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1.
Virol J ; 17(1): 45, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238179

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that there is a typo in the title of this article.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2000499, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249991

RESUMO

Flexible dielectrics operable under simultaneous electric and thermal extremes are critical to advanced electronics for ultrahigh densities and/or harsh conditions. However, conventional high-performance polymer dielectrics generally have conjugated aromatic backbones, leading to limited bandgaps and hence high conduction loss and poor energy densities, especially at elevated temperatures. A polyoxafluoronorbornene is reported, which has a key design feature in that it is a polyolefin consisting of repeating units of fairly rigid fused bicyclic structures and alkenes separated by freely rotating single bonds, endowing it with a large bandgap of ≈5 eV and flexibility, while being temperature-invariantly stable over -160 to 160 °C. At 150 °C, the polyoxafluoronorbornene exhibits an electrical conductivity two orders of magnitude lower than the best commercial high-temperature polymers, and features an unprecedented discharged energy density of 5.7 J cm-3 far outperforming the best reported flexible dielectrics. The design strategy uncovered in this work reveals a hitherto unexplored space for the design of scalable and efficient polymer dielectrics for electrical power and electronic systems under concurrent harsh electrical and thermal conditions.

3.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(9): 1586-1603, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226304

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) infection exhibited high heterogeneity at individual cells level, including the different gene expression patterns and varying amounts of progeny virus. However, the underlying mechanism of such variability remains obscure. The importance of host long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in virus infection had been recognized, while the contribution of lncRNAs to the heterogeneous infection remains unknown. Herein, a prior single-cell RNA sequencing data using HSV-1 reporter strain expressing ICP4-YFP was re-analyzed to obtain the differentially expressed lncRNA between the successfully initiated viral gene expression (ICP4-YFP+) cells and the aborted infection cells (ICP4-YFP-). The ICP4-YFP+ population show a higher abundance of MAMDC2 antisense 1 (MAMDC2-AS1) lncRNA than ICP4-YFP- population. MAMDC2-AS1 silencing reduces the expression of HSV-1 immediate early (IE) genes and limit HSV-1 infection in human host cells. Consistently, ectopic expression of MAMDC2-AS1 enhances HSV-1 IE genes transcription and facilitates the formation of HSV-1-induced plaques. Mechanically, both RNA-pull down and RNA immunoprecipitation assays show that MAMDC2-AS1 interacts with the RNA binding protein heat shock protein 90α (Hsp90α), a molecular chaperone involving in the nuclear import of HSV-1. The MAMDC2-AS1-Hsp90α interaction facilitates the nuclear transport of viral tegument protein VP16, the core factor initiating the expression of HSV-1 IE genes. The transcription factor YY1 mediates the induction of MAMDC2-AS1 upon HSV-1 infection. Our study elucidates the contribution of lncRNA to HSV-1 infection susceptibility in human cells and the role of Hsp90α RNA binding activity in HSV-1 infection.

4.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227142

RESUMO

Importance: Computed tomography (CT) radiation doses vary across institutions and are often higher than needed. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of 2 interventions to reduce radiation doses in patients undergoing CT. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial included 864 080 adults older than 18 years who underwent CT of the abdomen, chest, combined abdomen and chest, or head at 100 facilities in 6 countries from November 1, 2015, to September 21, 2017. Data analysis was performed from October 4, 2017, to December 14, 2018. Interventions: Imaging facilities received audit feedback alone comparing radiation-dose metrics with those of other facilities followed by the multicomponent intervention, including audit feedback with targeted suggestions, a 7-week quality improvement collaborative, and best-practice sharing. Facilities were randomly allocated to the time crossing from usual care to the intervention. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were the proportion of high-dose CT scans and mean effective dose at the facility level. Secondary outcomes were organ doses. Outcomes after interventions were compared with those before interventions using hierarchical generalized linear models adjusting for temporal trends and patient characteristics. Results: Across 100 facilities, 864 080 adults underwent 1 156 657 CT scans. The multicomponent intervention significantly reduced proportions of high-dose CT scans, measured using effective dose. Absolute changes in proportions of high-dose scans were 1.1% to 7.9%, with percentage reductions in the proportion of high-dose scans of 4% to 30% (abdomen: odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% CI, 0.77-0.88; P < .001; chest: OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.99; P = .03; combined abdomen and chest: OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.41-0.59; P < .001; and head: OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.66-0.76; P < .001). Reductions in the proportions of high-dose scans were greater when measured using organ doses. The absolute reduction in the proportion of high-dose scans was 6.0% to 17.2%, reflecting 23% to 58% reductions in the proportions of high-dose scans across anatomical areas. Mean effective doses were significantly reduced after multicomponent intervention for abdomen (6% reduction, P < .001), chest (4%, P < .001), and chest and abdomen (14%, P < .001) CT scans. Larger reductions in mean organ doses were 8% to 43% across anatomical areas. Audit feedback alone reduced the proportions of high-dose scans and mean dose, but reductions in observed dose were smaller. Radiologist's satisfaction with CT image quality was unchanged and high during all periods. Conclusions and Relevance: For imaging facilities, detailed feedback on CT radiation dose combined with actionable suggestions and quality improvement education significantly reduced doses, particularly organ doses. Effects of audit feedback alone were modest. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03000751.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 393: 122407, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135362

RESUMO

Sponge iron (s-Fe0) is a potential alternative electron donor for nitrate reduction. To gain insight into the mechanism of denitrification in a constructed wetland- sponge iron coupled system (CW-Fe0 system), the removal performance and reduction characteristics of nitrate in constructed wetlands (CWs) with and without s-Fe0 application were compared. Results indicated that s-Fe0 intensified the removal of nitrate with a 6h-HRT. The nitrate removal efficiency was improved by 16-76 % with various influent NO3--N concentrations (10-30 mg L-1) and at a chemical oxygen demand(COD)/N ratio of 5. The rates of chemical denitrification were positively correlated with the dosage of s-Fe0 and negatively correlated with the influent COD concentration. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that hydrogen-utilizing autotrophic denitrifier of Hydrogenophaga was highly enriched (accounting for 10 % of the total OTUs) only in CW-Fe0 system. The micro-environment created by s-Fe0 was suitable for heterotrophic denitrifiers of Thauera, Tessaracoccus and Simplicispira. The determination of physiological indicators for plants showed that the application of s-Fe0 causes abiotic stress to wetland plants (Canna indica L.). Nevertheless, s-Fe0 can be used as a substrate for CWs, since it allows a high-efficiency removal of nitrate by mediating chemical denitrification and hydrogen-driven autotrophic denitrification.

6.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141453

RESUMO

Delivering the pten gene into tumor cells to reacquire PTEN functionality is considered to be an attractive method for cancer treatment. However, the inhibition effect of the tumor intracellular microenvironment (TIME), especially at the high reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, on pten expression and PTEN protein functionality was nearly overlooked. Herein, the development of a potential strategy is described, which enhances PTEN-mediated anti-tumor capability by exhausting the intracellular ROS in TIME. To achieve this, poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI)-modified DSPE was introduced to protect the pten plasmid, and form liposomes for encapsulating the "scavenger" of oxidation homeostasis, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Notably, this was a simple system with improved safety compared which when compared with the use of PEI could accomplish efficient pten transfection and simultaneous disintegration to cause transient release of EGCG responding to the endosome environment through the "proton sponge effect". In the cytoplasm, EGCG depleted ROS and promoted the expression of the pten gene as well as restoring protein functionality, thus negatively regulating the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. In vitro and in vivo results revealed that this system significantly inhibited tumor growth via remodeling of the TIME, and provided a promising way to control malignant tumors.

7.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126538, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220720

RESUMO

Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the efficiency of a simultaneous metal stabilization, persulfate oxidation and bioremediation for decontaminating polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and toxic metals from an actual soil polluted by the recycling activity of electronic waste. Biochar and bentonite were applied to the soil for immobilizing heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni). It was found that the toxicity level declined most significantly in the case of 20 g/kg biochar +20 g/kg bentonite. A low dose of persulfate (20 mmol/kg soil) was found to be suitable for oxidizing soil PBDEs and enhancing the bioavailability of PBDEs residue. Persulfate oxidation reduced the soil organic matter content, and caused dramatic decrease of bacterial density. Nevertheless, microbial activity and number recovered on the whole during 90 days of bioremediation. Finally, a degradation efficiency of 94.6% and a mineralization efficiency of 60.3% were obtained by the hybrid treatment scheme. The pyrosequencing analysis indicates that soil bacterial community changed obviously during the treatments, and there was an enrichment of PBDE-degrading populations during bioremediation relative to that of oxidized soil.

8.
Virol J ; 17(1): 41, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 1, an enveloped DNA virus belonging to the Herpesviridae family, spreads to neurons and causes pathological changes in the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potency and mechanism of antiviral activity of Aspergillipeptide D, a cyclic pentapeptide isolated from a culture broth of marine gorgonian-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO 41501, At present, there are many studies on the anti-tumor, anti-clotting, anti-oxidant and immunoinflammatory effects of Aspergillipeptide D, but little research has been done on the anti-HSV-1 activity of Aspergillipeptide D. METHODS: The anti-HSV-1 activity of Aspergillipeptide D was evaluated by plaque reduction assay. The mechanism of action against HSV-1 was determined from the effective stage. Then we assayed the viral DNA replication, viral RNA synthesis and protein expression, respectively. We also identified the proteins that interact with gB by mass spectrometry, and assayed the effect of Aspergillipeptide D on the interaction between the virus gB protein and cell proteins. RESULTS: Plaque reduction experiments showed that Aspergillipeptide D did not affect HSV-1 early infection events, including viral inactivation, attachment and penetration. Interestingly, Aspergillipeptide D dramatically reduced both the gene and protein levels of viral late protein gB, and suppressed its location in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. In contrast, overexpression of gB restored viral production. Finally, proteomic analysis revealed that the numbers of cellular proteins that interacted with gB protein was largely decreased by Aspergillipeptide D. These results suggested that Aspergillipeptide D inhibited gB function to affect HSV-1 intercellular spread. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that Aspergillipeptide D might be a potential candidate for HSV-1 therapy, especially for ACV-resistant strains.

9.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192955

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify organizational factors and quality improvement strategies associated with lower radiation doses from abdominal CT. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey were administered to radiology leaders, along with simultaneous measurement of CT radiation dose among 19 health care organizations with 100 imaging centers throughout the United States, Europe, and Japan, using a common dose management software system. After adjusting for patient age, gender, and size, quality improvement strategies were tested for association with mean abdominal CT radiation dose and the odds of a high-dose examination. RESULTS: Completed surveys were received from 90 imaging centers (90%), and 182,415 abdominal CT scans were collected during the study period. Radiation doses varied considerably across organizations and centers. Univariate analyses identified eight strategies and systems that were significantly associated with lower average doses or lower frequency of high doses for abdominal CT examinations: tracking patient safety measures, assessing the impact of CT changes, identifying areas for improvement, setting specific goals, organizing improvement teams, tailoring decisions to sites, testing process changes before full implementation, and standardizing workflow. These processes were associated with an 18% to 37% reduction in high-dose examinations (P < .001-.03). In multivariate analysis, having a tracking system for patient safety measures, supportive radiology leaders, and obtaining clear images were associated with a 47% reduction in high-dose examinations. CONCLUSIONS: This documentation of the relation between quality improvement strategies and radiation exposure from CT examinations has identified important information for others interested in reducing the radiation exposure of their patients.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 606, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001696

RESUMO

Manipulating liquids with tunable shape and optical functionalities in real time is important for electroactive flow devices and optoelectronic devices, but remains a great challenge. Here, we demonstrate electrotunable liquid sulfur microdroplets in an electrochemical cell. We observe electrowetting and merging of sulfur droplets under different potentiostatic conditions, and successfully control these processes via selective design of sulfiphilic/sulfiphobic substrates. Moreover, we employ the electrowetting phenomena to create a microlens based on the liquid sulfur microdroplets and tune its characteristics in real time through changing the shape of the liquid microdroplets in a fast, repeatable, and controlled manner. These studies demonstrate a powerful in situ optical battery platform for unraveling the complex reaction mechanism of sulfur chemistries and for exploring the rich material properties of the liquid sulfur, which shed light on the applications of liquid sulfur droplets in devices such as microlenses, and potentially other electrotunable and optoelectronic devices.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006333

RESUMO

Artemisinin sustained-release microspheres (ASMs) with long-term inhibition effects (> 40 days) on harmful freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacteria have been found in previous studies, but the inhibition mechanism is not completely clear. In the present study, we examined the growth effect of ASMs on Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) cells at different physiological stages. Growth experiments indicated that M. aeruginosa of different initial densities could be inhibited immediately and chlorophyll-a content both showed significant decreases following exposure of cyanobacteria to optimal dosage of ASMs for 20 days. The algicidal mechanism of ASMs was tested through a suite of physiological parameters (membrane permeability, antioxidant enzymes activity, and lipid peroxidation). The rise of cell membrane permeability indices (intracellular protein, nucleic acid contents, and conductivity) showed that the cellular membrane structure of M. aeruginosa was attacked by ASMs directly causing the leakage of cytoplasm. Antioxidant enzyme activity was a sensitive indicator of the impacts of ASMs which showed a significant downtrend after a few days. ASMs caused a great increase in •O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA) level of the algal cells which indicated the increase in lipid peroxidation of M. aeruginosa. Irreversible membrane damage induced by ASMs via the oxidation of ROS may be an important factor responsible for the algicidal mechanism of ASMs on M. aeruginosa cells. The application of ASMs might provide a new direction to control M. aeruginosa, especially before the exponential phase according to the optimal economy and inhibition effect. Graphical abstract.

12.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 24(4): 389-402, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106726

RESUMO

Objectives: Cepharanthine exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects against numerous cancers by virtue of its pleiotropic mechanisms. However, cepharanthine monotherapy has insufficient drug efficacy for cancers in animal models and clinical trials. The mechanism of its limited efficacy is unknown.Methods: We investigated the possible mechanism for the limited drug efficacy of cepharanthine in cancer therapy using both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) primary cells and cell lines, in vitro and in mouse xenograft models.Results: We found that cepharanthine hydrochloride (CH), a semi-synthetic derivative of cepharanthine, induced mitophagy independent of mTOR signaling, and played an AMPK-dependent protective role in the cell fate of HCC in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that CH may bind to GPR30 receptor to activate the subsequent signal cascade involving mitochondrial fission, thus facilitating mitophagy. Therefore, we proposed a new therapeutic regimen for HCC involving CH combined with an autophagy inhibitor. This regimen exhibited remarkable anti-cancer effects in HCC xenograft mouse model.Conclusion: These results identify CH as a new mitophagy inducer targeting GPR30 receptor. The combination therapy of CH and an autophagy inhibitor may become a novel strategy for enhancing the anti-tumor potential of cepharanthine in HCC.

13.
Nano Lett ; 20(2): 1117-1123, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003222

RESUMO

Endosomal escape is a key step for intracellular drug delivery of nucleic acids, but reliable and sensitive methods for its quantitation remain an unmet need. In order to rationally optimize the mRNA transfection efficiency of a library of polymeric materials, we designed a deactivated Renilla luciferase-derived molecular probe whose activity can be restored only in the cytosol. This probe can be coencapsulated with mRNA in the same delivery vehicle, thereby accurately measuring its endosomal escape efficiency. We examined a library of poly(amine-co-ester) (PACE) polymers with different end groups using this probe and observed a strong correlation between endosomal escape and transfection efficiency (R2 = 0.9334). In addition, we found that mRNA encapsulation efficiency and endosomal escape, but not uptake, were determinant factors for transfection efficiency. The polymers with high endosomal escape/transfection efficiency in vitro also showed good transfection efficiency in vivo, and mRNA expression was primarily observed in spleens after intravenous delivery. Together, our study suggests that the luciferase probe can be used as an effective tool to quantitate endosomal escape, which is essential for rational optimization of intracellular drug delivery systems.

14.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113918, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023794

RESUMO

Natural sources, such as soil and wind-erosion dust (SWD), biomass open burning (BOB), sea salt spray (SSAS) and biogenic source (BIO), are major contributors to atmospheric emissions of trace elements (TEs) globally. In this study, we used a comprehensive approach to account for area-, production- and biofuel consumption-based emission factor calculation methods, and thus developed an integrated high-resolution emission inventory for 15 types of TEs (As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn) originated from natural sources in China for the year 2015. The results show that national emissions of TEs in 2015 range from 7.45 tons (Hg) to 1, 400 tons (Zn) except for the extremely high emissions of Mn (10, 677 tons). SWD and BIO are identified as the top two source contributors, accounting for approximately 67.7% and 26.1% of the total emissions, respectively. Absolute emissions of TEs from natural sources are high in the Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Tibet autonomous regions with large areas of bare soil and desert. However, emission intensity of TEs per unit area in the Southern provinces of China is higher than those in Northern China and Southwestern China, with the Yunnan and Sichuan provinces displaying the highest emission intensity. Our results suggest that controlling SWD can play a significant role in reducing fugitive particulate matter and the associated emissions of TEs from natural sources in China; and desertification control is particularly critical in the Northwest provinces where the majority of deserts are located.

15.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(6): 126966, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001136

RESUMO

Herein, we report the discovery of a series of thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one derivatives as a new class of ROCK inhibitors. Structure-activity relationship studies of these compounds led to the identification of the most potent compound, 3-(3-methoxybenzyl)-6-(1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl)thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one (8k), which showed IC50 values of 0.004 µM and 0.001 µM against ROCK Ⅰ and ROCK Ⅱ, respectively. In vitro, 8k significantly reduced the phosphorylation level of ROCK downstream signaling protein and induce changes in cell morphology and migration. Overall, this study provides a promising lead compound for drug discovery targeting ROCKs.

16.
Environ Pollut ; 260: 114047, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028193

RESUMO

In this work, soil contaminated by petroleum resins was remediated by electrokinetic-bioremediation (EK-BIO) technology for 60 days. A microbial consortium, comprising Rhizobium sp., Arthrobacter globiformis, Clavibacter xyli, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp., was used to enhance the treatment performance. The results indicate that resin removal and phytotoxicity reduction were highest in the inoculated EK process, wherein 23.6% resins was removed from the soil and wheat seed germination ratio was increased from 47% to around 90% after treatment. The microbial counts, soil basal respiration and dehydrogenase activity were positively related to resins degradation, and they could be enhanced by direct current electric field. After remediation, the C/H ratio of resins decreased from 8.03 to 6.47. Furthermore, the structure of resins was analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) before and after treatment. It was found that the changes of the structure of resins took place during EK-BIO treatment and finally led to the reduction of aromaticity, aromaticity condensation and phytotoxicity.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2467, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051489

RESUMO

Facile fabrication and high ambient stability are strongly desired for the practical application of temperautre sensor in real-time wearable healthcare. Herein, a fully printed flexible temperature sensor based on cross-linked poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was developed. By introducing the crosslinker of (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GOPS) and the fluorinated polymer passivation (CYTOP), significant enhancements in humidity stability and temperature sensitivity of PEDOT:PSS based film were achieved. The prepared sensor exhibited excellent stability in environmental humidity ranged from 30% RH to 80% RH, and high sensitivity of -0.77% °C-1 for temperature sensing between 25 °C and 50 °C. Moreover, a wireless temperature sensing platform was obtained by integrating the printed sensor to a printed flexible hybrid circuit, which performed a stable real-time healthcare monitoring.

18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently there is no guideline based on preoperative clinical parameters for assessing the prognosis of the adjunctive surgery for drug-resistant tuberculosis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 138 patients who have undergone surgical resection as a treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis after 24 months. Four clinical parameters on lesion type, treatment history, body physiological status, and surgery approach were evaluated. Categorical preoperative clinical parameters were analyzed by ordinal logistic regression model when considering postoperative complications as outcomes ordered in terms of severity. Statistically significant parameters were then combined in a single classification system for predicting the outcomes of the adjunctive surgery. FINDINGS: Diffused, progressive bilateral lesions, or active/progressive extra pulmonary tuberculosis (L3), history of less than 2 months treatment before surgery (T3) were the strongest predicative parameters for postoperative complications and for surgery failure. Classification system based on the four parameters were found to have a statistically significant effect on postoperative complications and postoperative efficacy. 24-month follow up indicated high cure rate (above 95.5%) among patients without T3, L3, or severe physiological complications (B3). INTERPRETATION: A classification system based on objective clinical parameters showed predicative value for the prognosis of the adjunctive surgery and could guide management of drug-resistant Tuberculosis.

19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 109934, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sanhuangshu'ai decoction (SH), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, has been safely used to treat diarrhea, dysentery and other inflammatory diseases with little side effect and low cost for thousands of years. However, its mechanism remains elusive. This study was designed to investigate the anti-ulcerative colitis (UC) activity of SH and mechanism by detecting its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and intervention effects of intestinal flora with the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mice. METHODS: The DSS-induced colitis mice was orally administered SH for 1 week with 0.8 or 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 dosage. A clinical disease activity score was evaluated daily. The colonic tissues of the mice were collected and prepared to detect its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, intervention effects of intestinal flora and hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) in vivo, cytotoxicity and ROS influencing effects in vitro. Histological colitis severity and expression of cytokines were also determined. RESULTS: Oral administration of SH significantly prevented the development of colitis. It reduced the expression of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the colon. Moreover, SH administration alleviated the oxidative stress in the colon of DSS-induced colitis mice, evidenced by the decrease of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and increase of ROS level. Furthermore, SH can prevent the decrease ofLactobacillus sp. and population abundance of intestinal flora caused by DSS. CONCLUSION: SH significantly ameliorates the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis mice and the potential mechanism of SH may involve in multiple kinds of metabolic pathway including the regulation of gut microbiota, inflammatory mediators and cytokines.

20.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31979410

RESUMO

Fermented pastes are some of the most popular traditional products in China. Many studies reported a strong possibility that fermented pastes promote exposure to mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and cereulide, which were proven to be carcinogenic and neurotoxic to humans. The primary mechanism of pathogenicity is by inhibiting protein synthesis and inducing oxidative stress using cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. The level of mycotoxin production is dependent on the pre-harvest or post-harvest stage. It is possible to implement methods to control mycotoxins by using appropriate antagonistic microorganisms, such as Aspergillus niger, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from ordinary foods. Also, drying products as soon as possible to avoid condensation or moisture absorption in order to reduce the water activity to lower than 0.82 during storage is also effective. Furthermore, organic acid treatment during the soaking process reduces toxins by more than 90%. Some novel detection technologies based on magnetic adsorption, aptamer probes, and molecular-based methods were applied to rapidly and accurately detect mycotoxins in fermented pastes.

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