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1.
Nano Lett ; 20(2): 1410-1416, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972081

RESUMO

van der Waals (vdW) integration offers a flexible strategy to nearly arbitrarily combine materials of radically different chemical compositions, crystal structures, or lattice orientations, enabling versatile heterostructures with unique electronic and photonic characteristics or other exotic properties that are difficult to access in traditional epitaxial heterostructures, as highlighted by a recent blossom in two-dimensional (2D) vdW heterostructures. However, the studies on vdW heterostructures currently have been largely limited to 2D materials, with few reports of vdW integration of traditional three-dimensional (3D) materials. Here, we show that the vdW integration approach could be extended to 3D materials for flexible integration of highly disparate materials. In particular, by assembling nanomembranes fabricated from bulk ß-gallium oxide, silicon, and platinum, we demosntrate a variety of functional devices including Schottky diodes, p-n diodes, metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors, and junction field-effect transistors. These devices exhibit excellent electronic performance, in terms of ideality factor, current on/off ratio, and subthreshold swing, laying the foundations for constructing high-performance heterostructure devices.

2.
iScience ; 19: 728-736, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476619

RESUMO

Nanostructured alloy-type electrode materials and its composites have shown extraordinary promise for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with exceptional gravimetric capacity. However, studies to date are usually limited to laboratory cells with too low mass loading (and thus too low areal capacity) to exert significant practical impact. Herein, by impregnating micrometer-sized SnO2/graphene composites into 3D holey graphene frameworks (HGF), we show that a well-designed 3D-HGF/SnO2 composite anode with a high mass loading of 12 mg cm-2 can deliver an ultra-high areal capacity up to 14.5 mAh cm-2 under current density of 0.2 mA cm-2 and stable areal capacity of 9.5 mAh cm-2 under current density of 2.4 mA cm-2, considerably outperforming those in the state-of-art research devices or commercial devices. This robust realization of high areal capacity defines a critical step to capturing the full potential of high-capacity alloy-type electrode materials in practical LIBs.

3.
Nano Lett ; 19(1): 331-337, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511871

RESUMO

Two-dimensional layered materials (2DLMs) are of considerable interest for high-performance electronic devices for their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. However, the atomically thin geometry makes their electronic properties highly susceptible to the environment changes. In particular, some 2DLMs (e.g., black phosphorus (BP) and SnSe2) are unstable and could rapidly degrade over time when exposed to ambient conditions. Therefore, the development of proper passivation schemes that can preserve the intrinsic properties and enhance their lifetime represents a key challenge for these atomically thin electronic materials. Herein we introduce a simple, nondisruptive, and scalable van der Waals passivation approach by using organic thin films to simultaneously improve the performance and air stability of BP field-effect transistors (FETs). We show that dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C8-BTBT) thin films can be readily deposited on BP via van der Waals epitaxy approach to protect BP against oxidation in ambient conditions over 20 d. Importantly, the noncovalent van der Waals interface between C8-BTBT and BP effectively preserves the intrinsic properties of BP, allowing us to demonstrate high-performance BP FETs with a record-high current density of 920 µA/um, hole drift velocity over 1 × 107 cm/s, and on/off ratio of 1 × 104 to ∼1 × 107 at room temperature. This approach is generally applicable to other unstable two-dimensional materials, defining a unique pathway to modulate their electronic properties and realize high-performance devices through hybrid heterojunctions.

4.
Sci Adv ; 4(10): eaat8237, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333991

RESUMO

Molecular transistors operating in the quantum tunneling regime represent potential electronic building blocks for future integrated circuits. However, due to their complex fabrication processes and poor stability, traditional molecular transistors can only operate stably at cryogenic temperatures. Here, through a combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we demonstrate a new design of vertical molecular tunneling transistors, with stable switching operations up to room temperature, formed from cross-plane graphene/self-assembled monolayer (SAM)/gold heterostructures. We show that vertical molecular junctions formed from pseudo-p-bis((4-(acetylthio)phenyl)ethynyl)-p-[2,2]cyclophane (PCP) SAMs exhibit destructive quantum interference (QI) effects, which are absent in 1,4-bis(((4-acetylthio)phenyl)ethynyl)benzene (OPE3) SAMs. Consequently, the zero-bias differential conductance of the former is only about 2% of the latter, resulting in an enhanced on-off current ratio for (PCP) SAMs. Field-effect control is achieved using an ionic liquid gate, whose strong vertical electric field penetrates through the graphene layer and tunes the energy levels of the SAMs. The resulting on-off current ratio achieved in PCP SAMs can reach up to ~330, about one order of magnitude higher than that of OPE3 SAMs. The demonstration of molecular junctions with combined QI effect and gate tunability represents a critical step toward functional devices in future molecular-scale electronics.

5.
Nature ; 562(7726): 254-258, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283139

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) materials, consisting of atomically thin crystal layers bound by the van der Waals force, have attracted much interest because of their potential in diverse technologies, including electronics, optoelectronics and catalysis1-10. In particular, solution-processable 2D semiconductor (such as MoS2) nanosheets are attractive building blocks for large-area thin-film electronics. In contrast to conventional zero- and one-dimensional nanostructures (quantum dots and nanowires, respectively), which are typically plagued by surface dangling bonds and associated trapping states, 2D nanosheets have dangling-bond-free surfaces. Thin films created by stacking multiple nanosheets have atomically clean van der Waals interfaces and thus promise excellent charge transport11-15. However, preparing high-quality solution-processable 2D semiconductor nanosheets remains a challenge. For example, MoS2 nanosheets and thin films produced using lithium intercalation and exfoliation are plagued by the presence of the metallic 1T phase and poor electrical performance (mobilities of about 0.3 square centimetres per volt per second and on/off ratios of less than 10)2,12, and materials produced by liquid exfoliation exhibit an intrinsically broad thickness distribution, which leads to poor film quality and unsatisfactory thin-film electrical performance (mobilities of about 0.4 square centimetres per volt per second and on/off ratios of about 100)14,16,17. Here we report a general approach to preparing highly uniform, solution-processable, phase-pure semiconducting nanosheets, which involves the electrochemical intercalation of quaternary ammonium molecules (such as tetraheptylammonium bromide) into 2D crystals, followed by a mild sonication and exfoliation process. By precisely controlling the intercalation chemistry, we obtained phase-pure, semiconducting 2H-MoS2 nanosheets with a narrow thickness distribution. These nanosheets were then further processed into high-performance thin-film transistors, with room-temperature mobilities of about 10 square centimetres per volt per second and on/off ratios of 106 that greatly exceed those obtained for previous solution-processed MoS2 thin-film transistors. The scalable fabrication of large-area arrays of thin-film transistors enabled the construction of functional logic gates and computational circuits, including an inverter, NAND, NOR, AND and XOR gates, and a logic half-adder. We also applied our approach to other 2D materials, including WSe2, Bi2Se3, NbSe2, In2Se3, Sb2Te3 and black phosphorus, demonstrating its potential for generating versatile solution-processable 2D materials.

6.
Adv Mater ; 30(35): e1802146, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016001

RESUMO

Graphene-supported single atomic metals (G-SAMs) have recently attracted considerable research interest for their intriguing catalytic, electronic, and magnetic properties. The development of effective synthetic methodologies toward G-SAMs with monodispersed metal atoms is vital for exploring their fundamental properties and potential applications. A convenient, rapid, and general strategy to synthesize a series of monodispersed atomic transition metals (for example, Co, Ni, Cu) embedded in nitrogen-doped graphene by two-second microwave (MW) heating the mixture of amine-functionalized graphene oxide and metal salts is reported here. The MW heating is able to simultaneously induce the reduction of graphene oxide, the doping of nitrogen, and the incorporation of metal atoms into the graphene lattices in one simple step. The rapid MW process minimizes metal diffusion and aggregation to ensure exclusive single metal atom dispersion in graphene lattices. Electrochemical studies demonstrate that graphene-supported Co atoms can function as highly active electrocatalysts toward the hydrogen evolution reaction. This MW-assisted method provides a rapid and efficient avenue to supported metal atoms for wide ranges of applications.

7.
Adv Mater ; 29(21)2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28370460

RESUMO

A solid-state thermoelectric device is attractive for diverse technological areas such as cooling, power generation and waste heat recovery with unique advantages of quiet operation, zero hazardous emissions, and long lifetime. With the rapid growth of flexible electronics and miniature sensors, the low-cost flexible thermoelectric energy harvester is highly desired as a potential power supply. Herein, a flexible thermoelectric copper selenide (Cu2 Se) thin film, consisting of earth-abundant elements, is reported. The thin film is fabricated by a low-cost and scalable spin coating process using ink solution with a truly soluble precursor. The Cu2 Se thin film exhibits a power factor of 0.62 mW/(m K2 ) at 684 K on rigid Al2 O3 substrate and 0.46 mW/(m K2 ) at 664 K on flexible polyimide substrate, which is much higher than the values obtained from other solution processed Cu2 Se thin films (<0.1 mW/(m K2 )) and among the highest values reported in all flexible thermoelectric films to date (≈0.5 mW/(m K2 )). Additionally, the fabricated thin film shows great promise to be integrated with the flexible electronic devices, with negligible performance change after 1000 bending cycles. Together, the study demonstrates a low-cost and scalable pathway to high-performance flexible thin film thermoelectric devices from relatively earth-abundant elements.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(2): 429-434, 2017 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28050909

RESUMO

Understanding the intrinsic charge transport in organolead halide perovskites is essential for the development of high-efficiency photovoltaics and other optoelectronic devices. Despite the rapid advancement of the organolead halide perovskite in photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications, the intrinsic charge-carrier transport in these materials remains elusive partly due to the difficulty of fabricating electrical devices and obtaining good electrical contact. Here we report the fabrication of organolead halide perovskite microplates with mono- or bilayer graphene as low barrier electrical contact. Systematic charge-transport studies reveal an insulator to band-like transport transition. Our studies indicate that the insulator to band-like transport transition depends on the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase-transition temperature and defect densities of the organolead halide perovskite microplates. Our findings not only are important for the fundamental understanding of charge-transport behavior but also offer valuable practical implications for photovoltaics and optoelectronic applications based on the organolead halide perovskite.

9.
Adv Mater ; 29(4)2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27859707

RESUMO

Transformation of unipolar n-type semiconductor behavior to ambipolar and finally to unipolar p-type behavior in CH3 NH3 PbI3 microplate field-effect transistors by thermal annealing is reported. The photoluminescence spectra essentially maintain the same features before and after the thermal annealing process, demonstrating that the charge transport measurement provides a sensitive way to probe low-concentration defects in perovskite materials.

10.
Sci Adv ; 2(10): e1600993, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27730211

RESUMO

Epitaxial heterostructures with precisely controlled composition and electronic modulation are of central importance for electronics, optoelectronics, thermoelectrics, and catalysis. In general, epitaxial material growth requires identical or nearly identical crystal structures with small misfit in lattice symmetry and parameters and is typically achieved by vapor-phase depositions in vacuum. We report a scalable solution-phase growth of symmetry-mismatched PbSe/Bi2Se3 epitaxial heterostructures by using two-dimensional (2D) Bi2Se3 nanoplates as soft templates. The dangling bond-free surface of 2D Bi2Se3 nanoplates guides the growth of PbSe crystal without requiring a one-to-one match in the atomic structure, which exerts minimal restriction on the epitaxial layer. With a layered structure and weak van der Waals interlayer interaction, the interface layer in the 2D Bi2Se3 nanoplates can deform to accommodate incoming layer, thus functioning as a soft template for symmetry-mismatched epitaxial growth of cubic PbSe crystal on rhombohedral Bi2Se3 nanoplates. We show that a solution chemistry approach can be readily used for the synthesis of gram-scale PbSe/Bi2Se3 epitaxial heterostructures, in which the square PbSe (001) layer forms on the trigonal/hexagonal (0001) plane of Bi2Se3 nanoplates. We further show that the resulted PbSe/Bi2Se3 heterostructures can be readily processed into bulk pellet with considerably suppressed thermal conductivity (0.30 W/m·K at room temperature) while retaining respectable electrical conductivity, together delivering a thermoelectric figure of merit ZT three times higher than that of the pristine Bi2Se3 nanoplates at 575 K. Our study demonstrates a unique epitaxy mode enabled by the 2D nanocrystal soft template via an affordable and scalable solution chemistry approach. It opens up new opportunities for the creation of diverse epitaxial heterostructures with highly disparate structures and functions.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21429852

RESUMO

This paper describes the existence of piezoelectric boundary acoustic wave (PBAW) propagating in a Cu electrode/Y-cut X-propagating (YX) LiNbO(3) substrate structure partially covered with a SiO2 layer. In the analysis, two types of structures are taken into consideration: one is the so-called slotted structure with SiO2 pillars placed in the grating slots; the other is the so-called topped structure with SiO(2) pillars placed on the top of grating electrodes. The top surface could be fully covered with an additional layer (like epoxy) to bridge the grating slots for encapsulation. Results show that SH-type PBAW begins to propagate in the slotted structure when the SiO(2) thickness exceeds 0.3 wavelength. Strong electromechanical coupling factor K(2) of 21%, and temperature coefficient of velocity (TCV) of -33 ppm/°C are obtained. In the topped structure, on the other hand, the boundary acoustic wave mode is not supported. Instead, the thickness resonance modes in the SiO2 pillar do exist. Comparison of the obtained results with those in the structure fully covered with the SiO(2) layer indicates that, as for the PBAW mode, the slotted structure offers improved K(2) but with worse TCV compared with the fully covered SiO(2) structure.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20679014

RESUMO

This paper discusses the influence of the setup on the measurement reliability and reproducibility for the secondorder inter-modulation distortion (IMD2) generated in RF BAW duplexers. Our measurement results show that the IMD2 level can be reliably and reproducibly measured when the port terminations are properly applied. For example, a filter and a relatively large (>20 dB) attenuator are necessary between an oscillator and the antenna port of the duplexer to suppress the nonlinear mixing and the impedance mismatching. If the order of these two devices were reversed, the IMD2 level would change significantly. Although an isolator is commonly used to stabilize the power amplifier output, our research results show that not using an ISO produced more accurate results.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20040421

RESUMO

This paper describes how the characteristics of shear-horizontal type piezoelectric boundary acoustic waves (PBAWs) change with combination of different overlay and metal grating materials. It is shown that PBAWs are supported in various structures provided that highly piezoelectric material(s) are employed as structural member(s). For verification, numerical simulation of different material combinations is done. The results are in good agreement with the qualitative prediction. That is, large electromechanical coupling factor K(2) is obtainable when materials having small mass densities shear modulus c(44) and shear velocity VBS; and materials having extremely large shear modulus c(44) are chosen, respectively, for overlay and metallic grating. When YX-LiNbO(3) is assumed as a substrate, for example, the best choice seems to be SiO(2) and Au for overlay and metallic grating, respectively. Although metals with extremely large rho and c(44) such as W and Ta offer large K(2), they may not be acceptable for practical PBAW applications because of their large electric resistivity.


Assuntos
Acústica , Sistemas Microeletromecânicos , Modelos Teóricos , Nióbio/química , Óxidos/química , Refratometria/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Espalhamento de Radiação
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19406709

RESUMO

This paper describes full-wave analysis of piezoelectric boundary acoustic waves (PBAWs) propagating along a metallic grating sandwiched between 2 semi-infinite layers. In the analysis, the finite element method (FEM) is used for the grating region while the spectral domain analysis (SDA) is applied for an isotropic overlay region as well as a piezoelectric substrate region. The combination of the FEM and SDA makes the numerical analysis very fast and precise. As an example, the analysis was made on the PBAWs propagating in an SiO2 overlay/Cu grating/rotated Y-cut LiNbO(3) structure. It is shown that both the shear-horizontal (SH) type and Rayleigh-type PBAWs are supported in the structure, and that their velocities are very close to each other. Thus spurious responses due to the Rayleigh-type PBAW should completely be suppressed for device implementation. Discussions are made in detail on the influence of Cu grating thickness, substrate rotation angle, and metallization ratio on excitation and propagation characteristics of the SH- and Rayleigh-type PBAWs.


Assuntos
Metais , Sistemas Microeletromecânicos/instrumentação , Modelos Teóricos , Transdutores , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Espalhamento de Radiação
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