rich biochar could serve as a source of Si with slow release, while Si-deficient biochar could serve as an extra Si sink in agricultural paddy soil.

19.
Org Biomol Chem ; 16(11): 1971-1975, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498392

RESUMO

A metal-free protocol of direct C(sp3)-H cyanation with cyanobenziodoxolones functioning as both cyanating reagents and oxidants was developed. Unactivated substrates, such as alkanes, ethers and tertiary amines, were thereby transformed to the corresponding nitriles in moderate to high yields. Mechanistic studies indicated that the cyanation proceeded with two potential pathways, which is highly dependent on the substrates: (1) a free radical case for alkanes and ethers and (2) an oxidative case for tertiary amines.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 758, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29335453

RESUMO

Lipases are scarcely exploited as feed enzymes in hydrolysis of lipids for increasing energy supply and improving nutrient use efficiency. In this work, we performed homologous overexpression, in vitro characterization and in vivo assessment of a lipase from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for feed purpose. Simultaneously, a large amount of yeast cell biomass was produced, for use as single cell protein, a potential protein-rich feed resource. Three kinds of low cost agro-industrial wastes were tested as substrates for simultaneous production of lipase and single cell protein (SCP) as feed additives: sugarcane molasses, waste cooking oil and crude glycerol from biodiesel production. Sugarcane molasses appeared as the most effective cheap medium, allowing production of 16420 U/ml of lipase and 151.2 g/L of single cell protein at 10 liter fermentation scale. In vitro characterization by mimicking a gastro-intestinal environment and determination of essential amino acids of the SCP, and in vivo oral feeding test on fish all revealed that lipase, SCP and their combination were excellent feed additives. Such simultaneous production of this lipase and SCP could address two main concerns of feed industry, poor utilization of lipid and shortage of protein resource at the same time.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Resíduos Industriais , Lipase/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Yarrowia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Glicerol/metabolismo , Lipase/genética , Melaço , Óleos/metabolismo , Saccharum/metabolismo , Yarrowia/genética
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