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1.
Behav Res Methods ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532892

RESUMO

Memory and language are important high-level cognitive functions of humans, and the study of conceptual representation of the human brain is a key approach to reveal the principles of cognition. However, this research is often constrained by the availability of stimulus materials. The research on concept representation often needs to be based on a standardized and large-scale database of conceptual semantic features. Although Western scholars have established a variety of English conceptual semantic feature datasets, there is still a lack of a comprehensive Chinese version. In the present study, a Chinese Conceptual semantic Feature Dataset (CCFD) was established with 1,410 concepts including their semantic features and the similarity between concepts. The concepts were grouped into 28 subordinate categories and seven superior categories artificially. The results showed that concepts within the same category were closer to each other, while concepts between categories were farther apart. The CCFD proposed in this study can provide stimulation materials and data support for related research fields. All the data and supplementary materials can be found at https://osf.io/ug5dt/ .

2.
Langmuir ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571408

RESUMO

Wicking within woven screens has attracted considerable attention due to its important role in applications concerning phase-change heat transfer and phase separation. In the present study, horizontal spreading experiments are conducted to investigate the wicking performance of woven screens by measuring the volumetric liquid intake into the screens and the liquid propagation fronts through two perpendicular high-speed cameras. Woven screens with micro (single- and multilayer)- and nano (plain, etched, and fluoridated)-porous structures are manipulated through diffusion bonding and chemical processes. The macroscopic observation indicates the substantial enhancement of the wicking capability in multilayer structures, where the interlayer microchannels could compensate for the essential deficiency of single-layer screens by providing low-resistance flow passages. Wicking capability of water is enhanced by the hydrophilic nanograsses along the wires. Furthermore, flow mechanisms within the screens are analyzed by comparisons between apparent and saturated wicking distances. In multilayer structures, the liquid spreads along the entire cross-sectional area in etched screens, while it spreads primarily along the interlayer microchannels in plain and fluoridated screens. The influence of various fluids on the wicking behavior within the woven screens is found to be fully represented by a unique parameter that captures the effects of surface tension and dynamic viscosity in the radial flow model. This work deepens the understanding of the capillary-driven flow within the woven screens with hybrid micro-/nanoporous structures and provides guidance for the design and manufacture of highly efficient wicking structures.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605139

RESUMO

Lead halide perovskites have shown great potential in photovoltaic and photocatalytic fields. However, the toxicity of lead impedes their wide application. Herein composites of lead-free halide perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6 supported on nitrogen-doped carbon (N-C) materials were synthesized successfully through a facile one-pot method for the first time. Without deposition of noble metals as the cocatalyst, the optimal composite Cs2AgBiBr6/N-C (Cs2AgBiBr6/N-C-140) exhibits outstanding photocatalytic performance with a high hydrogen evolution rate of 380 µmol g-1 h-1 under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm), which is about 19 times faster than that of pure Cs2AgBiBr6 and 4 times faster than that of physically mixed Cs2AgBiBr6/N-C-140, respectively. The Cs2AgBiBr6/N-C-140 composite also displays high stability with no significant decrease after six cycles of repeated hydrogen evolution experiments. The addition of N-C with a high surface area helps to prevent aggregation of Cs2AgBiBr6 NPs and provides more pathways for the migration of photoinduced carriers. The nitrogen dopant can facilitate photoinduced electron transfer from Cs2AgBiBr6 to N-C to result in spatially separated electrons and holes with prolonged electron time and greatly enhance the photocatalytic performance. This study indicates that Cs2AgBiBr6-based perovskite materials are promising candidates for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

4.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586977

RESUMO

The regiospecific radical reactions of ß-alkyl nitroalkenes with sulfonyl hydrazides depended to a great extent on the choice of a solvent and catalyst. In the presence of dimethylformamide (DMF), ß-alkyl nitroalkenes more likely converted into electron-rich allyl nitro compounds, which reacted with sulfonyl hydrazides to afford allyl sulfones with high regioselectivity. While in acetonitrile (CH3CN), vinyl sulfones were obtained directly via sulfonation of electron-deficient ß-alkyl nitroalkenes. The mechanism investigation revealed that the regioselectivity was controlled by the equilibrium of ß-alkyl nitroalkenes and allyl nitro compounds.

5.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 391-401, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few effective therapies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) upon the outbreak of the pandemic. To compare the effectiveness of a novel genetically engineered recombinant super-compound interferon (rSIFN-co) with traditional interferon-alpha added to baseline antiviral agents (lopinavir-ritonavir or umifenovir) for the treatment of moderate-to-severe COVID-19. METHOD: In this multicenter randomized (1:1) trial, patients hospitalized with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 received either rSIFN-co nebulization or interferon-alpha nebulization added to baseline antiviral agents for no more than 28 days. The primary endpoint was the time to clinical improvement. Secondary endpoints included the overall rate of clinical improvement assessed on day 28, the time to radiological improvement and virus nucleic acid negative conversion. RESULTS: A total of 94 patients were included in the safety set (46 patients assigned to rSIFN-co group, 48 to interferon-alpha group). The time to clinical improvement was 11.5 days versus 14.0 days (95% CI 1.10 to 2.81, p = .019); the overall rate of clinical improvement on day 28 was 93.5% versus 77.1% (difference, 16.4%; 95% CI 3% to 30%); the time to radiological improvement was 8.0 days versus 10.0 days (p = .002), the time to virus nucleic acid negative conversion was 7.0 days versus 10.0 days (p = .018) in the rSIFN-co and interferon alpha arms, respectively. Adverse events were balanced with no deaths among groups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: rSIFN-co was associated with a shorter time of clinical improvement than traditional interferon-alpha in the treatment of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 when combined with baseline antiviral agents. rSIFN-co therapy alone or combined with other antiviral therapy is worth to be further studied.Key messagesThere are few effective therapies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) upon the outbreak of the pandemic. Interferon alphas, by inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses, have shown clinical efficacy in treating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.In this multicenter, head-to-head, randomized, clinical trial which included 94 participants with moderate-to-severe COVID-19, the rSIFN-co plus antiviral agents (lopinavir-ritonavir or umifenovir) was associated with a shorter time of clinical improvement than interferon-alpha plus antiviral agents.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620279

RESUMO

Single-channel electroencephalography (EEG) signals are more susceptible to electro-oculography (EOG) interference, which could be attributed to the acquisition device of the single-channel. To realize EOG artifacts separation in this paper, the blind deconvolution (BD) model was investigated based on complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN). The CEEMDAN method was firstly used to decompose the EEG data contained artifacts into several intrinsic mode functions (IMF). After that, the modal component used as the observed signal was provided to the BD model, which was formed by the source signal of the EEG signal and the EOG artifacts. Consequently, we successfully realized the separation of EEG signal and EOG artifacts by the constructing cost function iteratively, and our results demonstrated that the separation effect of this method on EOG artifacts is better than previous studies. Further, the correlation coefficient of real-life data after CEEMDAN-BD algorithm processing reaches 0.81. Moreover, the modal aliasing problem was solved with most of the original EEG signal components retained. In a word, this novel method provides theory and practice references for the processing of EEG signals and other physiological signals.

7.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; : 1-14, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621122

RESUMO

Purpose This mixed-methods study aimed to examine the conversation techniques used by parents of young children with hearing loss (HL) during dinnertime at home. Parents' usage rates of open- and closed-ended language elicitation, reformulation, imitation, directives, and explicit vocabulary instruction were examined in relation to children's receptive vocabulary and basic-concepts skills. Method Twenty-minute dinnertime segments were extracted from naturalistic, daylong recordings of 37 preschoolers with HL who used listening and spoken language. The segments were hand-coded for parents' use of conversation techniques. Children's receptive vocabulary and basic concepts were assessed using standardized measures. Results Parents' use of conversation techniques varied widely, with closed-ended elicitation and directives used most frequently during dinner. Explicit vocabulary instruction was correlated with general receptive vocabulary and basic-concepts skills. Thematic analysis of the conversations revealed common themes, including concrete topics and sibling speakers. In addition, parents who used many techniques often introduced abstract conversation topics; electronic media was present in all conversations with few techniques. Conclusions Parents of preschoolers with HL may benefit from specific coaching to elicit language and introduce new vocabulary during home routines. These techniques may help develop their children's receptive language.

8.
Stem Cell Res ; 52: 102224, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607466

RESUMO

Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 26 (EE26) is a form of epileptic encephalopathy, a heterogeneous group of severe childhood-onset epilepsies characterized by refractory seizures, neurodevelopmental impairment, and poor prognosis. A recent study has shown that the KCNB1 gene mutation is associated with EE26; yet, the exact mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we produced an induced pluripotent stem cell line (iPSC) with a heterozygous variant of the KCNB1 gene (c.990G > T, p.Glu330Asp). Induced iPSCs were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from a female child aged 6 with KCNB1 gene c. 990G > T and p.Glu330Asp heterozygous mutation.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1399, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446805

RESUMO

SHP2 is a ubiquitous tyrosine phosphatase involved in regulating both tumor and immune cell signaling. In this study, we discovered a novel immune modulatory function of SHP2. Targeting this protein with allosteric SHP2 inhibitors promoted anti-tumor immunity, including enhancing T cell cytotoxic function and immune-mediated tumor regression. Knockout of SHP2 using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing showed that targeting SHP2 in cancer cells contributes to this immune response. Inhibition of SHP2 activity augmented tumor intrinsic IFNγ signaling resulting in enhanced chemoattractant cytokine release and cytotoxic T cell recruitment, as well as increased expression of MHC Class I and PD-L1 on the cancer cell surface. Furthermore, SHP2 inhibition diminished the differentiation and inhibitory function of immune suppressive myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment. SHP2 inhibition enhanced responses to anti-PD-1 blockade in syngeneic mouse models. Overall, our study reveals novel functions of SHP2 in tumor immunity and proposes that targeting SHP2 is a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy.

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(1): 501-510, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393780

RESUMO

Four difenoconazole stereoisomers were well separated on a Superchiral S-OX column. The absolute configurations of the four stereoisomers of difenoconazole eluted in an orderly fashion with the chiral column were confirmed as (2S,4S), (2S,4R), (2R,4R), and (2R,4S)-difenoconazole, respectively, by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. For the first time, a simple and efficient trace detection method for the determination of residues of the four stereoisomers of difenoconazole in a plant sample by HPLC-MS/MS was developed. The mean recoveries were 78.23-104.38% with RSDs of 0.33-9.95%. The limits of detection for the four difenoconazole enantiomers were 0.0002-0.0004 mg/kg, and the limits of quantitation were 0.0044-0.011 mg/kg in citrus leaves and whole fruits. There was no obvious enantioselectivity upon degradation of the four stereoisomers in citrus leaves and whole fruits in Hunan and Guizhou. In Guangzhou, the rate of degradation of (2R,4R)-difenoconazole was the slowest among the four stereoisomers of difenoconazole.

11.
Org Lett ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439024

RESUMO

Upon treatment with a Lewis base catalyst, ß-alkyl-substituted nitroalkenes could be readily converted into allylic nitro compounds. Examples of either C-1 or C-3 functionalization methods have been reported through nitro-elimination, giving alkene products. In this work, successful 1,3-difunctionalization was achieved through a synergetic Lewis base catalysis and TBHP radical oxidation, giving vinylic alkoxyamines in good to excellent yields. This work further extended the general synthetic application of ß-alkyl nitroalkenes.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(2): 023604, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512231

RESUMO

We theoretically and experimentally investigate double-electromagnetically-induced transparency (double-EIT) cooling of two-dimensional ion crystals confined in a Paul trap. The double-EIT ground-state cooling is observed for ^{171}Yb^{+} ions with a clock state, for which EIT cooling has not been realized like many other ions with a simple Λ scheme. A cooling rate of n[over ¯][over ˙]=34(±1.8) ms^{-1} and a cooling limit of n[over ¯]=0.06(±0.059) are observed for a single ion. The measured cooling rate and limit are consistent with theoretical predictions. We apply double-EIT cooling to the transverse modes of two-dimensional (2D) crystals with up to 12 ions. In our 2D crystals, the micromotion and the transverse mode directions are perpendicular, which makes them decoupled. Therefore, the cooling on transverse modes is not disturbed by micromotion, which is confirmed in our experiment. For the center of mass mode of a 12-ion crystal, we observe a cooling rate and a cooling limit that are consistent with those of a single ion, including heating rates proportional to the number of ions. This method can be extended to other hyperfine qubits, and near ground-state cooling of stationary 2D crystals with large numbers of ions may advance the field of quantum information sciences.

13.
Cell Rep ; 34(1): 108580, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406439

RESUMO

Genetically identical female honeybee larvae with different diets develop into sterile workers or fertile queens. It remains unknown whether the reversible RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) mark functionally impact this "caste differentiation." Here, we profile the transcriptome-wide m6A methylome of honeybee queen and worker larvae at three instar stages and discover that m6A methylation dynamics are altered by differential feeding. Multiple methylome comparisons show an obvious increase in m6A marks during larval development and reveal a negative correlation between gene expression and m6A methylation. Notably, we find that worker larvae contain more hypermethylated m6A peaks than do queen larvae, and many caste-differentiation-related transcripts are differentially methylated. Chemical suppression of m6A methylation in worker larvae by 3-deazaadenosine (DAA) reduces overall m6A methylation levels and triggers worker larvae to develop queen caste features. Thus, our study demonstrates that m6A functionally impacts caste differentiation and larval development, yet it does not exclude potential contributions from other factors.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443211

RESUMO

Hippocampal synaptic plasticity is important for learning and memory formation. Homeostatic synaptic plasticity is a specific form of synaptic plasticity that is induced upon prolonged changes in neuronal activity to maintain network homeostasis. While astrocytes are important regulators of synaptic transmission and plasticity, it is largely unclear how they interact with neurons to regulate synaptic plasticity at the circuit level. Here, we show that neuronal activity blockade selectively increases the expression and secretion of IL-33 (interleukin-33) by astrocytes in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) subregion. This IL-33 stimulates an increase in excitatory synapses and neurotransmission through the activation of neuronal IL-33 receptor complex and synaptic recruitment of the scaffold protein PSD-95. We found that acute administration of tetrodotoxin in hippocampal slices or inhibition of hippocampal CA1 excitatory neurons by optogenetic manipulation increases IL-33 expression in CA1 astrocytes. Furthermore, IL-33 administration in vivo promotes the formation of functional excitatory synapses in hippocampal CA1 neurons, whereas conditional knockout of IL-33 in CA1 astrocytes decreases the number of excitatory synapses therein. Importantly, blockade of IL-33 and its receptor signaling in vivo by intracerebroventricular administration of its decoy receptor inhibits homeostatic synaptic plasticity in CA1 pyramidal neurons and impairs spatial memory formation in mice. These results collectively reveal an important role of astrocytic IL-33 in mediating the negative-feedback signaling mechanism in homeostatic synaptic plasticity, providing insights into how astrocytes maintain hippocampal network homeostasis.

15.
J Card Surg ; 36(3): 1140-1143, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491252

RESUMO

For three patients with isolated right coronary artery disease who had drug resistance and were intolerant to interventional therapy, simple transabdominal small incision bypass grafting of the right gastroepiploic artery and the posterior descending branch of the right coronary artery was conducted without cardiopulmonary. All three patients were discharged smoothly without complications, and were followed up for three months, during which time the myocardial bridges were unobstructed and the cardiac functions were good. The surgery needs no thoracotomy and the injury is small, and avoids influences of sternum and pericardium adhesion on other cardiac surgery in the future. The risk of median sternotomy can be avoided for patients undergoing reoperation for coronary artery bypass surgery.

16.
J Affect Disord ; 281: 476-484, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bipolar depression (BD) is a unique, severe and prevalent mental illness that shares many similarities in symptoms with unipolar depression (UD). Improving precision of their diagnoses would enhance treatment outcome and prognosis for both conditions. This study aims to provide evidence from functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a potential tool to differentiate UD and BD based on their differences in hemodynamic change in the prefrontal cortex during verbal fluency tasks (VFT). METHODS: We enrolled 179 participants with clinically confirmed diagnoses, including 69 UD patients, 68 BD patients and 42 healthy controls(HC). Every participant was assessed using a 45-channel fNIRS and various clinical scales. FINDINGS: Compared with HC, region-specific fNIR leads show UD patients had significant lower hemodynamic activation in 4 particular pre-frontal regions: 1) the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), 2) orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), 3) bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and 4) left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In contrast, BD vs. HC comparisons showed only significant lower hemodynamic activation in the LIFG area. Furthermore, compared to BD patients, UD patients showed decreased hemodynamic activation changes in the VLPFC region. CONCLUSION: Our results show significant frontal lobe activation pattern differences between UD and BD groups. fNIRS can be a potential tool to increase diagnostic precision for these conditions. In particular, the VLPFC area holds promise to be a useful site for such differentiation for further investigations.

17.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 582(Pt A): 112-123, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814219

RESUMO

Multifunctional cotton fabrics have attracted significant attention as next-generation wearable materials. Herein, we report a facile method for the fabrication of flexible and wearable cotton fabrics with ultra-high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, antibacterial, and superhydrophobic properties. Cotton fabrics were first coated chemically with silver nanoparticles using polydopamine as adhesive and then with hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane or polyimide. The introduction of polydopamine significantly increased the bond between silver nanoparticles and cotton fibers, thereby preventing silver nanoparticles from falling off the surface. The composite fabrics exhibited a high conductivity of ~1000 S/cm, and their EMI shielding effectiveness increased up to ~110 dB. The composite fabrics exhibited excellent self-cleaning performance and acid-alkali corrosion resistance because of their superhydrophobicity. Notably, the fabric composites showed a significant antibacterial action against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

18.
Essays Biochem ; 64(6): 967-979, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284953

RESUMO

Research on N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in recent years has revealed the complex but elegant regulatory role of this RNA modification in multiple physiological processes. The advent of m6A detection technologies is the basis for studying the function of this RNA modification. These technologies enable the detection of m6A sites across transcriptome or at specific gene, thereby revealing the alternation and dynamic of RNA modification. However, non-specific signals that arise from the antibody-based methods and the low-resolution landscape have become the major drawback of classic m6A detection methods. In this review, we summarize the current available methods and categorized them into three groups according to the utilization purpose, including measurement of total m6A levels, detection m6A locus in single gene, and m6A sequencing. We hope this review helps researchers in epitranscriptomic field find an appropriate m6A detection tool that suites their experimental design.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(49): e23412, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285732

RESUMO

In this study, our aim was to compare the efficacy and toxicity profiles of gemcitabine, cisplatin, and dexamethasone (GDP) and ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) regimens in the salvage treatment of relapsed/refractory lymphoma. A total of 110 patients with refractory/relapsed classical Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 22) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 88) who received GDP or ICE salvage regimens from January 2011 to July 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 110 patients, 50 patients received GDP, and 60 patients received ICE. The response could be evaluated in all patients. In the GDP group, 30 (60.0%) patients achieved overall response rate (ORR), and in the ICE group, the ORR was 56.6%. Of the classical Hodgkin lymphoma patients, the ORR were 72.8% and 54.6% in the GDP and ICE groups, respectively. Of the non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients, the ORR were 56.4% and 57.1% in the GDP and ICE groups, respectively. Grade I-II toxicity occurred in 16 (32.0%) patients in the GDP group and 18 patients (30.0%) in the ICE group; 14 (28.0%) patients had Grade III-IV toxicity in the GDP group, as did 20 (33.3%) patients in the ICE group. As a result, both GDP and ICE regimens are suitable for the treatment of recurrent/refractory lymphoma. The overall adverse reactions of both regimens are acceptable.

20.
Orthop Surg ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of percutaneous endoscopic interlaminar discectomy (PEID) and percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal discectomy (PETD) in treating L5 /S1 disc herniation. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 76 patients with L5 /S1 intervertebral disc herniation was performed. There were two surgical treatment groups: one with patients receiving PEID and the other with patients receiving PETD. The two groups were compared by length of surgery, times of intraoperative X-ray exposure, postoperative time in bed, length of hospital stay, operative complications, patient's assessment of pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS), and disability using the Oswestry disability index (ODI) before and after surgery. RESULTS: Subjects in the PEID group were in surgery for 60.90 ± 13.11 min and needed intraoperative X-ray exposure 4.10 ± 1.09 times. Patients in this group were ambulatory by 7.52 ± 1.08 h after surgery and were hospitalized for 5.05 ± 0.92 days. In contrast, patients in the PETD group were in surgery for 84.06 ± 15.58 min and needed intraoperative X ray exposure 12.81 ± 8.46 times. These patients were ambulatory by 7.06 ± 0.91 h after surgery and remained in the hospital for 4.94 ± 0.80 days. Based on these data, operation time and fluoroscopy time were significantly less (P < 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively) for subjects in the PEID group. However, ambulatory time and hospitalization were similar for both in terms of pain relief and decreased disability, and subjects in both groups responded well to the surgery and showed a significant decrease in both VAS and ODI scores at their 1-year follow-up (P < 0.01). Furthermore, there were no statistically significant differences between the two surgeries in terms of pain relief and decrease in disability. CONCLUSION: For L5 /S1 disc herniation, PEID and PETD provide similar results for patients. However, PEID has the advantage over PETD in that it is a shorter procedure and exposes the patient to less radiation.

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