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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141784, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889265

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that perinatal dioxin exposure affects neurodevelopment and impairs multiple brain functions, including cognitive, language, learning and emotion, in the offspring. However, the impacts of gestational and lactational exposure to dioxin on behavior and related molecular events are still not fully understood. In this study, female C57BL/6J mice were orally administered three doses of 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (0.1 or 10 µg/kg body weight (bw)) during the pregnancy and lactation periods. The locomotion, exploration and anxiety-related behaviors were examined by an open field test of the young adult female offspring at postnatal day 68. We found that the maternal TCDD exposure, particularly at a low dose, increased movement ability, novelty-exploration and certain anxiety-related behaviors in the offspring. Such hyperactivity-like behaviors were accompanied by the upregulation of certain genes associated with cholinergic neurotransmission or synaptogenesis in the offspring brain. In accordance with the potential enhancement of cholinergic neurotransmission due to the gene upregulations, the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase was decreased, which might lead to excess acetylcholine and consequent hyper-excitation at the synapses. Thus, we found that gestational and lactational TCDD exposure at low dose caused hyperactivity-like behaviors in young adult female offspring and speculated the enhancement of cholinergic neurotransmission and synaptogenesis as potential molecular events underlying the neurobehavioral effects.

2.
Lasers Med Sci ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808146

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toluidine blue-mediated photodynamic therapy (TB-PDT) on the periodontitis-induced bone resorption in periodontitis in rats. Periodontal disease was induced by cotton ligature around the right second maxillary molar in 64 rats. After 4 weeks, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: sterile saline solution (control group); laser therapy (laser group); TB (100 µg/mL); TB plus laser (0.15 W/cm2) irradiation every other day for 240 s (PDT group). All rats were euthanized at 15 days postoperatively. Eight gingival tissue samples were collected from each group. The expressions of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in gingival tissue samples were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The maxillae from the rest of the rats were taken for histological examination. In the PDT group, the analysis revealed less bone loss than in the control treatment (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found among the control group, TB group, and laser group (P > 0.05). Significantly higher and lower expressions of RANKL and OPG were revealed in the PDT group than that in control group, respectively (P < 0.01). When compared with the control group, the expression of RANKL was significantly reduced by 40.0% in periodontitis in rats treated with TB-PDT for 15 days (P < 0.01). The expression of OPG was increased in the PDT group with TB-PDT for 15 days, when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). TB-PDT treatment significantly reverses the abnormal expression of RANKL and OPG in periodontitis in rats.

3.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562023

RESUMO

KDEL receptor cycles between the ER and the Golgi to retrieve ER-resident chaperones that get leaked to the secretory pathway during protein export from the ER. Recent studies have shown that a fraction of KDEL receptor may reside in the plasma membrane and function as a putative cell surface receptor. However, the trafficking itinerary and mechanism of cell surface expressed KDEL receptor remains largely unknown. In this study, we used N-terminally Halo-tagged KDEL receptor to investigate its endocytosis from the plasma membrane and trafficking itinerary of the endocytosed receptor through the endolysosomal compartments. Our results indicate that surface-expressed KDEL receptor undergoes highly complex recycling pathways via the Golgi and peri-nuclear recycling endosomes that are positive for Rab11 and Rab14, respectively. Unexpectedly, KDEL receptor appears to preferentially utilize clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway as well as clathrin-dependent transport carriers for export from the trans-Golgi network. Taken together, we suggest that KDEL receptor may be a bona fide cell surface receptor with a complex, yet well-defined trafficking itinerary through the endolysosomal compartments.

4.
Small ; 16(32): e2001526, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583965

RESUMO

Recently, binary ZnCo2 O4 has drawn enormous attention for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) as attractive anode owing to its large theoretical capacity and good environmental benignity. However, the modest electrical conductivity and serious volumetric effect/particle agglomeration over cycling hinder its extensive applications. To address the concerns, herein, a rapid laser-irradiation methodology is firstly devised toward efficient synthesis of oxygen-vacancy abundant nano-ZnCo2 O4 /porous reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrids as anodes for LIBs. The synergistic contributions from nano-dimensional ZnCo2 O4 with rich oxygen vacancies and flexible rGO guarantee abundant active sites, fast electron/ion transport, and robust structural stability, and inhibit the agglomeration of nanoscale ZnCo2 O4 , favoring for superb electrochemical lithium-storage performance. More encouragingly, the optimal L-ZCO@rGO-30 anode exhibits a large reversible capacity of ≈1053 mAh g-1 at 0.05 A g-1 , excellent cycling stability (≈746 mAh g-1 at 1.0 A g-1 after 250 cycles), and preeminent rate capability (≈686 mAh g-1 at 3.2 A g-1 ). Further kinetic analysis corroborates that the capacitive-controlled process dominates the involved electrochemical reactions of hybrid anodes. More significantly, this rational design holds the promise of being extended for smart fabrication of other oxygen-vacancy abundant metal oxide/porous rGO hybrids toward advanced LIBs and beyond.

5.
Nanoscale ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369075

RESUMO

To realize high-rate and long-term performance of rechargeable batteries, the most effective approach is to develop an advanced hybrid material with a stable structure and more reaction active sites. Recently, 2D MXenes have become an up-and-coming electrode owing to their high conductivity and large redox-active surface area. In this work, we firstly prepared Ti3C2 MXenes through the selective etching of silicon from Ti3SiC2 (MAX) using HF and an oxidant for highly durable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The interlayer distance of Ti3C2 MXenes can be controlled with the oxidizability of the oxidant and etching temperature. In addition, Ti3C2@TiO2 MXene hybrids with further expanded interlayer spacing were purposefully fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. The hierarchical N-doped Ti3C2@TiO2 MXene hybrids show that the in situ synthesized nanoscale TiO2 particles are loaded homogeneously on the layered N-doped Ti3C2 surface. The interlayer distance of N-doped Ti3C2@TiO2 MXene can reach 12.77 Å when using HNO3 as the oxidant at room temperature. As an anode material, the N-doped Ti3C2@TiO2(HNO3-RT) hybrid displays a high reversible capacity of 302 mA h g-1 at 200 mA g-1 after 500 cycles and 154 mA h g-1 at 2000 mA g-1 after 1500 cycles, which indicates its long cycle lifetime and excellent stability in LIBs. This highly durable LIB anode performance is ascribed to synergetic contributions from the high capacitive contribution, high electrical conductivity, high-capacity of in situ formed nanoscale TiO2 and interlayer-expanded architecture of the N-doped Ti3C2@TiO2(HNO3-RT). This study provides a theoretical basis for the application of MXenes as high capacity anodes for advanced LIBs.

6.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 216: 106466, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414468

RESUMO

Prostaglandins (PG) have primary functions in the reproductive tract, however, the mechanism of regulation of PG secretion in the endometrium is unclear. Estrogen as a predominant regulator of uterine functions during the mammalian estrous cycle and effects of estrogen on synthesis of PG and function in uterine tissues of cattle are not fully understood. In this study, there was evaluation of the concentration- and time-effects of 17ß-estradiol on PG synthesis in endometrial explants of cattle, focusing on the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) as well as relative abundance of mRNA transcript and protein for both the enzymes responsible for PGE2 and PGF2α synthesis, including prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 and 2 (PTGS1, PTGS2), PGE2 synthase (PGES), PGF2α synthase (PGFS), and carbonyl reductase (CBR1), and the receptors responsible for downstream PGE2 (PTGER2, PTGER4) and PGF2α (PTGFR) signaling. Results indicated that 17ß-estradiol increased PGE2 and PGF2α production at concentrations ranging from 10-11 to 10-8 M. Furthermore, abundances of PTGS1, PTGS2, PGES, PGFS, PTGER2, PTGER4, and PTGFR mRNA transcripts and protein were greater immediately after 17ß-estradiol treatment at almost all the concentrations, while these CBR1 abundances were less as a result of treatments with 17ß-estradiol. These data support the hypothesis that estradiol modulates the synthesis and function of PG in the endometrium of cattle.

7.
Small ; : e1907153, 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285595

RESUMO

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries as a promising energy storage candidate have attracted attention due to their high energy density (2600 Wh kg-1 ). However, the serious shuttle effect caused by the dissolution of the lithium polysulfides (LiPS) in electrolyte significantly degrades their cycling life and rate performance. Herein, the "binary active sites" concept in a Li-S battery system via the design of a cobalt vanadium oxide (CVO) modified multifunctional separator is designed. In the case of CVO, active vanadium sites simultaneously anchor the LiPS through the chemical affinity and active cobalt sites can dominate a rapid kinetic conversion. Such a synergistic effect contributes to improving the utilization of sulfur in the electrochemical process for the enhanced electrochemical performance. As a result, the Li-S battery with the CVO modified separator possesses a high reversible capacity of 1585.5 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and superior cycling stability with 0.012% capacity decay cycle-1 after 3000 cycles. More impressively, the assembled soft-packaged Li-S devices can exhibit the excellent stability under bending states. This binary active sites strategy provides a route to design the functional materials for modifying separators of Li-S batteries to improve the performance.

8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 526(4): 1100-1105, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307082

RESUMO

There is a growing body of evidence that abscisic acid (ABA) and the phytochrome-interacting factor (PIF) family of transcription factors interact in light signaling, the regulation of plant growth development, and adaptation to environmental stimuli. In this study, we investigate the role that PIFs play in the regulation of ABA signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown under long-day conditions. We showed that PIFs positively regulate ABA signaling in post-germination seedling growth. We analyzed the DNA-binding sites for PIF3 and PIF5 by DNA-affinity purification sequencing (DAP-seq) genome-wide. The DAP-seq data showed that G-box motif is the direct binding site of PIF3 and PIF5, and a number of ABA responsive genes are potential targets of PIFs, including PYL3, PYL6, PYL12, SnRK2.2, CPK4, CPK6, ABI5, ABF3, and KIN1. Our results provide a basis for understanding the mechanism for PIFs in regulating ABA signal transduction.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea in children under five years of age remains a challenge in reducing child mortality in Nepal. Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns and influencing factors of the disease is important for control and intervention. METHODS: Data regarding diarrhea prevalence and its potential influencing factors were extracted from the Demographic and Health Surveys in Nepal and other open-access databases. A Bayesian logistic regression model with district-specific spatio-temporal random effects was applied to explore the space and time patterns of diarrhea risk, as well as the relationships between the risk and the potential influencing factors. RESULTS: Both the observed prevalence and the estimated spatiotemporal effects show a decreasing diarrhea risk trend from 2006 to 2016 in most districts of Nepal, with a few exceptions, such as Achham and Rasuwa. The disease risk decreased with mothers' years of education (OR 0.93, 95% Bayesian Credible Interval (BCI) 0.87, 0.997). Compared to spring, autumn and winter had lower risks of diarrhea. The risk firstly increased and then decreased with age and children under 12-24 months old were the highest risk group (OR 1.20, 95% BCI 1.04, 1.38). Boys had higher risk than girls (OR 1.24, 95% BCI 1.13, 1.39). Even though improved sanitation wasn't found significant within a 95% BCI, there was 93.2% of chance of it being a protective factor. There were no obvious spatiotemporal clusters among districts and each district tended to have its own spatiotemporal diarrhea prevalence pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The important risk factors identified by our Bayesian spatial-temporal modeling provide insights for control and intervention on children diarrhea in Nepal. Special attention should be paid to high risk groups of children and high risk seasons, as well as districts with high risk or increased trend of risk. Effective actions should be implemented to improve sanitation and women's education level. District-specific control planning is recommended for local governments for effective control of children diarrhea in Nepal.

10.
Chem Asian J ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176427

RESUMO

Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) based on flexible electrode materials are being investigated recently for improving sluggish kinetics and developing energy density. Transition metal selenides present excellent conductivity and high capacity; nevertheless, their low conductivity and serious volume expansion raise challenging issues of inferior lifespan and capacity fading. Herein, an in-situ construction method through carbonization and selenide synergistic effect is skillfully designed to synthesize a flexible electrode of bone-like CoSe2 nano-thorn coated on porous carbon cloth. The designed flexible CoSe2 electrode with stable structural feature displays enhanced Na-ion storage capabilities with good rate performance and outstanding cycling stability. As expected, the designed SIBs with flexible BL-CoSe2 /PCC electrode display excellent reversible capacity with 360.7 mAh g-1 after 180 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 .

11.
Nanoscale ; 12(7): 4445-4451, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026922

RESUMO

Binary transition metal oxides (BTMOs) have been regarded as one of the most hopeful anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their high theoretical capacity, excellent electrochemical activity and abundant electrochemical reactions. However, BTMOs still suffer from two main problems, which are poor conductivity and large volume expansion during the charge/discharge processes. In order to address the above-mentioned problems, mesoporous MnFe2O4@C nanorods have been successfully synthesized in this work. The synergistic effect of the cross-linked carbon framework and mesoporous structure greatly improves the electrochemical performances. As expected, the mesoporous MnFe2O4@C electrode manifests discharge capacities of 987.5 and 816.6 mA h g-1 at the current densities of 100 and 2000 mA g-1, respectively, with the capacity retention ratio of 82.7%, exerting distinguished rate capabilities for LIBs.

12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(D1): D913-D926, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642496

RESUMO

De novo mutations (DNMs) significantly contribute to sporadic diseases, particularly in neuropsychiatric disorders. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provide effective methods for detecting DNMs and prioritizing candidate genes. However, it remains a challenge for scientists, clinicians, and biologists to conveniently access and analyse data regarding DNMs and candidate genes from scattered publications. To fill the unmet need, we integrated 580 799 DNMs, including 30 060 coding DNMs detected by WES/WGS from 23 951 individuals across 24 phenotypes and prioritized a list of candidate genes with different degrees of statistical evidence, including 346 genes with false discovery rates <0.05. We then developed a database called Gene4Denovo (http://www.genemed.tech/gene4denovo/), which allowed these genetic data to be conveniently catalogued, searched, browsed, and analysed. In addition, Gene4Denovo integrated data from >60 genomic sources to provide comprehensive variant-level and gene-level annotation and information regarding the DNMs and candidate genes. Furthermore, Gene4Denovo provides end-users with limited bioinformatics skills to analyse their own genetic data, perform comprehensive annotation, and prioritize candidate genes using custom parameters. In conclusion, Gene4Denovo conveniently allows for the accelerated interpretation of DNM pathogenicity and the clinical implication of DNMs in humans.

13.
Langmuir ; 35(45): 14473-14480, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621327

RESUMO

To prepare intelligent controllable oil/water separation materials with high mechanical stability and good recyclability, we fabricated a novel pH-controlled wettability melamine sponge by using a facile dip-coating method. The coated sponge exhibits reversibly switchable wettability between superhydrophilicity-superoleophobicity through acidic surrounding and superhydrophobicity-superoleophilicity under neutral or alkaline conditions. The as-prepared sponge possesses excellent absorption capacity (46.06-122.81 g/g) and oil/water separation efficiency (above 98%). The coated sponge also has good mechanical stability and recyclability which means it can be reused for absorption and oil/water separation. This smart porous material, which can flexibly transform wettability on demand, has great application prospects in oil/water separation.

14.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545763

RESUMO

This article is dedicated to the consensus problem for interacting agents of the double-integrator dynamics subject to antagonistic reciprocity, described by negative scalar parameters. To this end, we first show the existence of the weighted gains which play an essential role for solving the consensus problem. Then, we establish the relationship between the weighted gains and scalar parameters to guarantee that the underlying ``Laplacian'' matrix contains a simple zero eigenvalue and the remaining eigenvalues enjoy positive real parts. Based on the above analysis, we further proceed to solve the considered problem. A major difficulty is that the Laplacian matrices, associated with the position and velocity information, are entirely distinct from each other, leading to the failure of the conventional consensus method for the second-order dynamics. We derive some criteria involving the weighted gains, the scaling parameters, and the real/image parts of the Laplacian matrix of the interaction graph. Moreover, some special frameworks, which have been extensively studied in the literature, are also elaborated on. Compared with the Altafini's model, we do not need to redefine a new Laplacian matrix, and more important, the restriction on the digon sign-symmetry property is removed. It is worth mentioning that the proposed consensus algorithm cannot be deduced by the Altafini's model or its variants. Finally, a wheeled multirobot system is formulated to validate the efficiency of the theoretical results.

15.
Adv Mater ; 31(40): e1903955, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423664

RESUMO

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have arousing interest because of their high theoretical energy density. However, they often suffer from sluggish conversion of lithium polysulfides (LiPS) during the charge/discharge process. Single nickel (Ni) atoms on nitrogen-doped graphene (Ni@NG) with Ni-N4 structure are prepared and introduced to modify the separators of Li-S batteries. The oxidized Ni sites of the Ni-N4 structure act as polysulfide traps, efficiently accommodating polysulfide ion electrons by forming strong Sx 2- ⋅⋅⋅NiN bonding. Additionally, charge transfer between the LiPS and oxidized Ni sites endows the LiPS on Ni@NG with low free energy and decomposition energy barrier in an electrochemical process, accelerating the kinetic conversion of LiPS during the charge/discharge process. Furthermore, the large binding energy of LiPS on Ni@NG also shows its ability to immobilize the LiPS and further suppresses the undesirable shuttle effect. Therefore, a Li-S battery based on a Ni@NG modified separator exhibits excellent rate performance and stable cycling life with only 0.06% capacity decay per cycle. It affords fresh insights for developing single-atom catalysts to accelerate the kinetic conversion of LiPS for highly stable Li-S batteries.

16.
Microorganisms ; 7(8)2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366149

RESUMO

Oxidative stress response protects organisms from deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage cellular components and cause disturbance of the cellular homeostasis. Although the defensive biochemical mechanisms have been extensively studied in yeast and other filamentous fungi, little information is available about Aspergillus oryzae. We investigated the effect of two oxidant agents (menadione sodium bisulfite, MSB, and hydrogen peroxide, H2O2) on cellular growth and antioxidant enzyme induction in A. oryzae. Results indicated severe inhibition of biomass and conidia production when high concentration of oxidants was used. Transcriptomic analysis showed an up-regulated expression of genes involved in oxidoreduction, such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. In addition, it was observed that oxidative stress stimuli enhanced the expression of Yap1 and Skn7 transcription factors. Further, metabolomic analysis showed that glutathione content was increased in the oxidative treatments when compared with the control. Moreover, the content of unsaturated fatty acid decreased with oxidative treatment accompanying with the down-regulated expression of genes involved in linoleic acid biosynthesis. This study provided a global transcriptome characterization of oxidative stress response in A. oryzae, and can offer multiple target genes for oxidative tolerance improvement via genetic engineering.

17.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 84: 42-50, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284915

RESUMO

Ethylenediurea (EDU) has been used as a chemical protectant against ozone (O3). However, its protective effect and physiological mechanisms are still uncertain. The present study aimed to investigate the changes of foliar visible injury, physiological characteristics and emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in one-year-old Populus alba "Berolinensis" saplings pretreated with EDU and exposed to elevated O3 (EO, 120 µg/m3). The results showed that foliar visible injury symptoms under EO were significantly alleviated in plants with EDU application (p < 0.05). Under EO, net photosynthetic rate, the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII and the photochemical efficiency of PSII of plants pretreated with 300 and 600 mg/L EDU were similar to unexposed controls and significantly higher compared to EO-stressed plants without EDU pretreatment, respectively. Malondialdehyde content was highest in EO without EDU and decreased significantly by 14.9% and 21.3% with 300 and 600 mg/L EDU pretreatment, respectively. EDU pretreatment alone increased superoxide dismutase activity by 10-fold in unexposed plants with further increases of 88.4% and 37.5% in EO plants pretreated with 300 and 600 mg/L EDU pretreatment, respectively (p < 0.05). Abscisic acid content declined under EO relative to unexposed controls with the effect partially reversed by EDU pretreatments. Similarly, VOCs emission rate declined under EO relative to unexposed plants with a recovery of emission rate observed with 300 and 600 mg/L EDU pretreatment. These findings provided significant evidence that EDU exerted a beneficial effect and protection on the tested plants against O3 stress.


Assuntos
Ozônio/toxicidade , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Populus/efeitos dos fármacos , Populus/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
18.
ChemSusChem ; 12(18): 4160-4164, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257728

RESUMO

Organic electrodes hold great promise for sustainable electrodes in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) owing to their easy availability from biomass. However, traditional organic electrodes suffer from two inherent problems, high solubility in organic electrolytes and low electronic conductivity. Here, a calcium organic salt, Cabpdc (bpdc=4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylate) was designed and formed into a composite with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to improve these two problems by a "two-in-one" approach. As expected, the Cabpdc/rGO composite displayed competitive cycle and rate performances as an anode for SIBs. Additionally, all-organic sodium-ion full cells were successfully fabricated combining this anode with a commercial organic cathode, promising applications for sustainable SIBs.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987085

RESUMO

Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease among children. Guangdong Province is one of the most severely affected provinces in south China. This study aims to identify the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics and potential predictors of HFMD in Guangdong Province and provide a theoretical basis for the disease control and prevention. Methods: Case-based HFMD surveillance data from 2009 to 2012 was obtained from the China Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC). The Bayesian spatiotemporal model was used to evaluate the spatiotemporal variations of HFMD and identify the potential association with meteorological and socioeconomic factors. Results: Spatially, areas with higher relative risk (RR) of HFMD tended to be clustered around the Pearl River Delta region (the mid-east of the province). Temporally, we observed that the risk of HFMD peaked from April to July and October to December each year and detected an upward trend between 2009 and 2012. There was positive nonlinear enhancement between spatial and temporal effects, and the distribution of relative risk in space was not fixed, which had an irregular fluctuating trend in each month. The risk of HFMD was significantly associated with monthly average relative humidity (RR: 1.015, 95% CI: 1.006-1.024), monthly average temperature (RR: 1.045, 95% CI: 1.021-1.069), and monthly average rainfall (RR: 1.004, 95% CI: 1.001-1.008), but not significantly associated with average GDP. Conclusions: The risk of HFMD in Guangdong showed significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity. There was spatiotemporal interaction in the relative risk of HFMD. Adding a spatiotemporal interaction term could well explain the change of spatial effect with time, thus increasing the goodness of fit of the model. Meteorological factors, such as monthly average relative humidity, monthly average temperature, and monthly average rainfall, might be the driving factors of HFMD.


Assuntos
Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Temperatura
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