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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130806, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399184

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the in vitro digestibility of different buckwheat and wheat starch cultivars and establish the relationship between digestibility and structure of buckwheat starch. Structure of starches were analyzed with size exclusion chromatography and fluorophore-assisted capillary electrophoresis. Results showed that the amylose content of Tartary buckwheat starch (TBS) and common buckwheat starch (CBS) was 3-4% lower than that of wheat starch. However, no significant difference in the digestibility was found between them. The fast digestion rate coefficient of TBS was negatively correlated with the amount of long amylopectin chains (24 < DP ≤ 36), and the total digested starch percentage of CBS was negatively correlated with the amount of medium-long amylopectin chains (13 < DP ≤ 24). This suggests that the digestibility of fully gelatinized starch had no association with the botanical sources but may be more influenced by starch structure.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum , Amido , Amilopectina , Amilose , Estrutura Molecular , Triticum
2.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 5586529, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616534

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. According to the evidence presented on both sides of the knee bones, radiologists assess the severity of OA based on the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading system. Recently, computer-aided methods are proposed to improve the efficiency of OA diagnosis. However, the human interventions required by previous semiautomatic segmentation methods limit the application on large-scale datasets. Moreover, well-known CNN architectures applied to the OA severity assessment do not explore the relations between different local regions. In this work, by integrating the object detection model, YOLO, with the visual transformer into the diagnosis procedure, we reduce human intervention and provide an end-to-end approach to automatic osteoarthritis diagnosis. Our approach correctly segments 95.57% of data at the expense of training on 200 annotated images on a large dataset that contains more than 4500 samples. Furthermore, our classification result improves the accuracy by 2.5% compared to the traditional CNN architectures.

3.
Adv Mater ; : e2104037, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622500

RESUMO

Although immunotherapy such as immune checkpoint inhibitors has shown promising efficacy in cancer treatment, the responsiveness among patients is relatively limited. Activation of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase/interferon gene stimulator (cGAS/STING) signaling pathway to upregulate innate immunity has become an emerging strategy for enhancing tumor immunotherapy. Herein, ZnS@BSA (bovine serum albumin) nanoclusters synthesized via a self-assembly approach are reported, where the released zinc ions under acidic tumor microenvironment significantly enhance cGAS/STING signals. Meanwhile, intracellular zinc ions can produce reactive oxygen species, which is further facilitated by the generated H2 S gas from ZnS@BSA via specifically inhibiting catalase in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. It is found that the nanoclusters activate the cGAS/STING signals in mice, which promotes the infiltration of CD8+ T cells at the tumor site and cross-presentation of dendritic cells, leading to an improved immunotherapy efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma.

4.
Rheumatol Ther ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618348

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) selectively restores disturbances of regulatory T cells (Treg) and conventional T cells, resulting in the induction of remission in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. However, to date no research has been carried out on the efficacy of low-dose IL-2 in the treatment of refractory lupus nephritis (LN). The aim of the study reported here was to investigate the renal response to low-dose IL-2 in patients with refractory LN. METHODS: The study population comprised ten patients with refractory LN who failed to achieve complete response or who had relapsed while being treated with at least two conventional immunosuppressive agents. One treatment cycle consisted of IL-2 at a dose of 1 million IU administered subcutaneously every other day for 2 weeks followed by a 2-week break. All patients received three cycles of IL-2 and were then followed up for another 12 weeks without any increase in the dose of previous immunosuppressive agents and steroids. RESULTS: Of the ten patients enrolled in the study, seven (70%) achieved ≥ 50% improvement in proteinuria at 12 weeks after initiating treatment with IL-2. Median proteinuria was significantly reduced by 50.3% at week 12, from 1.83 (interquartile range [IQR] 1.23-3.21)  g/24 h at baseline to 0.91 (IQR 0.52-1.60)  g/24 h at 12 weeks (P = 0.005). This was accompanied by a 71% reduction in urine erythrocytes, from 64/µl (IQR 24-102/µl) at baseline to 18/µl (IQR 2-20/µl) at 12 weeks (P = 0.018). Anti-dsDNA was decreased from 27.9 (IQR 7.6-40.28) IU/ml at baseline to 14.1 (IQR 7.3-20.12) IU/ml (P = 0.021) at week 12, while complements C3 and C4 were slightly increased (P = 0.445, P = 0.241, respectively). A significant expansion of Treg cells, from 9.3% at baseline to 16.6% at 12 weeks, was also found (P < 0.05). No serious adverse events occurred during the treatment period. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose IL-2 therapy may have a promising role in the treatment of refractory LN as an alternative and safe therapeutic approach. It may be used as multi-target combination therapy in clinical practice.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608067

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adequate silicone oil (SO) tamponade procedure in patients with complicated retinal detachment. METHODS: Thirty-one eyes in 31 patients were enrolled in this prospective case series. Adequate SO tamponade was performed by injecting the SO into the vitreous cavity and the entire anterior chamber, followed by posterior capsulotomy and inferior peripheral iridotomy. Preoperative and follow-up data including retinal anatomic reattachment and SO status, best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, surgical complications and management were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-nine eyes presented with complete retinal reattachment after subsequent SO removal with a primary success rate of 93.5%. Seventeen patients (54.8%) had complete anterior chamber SO migration to the vitreous cavity within the first postoperative day. The average time for anterior chamber SO migration was 2.3 ±â€Š1.8 days. No oil-fluid interface in the vitreous cavity was observed in all the eyes, indicating a relatively adequate SO tamponade. Acute intraocular pressure elevation occurred in 16 (51.6%) eyes and was controllable under medication (n = 16) and anterior chamber paracentesis (n = 1). Two patients developed recurrent retinal detachment and received SO removal and a secondary adequate SO tamponade. At final follow-up, all the eyes had SO removal for at least 3 months and retinas maintained completely attached. CONCLUSIONS: The adequate SO tamponade procedure offers a simple, safe, and efficacious treatment alternative for complicated retinal detachment.

6.
Opt Lett ; 46(19): 4781-4784, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598198

RESUMO

We report an omnidirectional light absorption enhancement of a perovskite solar cell (PSC) using antireflection (AR) film with soft imprinted microstructures from master molds via holographic lithography technology, which has high throughput and repeatability. The PSC's omnidirectional power conversion efficiency (PCE) enhancement is achieved by reducing Fresnel surface reflections and enhancing the optical path length. The maximum PCE of PSCs with AR film is up to 20.27%, corresponding to an absolute increase of 0.93% compared to 19.34% of control devices. Significantly, the enhancements of PCE increase with incident angle enlargement, which attributes to more effective Fresnel surface reflection suppression. Moreover, AR films exhibit water and dust repellent properties due to hydrophobicity, which is beneficial for PSC's long-term stability and light harvesting.

7.
PeerJ ; 9: e12217, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631322

RESUMO

Moulting behaviors in trilobites are a crucial strategy during development. Previous studies have demonstrated inter-and intraspecific variability of moulting behavior in trilobites. Currently, ecdysial motifs for trilobites are considered not stable even within species and fewer detailed studies dealt with moulting behaviors in a single species of trilobite during development. Here a large sample of meraspid to holaspid exuviae of Arthricocephalites xinzhaiheensis (131 specimens) from the Cambrian Balang Formation of South China has allowed description of the reasonably complete ontogenic moulting sequence. Both ontogenetic stage and body size reveal gradual transition of configuration from Somersault configuration to Henningsmoen's configuration during development. Somersault configuration is exclusive till meraspid degree five and exists in subsequent growth stages. This suggests that opening of the facial and rostral sutures allowing the emergence forward of the post-ecdysial trilobite was prevalent in early growth stages. In later development, Henningsmoen's configuration (showing disarticulation of the cranidium) became more dominant. This study indicates that gradual transition of ontogenetic moulting behavior occurred in oryctocephalid trilobites in the early Cambrian.

8.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 261, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) is a rare inflammatory arthritis, with a higher incidence of malignancy. The aim of this study is to identify biomarkers for predicting malignancy in RS3PE. METHODS: A total of 51 patients with RS3PE from September 2007 to May 2019 were retrospectively reviewed and followed for up to 5 years, with 15 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and 14 patients with elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) as disease controls. Serum levels of angiogenesis cytokines were measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay and Luminex Human Magnetic Assay. Clinical data and laboratory parameters were analyzed to identify risk factors for malignancy. RESULTS: A total of forty-eight RS3PE patients (94.1%) were available with follow-up data; 8 patients (16.7%) were diagnosed with malignancy, of which 6 patients were hematological tumor; and 2 patients were solid tumors. Serum levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were exclusively higher in RS3PE patients with malignancy [14.21 (7.52, 23.18) ng/mL] than RS3PE patients without malignancy [4.32 (2.88, 7.42) ng/mL], OA [3.20 (2.20, 5.30) ng/mL], and EORA [3.20 (2.20, 5.30) ng/mL]. The optimal cut-off value of bFGF for malignancy was 10ng/mL in RS3PE. Logistic regression analysis indicated that elevation of bFGF was a risk factor for malignancy in RS3PE. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that bFGF was elevated in RS3PE patients with malignancy and could serve as a biomarker for predicting paraneoplastic RS3PE.

9.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 2): 132520, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634274

RESUMO

Toxic dyes in wastewater will become a significant hazard to human health if they are not treated effectively. Therefore, it is significant to separate and remove dyes from the aqueous solution. C and O co-doped BN (BCNO) with high adsorption capacity and outstanding cycle efficiency is a simple and efficient adsorbent for the cationic dye malachite green (MG). Glucose is characterized as an eco-friendly and cheap source of C and O. Benefited by the high specific surface area (1515.6 m2/g), the maximum adsorption capacity of MG is 1511.1 mg/g. Besides, the curves of adsorption fitting correspond to the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order model, respectively. Moreover, after 5 cycles, the adsorption efficiency reached 78% of the first time and the adsorption capacity remained above 780 mg/g. Furthermore, in the selectivity adsorption study, the cationic dyes (MG, neutral red (NR), methylene blue (MB)) can be removed more effectively in the binary dye system of MG-methyl orange (MO), NR-MO, MB-MO, MG-Orange II (OR), MB-OR, or NR-OR. BCNO-2 has a promising application in the removal of cationic dyes from complex dye wastewaters.

10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 168: 128-142, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628174

RESUMO

Water deficit inhibits maize (Zea mays L.) seedling growth and yield. Application of exogenous melatonin can improve drought tolerance of corn, but little is known regarding the transcriptional mechanisms of melatonin-mediated drought tolerance in maize. Increased understanding of the effects of melatonin on maize plants under drought stress is vital to alleviate the adverse effects of drought on food production in the future. The aim of this investigation was to use physiological and transcriptome analyses for exploring the possible mechanisms of exogenous melatonin against drought stress in maize. In this study, maize seedlings were subjected to drought stress and some were treated with exogenous melatonin. The physiological results showed that melatonin inhibited H2O2 accumulation and promoted the scavenging of excessive reactive oxygen species to reduce oxidative damage in maize leaves. Transcriptomic analysis identified 957 differentially expressed genes between melatonin and non-melatonin treatment groups. Further detailed analyses suggested that melatonin-regulated genes are mainly related to glutathione metabolism, calcium signaling transduction, and jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Some transcription factor families, such as WRKY, AP2/ERF-ERF, MYB, NAC, and bZIP, were also activated by exogenous melatonin. Moreover, crosstalk between melatonin and other hormones that mediate drought tolerance was observed. In conclusion, the combination of physiological and transcriptome analyses revealed some mechanisms underlying the role of melatonin in alleviating drought; knowledge of these mechanisms may assist in successful maize cultivation under drought stress.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(43)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667125

RESUMO

Two histidine-ligated heme-dependent monooxygenase proteins, TyrH and SfmD, have recently been found to resemble enzymes from the dioxygenase superfamily currently named after tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), that is, the TDO superfamily. These latest findings prompted us to revisit the structure and function of the superfamily. The enzymes in this superfamily share a similar core architecture and a histidine-ligated heme. Their primary functions are to promote O-atom transfer to an aromatic metabolite. TDO and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the founding members, promote dioxygenation through a two-step monooxygenation pathway. However, the new members of the superfamily, including PrnB, SfmD, TyrH, and MarE, expand its boundaries and mediate monooxygenation on a broader set of aromatic substrates. We found that the enlarged superfamily contains eight clades of proteins. Overall, this protein group is a more sizeable, structure-based, histidine-ligated heme-dependent, and functionally diverse superfamily for aromatics oxidation. The concept of TDO superfamily or heme-dependent dioxygenase superfamily is no longer appropriate for defining this growing superfamily. Hence, there is a pressing need to redefine it as a heme-dependent aromatic oxygenase (HDAO) superfamily. The revised concept puts HDAO in the context of thiol-ligated heme-based enzymes alongside cytochrome P450 and peroxygenase. It will update what we understand about the choice of heme axial ligand. Hemoproteins may not be as stringent about the type of axial ligand for oxygenation, although thiolate-ligated hemes (P450s and peroxygenases) more frequently catalyze oxygenation reactions. Histidine-ligated hemes found in HDAO enzymes can likewise mediate oxygenation when confronted with a proper substrate.

12.
Eur Spine J ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare total en bloc spondylectomy (TES) and separation surgery with postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (SSRS) for isolated metastatic patients with spinal cord compression by assessing recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), postoperative complications, and quality of life scores (QoL). METHODS: From October 2013 to December 2020, 52 isolated spinal metastasis patients with cord compression were selected and separated into two groups based on the surgical method used (TES group, n = 26; and SSRS group, n = 26). Indexes for evaluation included postoperative Frankel grade, postoperative ECOG-PS, RFS, OS, postoperative complications, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and QoL. RESULTS: The average follow-up duration was 31.44 months. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in postoperative complications and OS between the two groups. However, a significant difference in operation time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative ECOG-PS, RFS, and mental health domain (6 months after surgery) was found between the two groups (P < 0.05). According to The Spine Oncology Study Group Outcomes Questionnaire assessment, the total pain and physical function domains scores were also elevated after surgery in both groups. However, no significant difference was observed between groups A and B (p = 0.450 and 0.446, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: TES and SSRS were efficient methods for treating solitary spinal metastasis patients with metastatic spinal cord compression. Better local tumor control and mental health were found in the TES group, and most patients felt as if they were free of spinal tumors. Compared with TES, the SSRS caused less operation-related trauma. However, there was no significant difference in OS between the two groups.

13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5430, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521852

RESUMO

Understanding the performance of subnanometer catalysts and how catalyst treatment and exposure to spectroscopic probe molecules change the structure requires accurate structure determination under working conditions. Experiments lack simultaneous temporal and spatial resolution and could alter the structure, and similar challenges hinder first-principles calculations from answering these questions. Here, we introduce a multiscale modeling framework to follow the evolution of subnanometer clusters at experimentally relevant time scales. We demonstrate its feasibility on Pd adsorbed on CeO2(111) at various catalyst loadings, temperatures, and exposures to CO. We show that sintering occurs in seconds even at room temperature and is mainly driven by free energy reduction. It leads to a kinetically (far from equilibrium) frozen ensemble of quasi-two-dimensional structures that CO chemisorption and infrared experiments probe. CO adsorption makes structures flatter and smaller. High temperatures drive very rapid sintering toward larger, stable/metastable equilibrium structures, where CO induces secondary structure changes only.

14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108067, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481142

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Accumulating studies have revealed the involvement of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) in the progression of AP. Here, the current study was conducted to elucidate the role of TNFAIP3 and the underlying molecular mechanisms on the progression of AP. The in vivo animal model and in vitro cell model of AP were generated by retrograde injection of sodium taurocholate and stimulation of cerulein into AR42J cells, respectively. Relationships among TNFAIP3, receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3) and nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) were predicted on bioinformatics websites and verified by co-immunoprecipitation. AR42J cells were transfected with overexpressing plasmid or shRNA to study the effects of TNFAIP3/RIP3/NLRP3 axis on cell proliferation and apoptosis, secretion of inflammatory cytokines and production of ROS. The effect of TNFAIP3/RIP3/NLRP3 axis in AP was further confirmed in vivo. High expression of TNFAIP3 was observed in AP pancreatic tissues and AP cell model. TNFAIP3 increased RIP phosphorylation through deubiquitination. RIP activated the NLRP3 inflammasome. Silencing of TNFAIP3 or RIP3T led to elevated proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in AR42J cells, accompanied by decreased inflammatory cytokine levels and ROS production. The protective role of inhibited TNFAIP3 in AP was confirmed evidenced by reduced levels of AMY, LIPA, and ROS in vivo. Collectively, overexpressed TNFAIP3 could contribute to the progression of AP by activating RIP3/NLRP3 axis, providing a potential therapeutic target for AP treatment.

15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108107, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482265

RESUMO

Activation of NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays a crucial role in the inflammatory responses of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced gouty arthritis. Therefore, the molecular basis of NLRP3 inflammasome is very valuable in developing potential therapeutic drugs for gout. Tetrahydropalmatine (THP), the main active component of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Corydalis yanhusuo, has shown prominent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, but to date, these effects have not been investigated exhaustively on gout. This study indicated that THP attenuated pain and swelling in an MSU-induced acute gout model by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine production and inflammatory cell infiltration. THP exerted its actions by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation and subsequent formation of caspase-1. Furthermore, results showed that THP alleviated MSU-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, upstream of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, by an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our study suggests that THP suppressed ROS-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in MSU-induced inflammatory responses, which highlights its therapeutic potential in gouty arthritis.

16.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(19): 9319-9330, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514705

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNA DLX6 antisense RNA 1 (DLX6-AS1) lists a critical position in thyroid carcinoma (TC) development. However, the overall comprehension about DLX6-AS1, microRNA (miR)-193b-3p and homeobox A1 (HOXA1) in TC is not thoroughly enough. Concerning to this, this work is pivoted on DLX6-AS1/miR-193b-3p/HOXA1 axis in TC cell growth and autophagy. TC tissues and adjacent normal thyroid tissues were collected, in which expression of DLX6-AS1, miR-193b-3p and HOXA1 was tested, together with their interactions. TC cells were transfected with DLX6-AS1/miR-193b-3p-related oligonucleotides or plasmids to test cell growth and autophagy. Tumorigenesis in nude mice was observed. DLX6-AS1 and HOXA1 were up-regulated, and miR-193b-3p was down-regulated in TC. Depleted DLX6-AS1 or restored miR-193b-3p disturbed cell growth and promoted autophagy. DLX6-AS1 targeted miR-193b-3p and positively regulated HOXA1. miR-193b-3p inhibition mitigated the impaired tumorigenesis induced by down-regulated DLX6-AS1. Tumorigenesis in nude mice was consistent with that in cells. It is clear that DLX6-AS1 depletion hinders TC cell growth and promotes autophagy via up-regulating miR-193b-3p and down-regulating HOXA1.

17.
J Plant Physiol ; 266: 153529, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583134

RESUMO

Potassium is a major cationic nutrient involved in numerous physiological processes in plants. The uptake of K+ is mediated by K+ channels and transporters, and the Shaker K+ channel gene family plays an essential role in K+ uptake and stress resistance in plants. However, little is known regarding this family in soybean. In this study, 14 members of the Shaker K+ channel gene family were identified in soybean and were classified into five groups. Protein domain analysis revealed that Shaker K+ channel gene members have an ion transport domain (ion trans), a cyclic nucleotide-binding domain, ankyrin repeat domains, and a dimerization domain in the potassium ion channel. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the expression of eight genes (notably GmAKT1) in soybean leaves and roots was significantly increased in response to salt and drought stress. Furthermore, the overexpression of GmAKT1 in Arabidopsis enhanced root length, K+ concentration, and fresh/dry weight ratio compared with wild-type plants subjected to salt and drought stress; this suggests that GmAKT1 improves the tolerance of soybean to abiotic stress. Our results provide important insight into the characterization of Shaker K+ channel gene family members in soybean and highlight the function of GmAKT1 in soybean plants under salt and drought stress.

18.
Plant J ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587334

RESUMO

Malvids is one of the largest clades of rosids and include 58 families and exhibit remarkable morphological and ecological diversity. Here, we report a high-quality chromosome-level genome assembly for Euscaphis japonica, an early-diverging species within malvids. Genome-based phylogenetic analysis suggests that the unstable phylogenetic position of E. japonica may result from ILS and hybridization event during the diversification of the ancestral population of malvids. E. japonica experienced two polyploidisation events: the ancient whole genome triplication event (WGT) shared with most eudicots (commonly known as the γ event) and a more recent whole genome duplication event (WGD), unique to E. japonica. By resequencing 101 samples from 11 populations, we speculate that the temperature has led to the differentiation of the evergreen and deciduous of E. japonica and the completely different population histories of these two groups. A total of 1,012 candidate positively selected genes (PSGs) in the evergreen were detected, some of which are involved in flower and fruit development. We found that reddening and dehiscence of the E. japonica pericarp and long fruit-hanging time promoted the reproduction of E. japonica populations, and revealed the expression patterns of genes related to fruit reddening, dehiscence, and abscission. The key genes involved in pentacyclic triterpene synthesis in E. japonica were identified, and different expression patterns of these genes may contribute to pentacyclic triterpene diversification. Our work sheds light on the evolution of E. japonica and malvids, particularly on the diversification of E. japonica and the genetic basis for their fruit dehiscence and abscission.

19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18839, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552131

RESUMO

We report on the first set of exact orthonormalized states to an ac driven one-dimensional (1D) two-electron nanowire quantum dot with the Rashba-Dresselhaus coexisted spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and the controlled magnetic field orientation and trapping frequency. In the ground state case, it is shown that the spatiotemporal evolutions of probability densities occupying internal spin states and the transfer rates between different spin states can be adjusted by the ac electric field and the intensities of SOC and magnetic field. Effects of the system parameters and initial-state-dependent constants on the mean entanglement are revealed, where the approximately maximal entanglement associated with the stronger SOC and its insensitivity to the initial and parametric perturbations are demonstrated numerically. A novel resonance transition mechanism is found, in which the ladder-like time-evolution process of expected energy and the transition time between two arbitrary exact states are controlled by the ac field strength. Using such maximally entangled exact states to encode qubits can render the qubit control more transparent and robust. The results could be extended to 2D case and to an array of two-electron quantum dots with weak neighboring coupling for quantum information processing.

20.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional medical genetics models are unable to meet the growing demand for germline genetic testing (GT) in patients with exocrine pancreatic cancer (PC). This study investigates the impact of an ambulatory oncology clinic-based GT model. METHODS: From 2012 to 2021, patients with PC were prospectively enrolled and considered for GT. Two chronological cohorts were compared: (1) the preuniversal genetic testing (pre-UGT) cohort, which received GT based on clinical criteria or family history; and (2) the post-UGT cohort, where an 86-gene panel was offered to all patients with PC. RESULTS: Of 847 eligible patients, 735 (86.8%) were enrolled (pre-UGT, n=579; post-UGT, n=156). A higher proportion of the post-UGT cohort received prospective GT (97.4% vs 58.5%, p<0.001). The rate of pathogenic germline alterations (PGA) across both cohorts was 9.9%, with 8.0% of PGAs in PC susceptibility genes. The post-UGT cohort had a higher prevalence of overall PGAs (17.2% vs 6.6%, p<0.001) and PGAs in PC susceptibility genes (11.9% vs 6.3%, p<0.001). The median turnaround time from enrolment to GT report was shorter in the post-UGT cohort (13 days vs 42 days, p<0.001). Probands with a PGA disclosed their GT results to 84% of their first-degree relatives (FDRs). However, only 31% of informed FDRs underwent GT, and the number of new cases per index case was 0.52. CONCLUSION: A point-of-care GT model is feasible and expedites access to GT for patients with PC. Strategies to increase the uptake of cascade testing are needed to maximise the clinical impact of an oncology clinic-based GT model.

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