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1.
Microb Pathog ; : 104739, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460745

RESUMO

A cell line was established from swim bladder of the Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (CiSB), which was permissive for infection and propagation of Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV). CiSB cells displayed optimal growth at 27 °C using M199 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum and a fibroblastic-like morphology. Karyotype analysis revealed that the average diploid chromosome number was 52 in 58% of cells at passage 60 compared to the wild type Grass carp cells (2n = 48). Infection with GCRV II isolate Hunan1307 was tracked by immunofluorescence and virus titration assay. The virus titer reached 105.2 TCID50/mL on 7th days post infection (dpi). Healthy adult Grass carp that were challenged with the virus propagated onto CiSB cells, displayed the typical symptoms and histopathological changes of Grass carp hemorrhagic disease (GCHD). Therefore, the CiSB cells can be used to propagate GCRV II and serve as a useful tool to study the pathogenesis of GCHD.

2.
Dev Sci ; 24(1): e12983, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356911

RESUMO

Recent efforts have focused on screening methods to identify children at risk for dyslexia as early as preschool/kindergarten. Unfortunately, while low sensitivity leads to under-identification of at-risk children, low specificity can lead to over-identification, resulting in inaccurate allocation of limited educational resources. The present study focused on children identified as at-risk in kindergarten who do not subsequently develop poor reading skills to specify factors associated with better reading outcomes among at-risk children. Early screening was conducted in kindergarten and a subset of children was tracked longitudinally until second grade. Potential protective factors were evaluated at cognitive-linguistic, environmental, and neural levels. Relative to at-risk kindergarteners with subsequent poor reading, those with typical reading outcomes were characterized by significantly higher socioeconomic status (SES), speech production accuracy, and structural organization of the posterior right-hemispheric superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). A positive association between structural organization of the right SLF and subsequent decoding skills was found to be specific to at-risk children and not observed among typical controls. Among at-risk children, several kindergarten-age factors were found to significantly contribute to the prediction of subsequent decoding skills: white matter organization in the posterior right SLF, age, gender, SES, and phonological awareness. These findings suggest that putative compensatory mechanisms are already present by the start of kindergarten. The right SLF, in conjunction with the cognitive-linguistic and socioeconomic factors identified, may play an important role in facilitating reading development among at-risk children. This study has important implications for approaches to early screening, and assessment strategies for at-risk children.

3.
J Virol Methods ; 288: 114030, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275927

RESUMO

Quick and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for COVID-19 control. Dozens of real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays have been developed to meet the urgent need of COVID-19 control. However, methodological comparisons among the developed qRT-PCR assays are limited. In the present study, we evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, amplification efficiency, and linear detection ranges of three qRT-PCR assays, including the assays developed by our group (IPBCAMS), and the assays recommended by WHO and China CDC (CCDC). The three qRT-PCR assays exhibited similar sensitivities, with the limit of detection (LoD) at about 10 copies per reaction (except the ORF 1b gene assay in CCDC assays with a LoD at about 100 copies per reaction). No cross reaction with other respiratory viruses were observed in all of the three qRT-PCR assays. Wide linear detection ranges from 106 to 101 copies per reaction and acceptable reproducibility were obtained. By using 25 clinical specimens, the N gene assay of IPBCAMS assays and CCDC assays performed better (with detection rates of 92 % and 100 %, respectively) than that of the WHO assays (with a detection rate of 60 %), and the ORF 1b gene assay in IPBCAMS assays performed better (with a detection rate of 64 %) than those of the WHO assays and the CCDC assays (with detection rates of 48 % and 20 %, respectively). In conclusion, the N gene assays of CCDC assays and IPBCAMS assays and the ORF 1b gene assay of IPBCAMS assays were recommended for qRT-PCR screening of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
/métodos , /virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , /genética , /normas , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 249: 119326, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360565

RESUMO

Lysosome of phagocyte is the main site of hypochlorous acid (HClO) production, and HClO can be employed as the biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of arthritis. In recent years, developing fluorescent probes for lysosomal HClO has attracted considerable attention, but most of them still have some defects, such as autofluorescence, phototoxicity and photobleaching because of their excitation and emission located in short-wavelength region. Due to the advantages of two-photon fluorescent probes with near-infrared emissions, a lysosome-targetable two-photon fluorescent probe (Lyso-TP-HClO) with a near-infrared emission was reported in this paper. Lyso-TP-HClO has a high selectivity and a high sensitivity to HClO in the linear range (10.0 × 10-8 to 5.0 × 10-6 M), with a detection limit of 3.0 × 10-8 M. Due to the two-photon excited near-infrared emission, Lyso-TP-HClO has excellent imaging performances, such as small autofluorescence, excellent photostability, and large imaging depth. Furthermore, Lyso-TP-HClO was successfully employed for visualizing lysosomal HClO in bacteria-infected cells. At last, we have successfully used Lyso-TP-HClO to image the arthritis and evaluate the treatment of arthritis in mice. All the results confirm that Lyso-TP-HClO is a useful chemical tool for imaging of lysosomal HClO, the diagnosis of arthritis, and treatment evaluation of arthritis.

5.
Plant Sci ; 302: 110702, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288015

RESUMO

Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) is a pathogenic microorganism that causes bacterial speck disease and affects tomato yield and quality. Pto is a disease resistant gene for plant to recognize and defense against Pst. Pto interacts with Pti (Pto interacting) proteins, which include three transcription factors, Pti4, Pti5, Pti6, and they were thought to be downstream of Pto-mediated pathway to promote the expression of disease-related genes. In the present work, the overexpression plants of Pti4, Pti5 or Pti6 were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in tomato. The Pti4/5/6-overexpressed lines indicated enhanced expression of pathogenesis-related genes and resistance to pathogenic bacteria Pst DC3000. Meanwhile, the transgenic plants showed that Pti4/5/6 function in ripening but performed no obvious adverse influence on flowering time, seed-setting rate, weight and soluble solids content of fruits. Furthermore, Pti-overexpressed fruits exhibited increased enzymatic activities of phenylalnine ammonialyase, catalase, peroxidase and decreased content of malondialdehyde. Additionally, cell-free and in vivo ubiquitination assay indicated that Pti4, Pti5 and Pti6 degraded by 26S proteasome which suggested that these Pti transcription regulators' functions could be regulated by ubiquitin-mediated post translational regulation in tomato.

6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2189: 105-118, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180297

RESUMO

This chapter describes an electrode-integrated microfluidic system with multiple functions of manipulating and monitoring single S. cerevisiae cells. In this system, hydrodynamic trapping and negative dielectrophoretic (nDEP) releasing of S. cerevisiae cells are implemented, providing a flexible method for single-cell manipulation. The multiplexing microelectrodes also enable sensitive electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to discern the number of immobilized cells, classify different orientations of captured cells, as well as detect potential movements of immobilized single yeast cells during the overall recording duration by using principal component analysis (PCA) in data mining. The multifrequency EIS measurements can, therefore, obtain sufficient information of S. cerevisiae cells at single-cell level.

7.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 247: 119072, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128946

RESUMO

A unique reaction between thiols (RSH) and alkyl sulfonylbenzothiazole was discovered. This reaction was specific for thiols and produced a sulfinic acid (RSO2H) as the intermediate, which further triggered an intramolecular cyclization to release a -OH containing payload. This reaction was used to develop thiol-triggered fluorescent sensors and prodrugs. The modular design of this template provides tunability of the release profiles of the payloads.

8.
Talanta ; 221: 121607, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076137

RESUMO

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has been a hot issue of public health, owing to its unpredictability and serious harm to public health. Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is an important biomarker for the assessment and diagnosis of DILI. In this article, based on a kind of rhodamine analogue with a near-infrared (NIR) emission (610 nm-800 nm) and a two-photon absorption cross section (54 GM), a two-photon excited NIR fluorescence probe (NIR-ONOO) for ONOO- was developed. With a high selectivity and a high sensitivity to ONOO-, NIR-ONOO has a linear range for detection of ONOO- from 5.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-5 M, a good detection limit (15 nM) and a large fluorescence enhancement (340-fold). In addition, NIR-ONOO has been used to monitor ONOO- in cells with satisfactory results. Because of its two-photon excied NIR emission, NIR-ONOO also showed excellent performances for imaging ONOO- including low autofluorescence, stable and persistent fluorescence, and a deep penetration (204 µm). Finally, NIR-ONOO was successfully employed to image ONOO- in inflammatory mouse, drug-induced hepatotoxicity in cells and its remediation. All the results indicated that NIR-ONOO is a powerful chemical tool to image ONOO- and assay drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

9.
Bioresour Technol ; 321: 124466, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321297

RESUMO

Lignin is considered as a promising substitute for fossil resources, but its efficient conversion remains a huge challenge due to the structural complexity and immiscibility with typical solvents. Herein, a series of surfactant-free microemulsion reactors comprised of n-octane, water and n-propanol were designed and their corresponding phase behaviors alongside their ability to intensify oxidative depolymerization of lignin were explored. Experimental results show that the phenolic monomer yield improves substantially (40-500 wt%) by comparison with processes performed in a single solvent. Detailed characterizations also suggest that the above intensification is rationalized by the solubilization effect of microemulsion system and directional aggregation of lignin at the microemulsion interface.


Assuntos
Lignina , Tensoativos , Fenóis , Solventes , Água
10.
Cancer Lett ; 502: 1-8, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279622

RESUMO

Angio-associated migratory cell protein (AAMP) is considered a pro-tumor protein, which contributes to angiogenesis, proliferation, adhesion, and other biological activities. Although AAMP is known to facilitate the motility of breast cancer cells and smooth muscle cells by regulating ras homolog family member A (RHOA) activity, the function of AAMP in the metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells still remains unknown. In the present study, AAMP was upregulated in non-small cell lung carcinoma, and was found to promote migration and invasion in NSCLC cells. Further experiments demonstrated that AAMP interacted with cell division cycle 42 (CDC42) and promoted its activation, resulting in the formation of cellular protrusions. Subsequently, we found that AAMP enhanced CDC42 activation by impairing the combination of rho GTPase activating protein 1 (ARHGAP1) and CDC42. Taken together, we revealed and elucidated the critical role of AAMP in the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells and presented a new potential target for lung cancer therapy.

11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 269: 113711, 2020 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352242

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: EGb 761 is a standardized dry extract of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves traditionally used by Eastern Asia and has been associated with beneficial effects on neurodegeneration disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. AIM OF THE STUDY: Since beneficial interactions between EGb 761 and donepezil have been observed in previous clinical studies, the current study was proposed aiming to further explore related mechanisms from both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics aspects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacodynamic interactions were studied in scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment rats received two-weeks treatment of vehicle, EGb 761 and/or donepezil by the Morris water maze test and ex vivo evaluation of biomarkers of cholinergic transmission and oxidative stress in rat brain. In the meantime, pharmacokinetic profiles of donepezil and bilobalide were obtained and compared among all treatment groups. In addition, impact of the bioavailable EGb 761 components on donepezil brain penetration was evaluated with the hCMEC/D3 cell monolayer model. RESULTS: Scopolamine-induced rats with co-treatment of EGb 761 and donepezil had significantly improved cognitive function in the Morris water maze test with increased brain levels of superoxide dismutase and decreased brain levels of acetylcholinesterase and malondialdehyde than that with treatment of only EGb 761 or donepezil. Despite such beneficial pharmacodynamics outcomes, the two-week co-treatment of EGb 761 and donepezil did not alter the plasma pharmacokinetics and brain uptake of donepezil or bilobalide, which was further verified in the hCMEC/D3 monolayer model. CONCLUSION: Co-administration of EGb 761 and donepezil exerted better anti-amnestic effect via further enhanced pro-cholinergic and antioxidative effects of EGb 761 or donepezil in scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment rat without alteration in their systemic/brain exposure.

12.
Life Sci ; 267: 118942, 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359247

RESUMO

AIMS: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) induces serious neuroinflammation and damage of blood-brain barrier. We aim to investigate the role of brown fat enriched lncRNA 1 (Blnc1) in the development of ICH in mice. METHODS: An ICH model was established with autologous blood injection in C57BL/6 mice, and Blnc1 siRNA was injected intracranially. Blnc1 levels were detected and brain injury was evaluated at day 3. Primary brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) were isolated from new born mice and gain- and loss-of-function experiments were performed to investigate the role of Blnc1. Then, ICH cell model was established by treating BMVECs with oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) plus hemin, and Blnc1 siRNA was transfected into the cells. BMVEC functions, including viability, invasion, apoptosis, permeability and secretion of inflammatory cytokines were analyzed. KEY FINDINGS: Blnc1 was upregulated in perihematomal edema, hematoma and microvessel in the brain of ICH mice. Blnc1 negatively regulated viability and migration, and facilitated apoptosis, permeability and inflammatory cytokine secretion in BMVECs. Silencing Blnc1 restrained OGD plus hemin-caused reduction of BMVEC viability and migration and the induction of apoptosis, permeability and inflammation response, and suppressed PPAR-γ/SIRT6-mediated FoxO3 activation, which could be reversed by T0070907 (PPAR-γ inhibitor). Downregulation of Blnc1 ameliorated ICH-induced nerve injury, brain edema, blood brain barrier destruction, inflammation response and hematoma. Moreover, Blnc1 levels were positively correlated with PPAR-γ levels, and Blnc1 interference suppressed PPAR-γ/SIRT6-mediated activation of FoxO3 signaling in ICH mice. SIGNIFICANCE: Silencing Blnc1 alleviated nerve injury and inflammatory response caused by ICH through activating PPAR-γ/SIRT6/FoxO3 pathway.

13.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 780, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311543

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. Here we profiled the humoral response against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by measuring immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, and IgG against nucleocapsid and spike proteins, along with IgM and IgG antibodies against receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein and total neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). We tested 279 plasma samples collected from 176 COVID-19 patients who presented and enrolled at different stages of their disease. Plasma dilutions were optimized and based on the data, a single dilution of plasma was used. The mean absorbance at 450 nm was measured for Ig levels and NAbs were measured using geometric mean titers. We demonstrate that more severe cases have a late-onset in the humoral response compared to mild/moderate infections. All the antibody titers continue to rise in patients with COVID-19 over the disease course. However, these levels are mostly unrelated to disease severity. The appearance time and titers of NAbs showed a significant positive correlation to the antibodies against spike protein. Our results suggest the late onset of antibody response as a risk factor for disease severity, however, there is a limited role of antibody titers in predicting disease severity of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , /imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , /virologia , China/epidemiologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Células Vero , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Bacteriol ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288625

RESUMO

Characterizing the mycobacterial transporters involved in the uptake and/or catabolism of host-derived nutrients required by mycobacteria may identify novel drug targets against tuberculosis. Here, we identify and characterize a member of the amino acid-polyamine- organocation superfamily, a potential γ-aminobutyric acid transport protein, GabP, from Mycobacterium smegmatis The protein was expressed to a level allowing its purification to homogeneity and Size Exclusion Chromatography-Multi Angle Laser Light Scattering analysis of the purified protein showed that it was dimeric. We showed that GabP transported γ-aminobutyric acid in vitro and when over-expressed in E. coli Additionally, transport was greatly reduced in the presence of ß-alanine, suggesting that it could be either substrate or inhibitor of GabP. Using GabP reconstituted into proteoliposomes, we demonstrated that γ-aminobutyric acid uptake is driven by the sodium gradient and is stimulated by membrane potential. Molecular docking showed that γ-aminobutyric acid binds MsGabP, another Mycobacterium smegmatis putative GabP and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis homologue in the same manner. This study represents the first expression, purification and characterization of an active γ-aminobutyric acid transport protein from mycobacteria.IMPORTANCE The spread of multidrug resistant tuberculosis increases its global health impact in humans. As there is transmission both to and from animals, the spread of the disease also increases its effects in a broad range of animal species. Identifying new mycobacterial transporters will enhance our understanding of mycobacterial physiology and furthermore provides new drug targets. Our target protein is the gene product of msmeg_6196, annotated as GABA permease, from Mycobacterium smegmatis strain MC2 155. Our current study demonstrates that it is a sodium-dependent GABA transporter that may also transport ß-alanine. As GABA may well be an essential nutrient for mycobacterial metabolism inside the host, this could be an attractive target for the development of new drugs against tuberculosis.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297477

RESUMO

Banana is one of the most important food and fruit crops in the world and its growth is ceasing at 10-17 °C. However, the mechanisms determining the tolerance of banana to mild (>15 °C) and moderate chilling (10-15 °C) are elusive. Furthermore, the biochemical controls over the photosynthesis in tropical plant species at low temperatures above 10 °C is not well understood. The purpose of this research was to reveal the response of chilling-sensitive banana to mild (16 °C) and moderate chilling stress (10 °C) at the molecular (transcripts, proteins) and physiological levels. The results showed different transcriptome responses between mild and moderate chilling stresses, especially in pathways of plant hormone signal transduction, ABC transporters, ubiquinone, and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis. Interestingly, functions related to carbon fixation were assigned preferentially to upregulated genes/proteins, while photosynthesis and photosynthesis-antenna proteins were downregulated at 10 °C, as revealed by both digital gene expression and proteomic analysis. These results were confirmed by qPCR and immunofluorescence labeling methods. Conclusion: Banana responded to the mild chilling stress dramatically at the molecular level. To compensate for the decreased photosynthesis efficiency caused by mild and moderate chilling stresses, banana accelerated its carbon fixation, mainly through upregulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases.

16.
Mol Hum Reprod ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337472

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinological pathology among women of reproductive age, whereas the pathogenesis is still not fully understood. Systemic and ovarian oxidative stress (OS) imbalance is a pivotal feature of PCOS. Humanin, a mitochondria derived peptide, has been reported to function as an antioxidant in cardiomyocytes, pancreatic beta cells, and other cells, but how this function is regulated remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether humanin expression differs in the granulosa cells of PCOS patients versus controls, and whether humanin alleviates oxidative stress in PCOS ovaries. Sixteen PCOS patients and twenty-eight age and BMI-matched controls undergoing IVF were recruited, and their serum, follicular fluid and granulosa cells were collected for humanin analysis. Dehydroepiandrosterone-induced rat PCOS models, and vitamin K3 (vitK3)-induced OS COV434 cell lines were to investigate the mechanism. Humanin expression was significantly down-regulated in the ovaries of PCOS patients relative to those of non-PCOS patients. Exogenous humanin supplementation significantly attenuated body weight gain, ovarian morphological abnormalities, endocrinological disorders and ovarian and systemic OS in PCOS rat models. Our study further demonstrated that this attenuation effect was involved in the modulation of the Keap1/Nrf2 signalling pathway. In summary, this study reported for the first time that decreased expression of humanin in the granulosa cells was associated with oxidative imbalance in PCOS. Humanin alleviates oxidative stress in ovarian granulosa cells of PCOS patients via modulation of the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway.

17.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 32(18): 1357-1364, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308394

RESUMO

In this study, the ability of cold-induced RNA-binding protein (CIRBP) to regulate the expression of Src-associated during mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in the mouse testis and mouse primary spermatocytes (GC-2spd cell line) before and after heat stress was examined to explore the molecular mechanism by which CIRBP decreases testicular injury. A mouse testicular hyperthermia model, a mouse primary spermatocyte hyperthermia model and a low CIRBP gene-expression cell model were constructed and their relevant parameters were analysed. The mRNA and protein levels of CIRBP and Sam68 were significantly decreased in the 3-h and 12-h testicular heat-stress groups, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) protein expression was not significantly affected but phospho-ERK1/2 protein levels were significantly decreased. GC-2spd cellular heat-stress results showed that the mRNA and protein concentrations of CIRBP and Sam68 were reduced 48h after heat stress. In the low CIRBP gene-expression cell model, CIRBP protein expression was significantly decreased. Sam68 mRNA expression was significantly decreased only at the maximum transfection concentration of 50nM and Sam68 protein expression was not significantly affected. These findings suggest that CIRBP may regulate the expression of Sam68 at the transcriptional level and the expression of phospho-ERK1/2 protein, both of which protect against heat-stress-induced testicular injury in mice.

18.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 115: 103853, 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Universal face mask use was recommended owing to the growing pandemic of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, little is known about the public's compliance with mask-wearing behaviours. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the public's mask-wearing behaviours in the context of COVID-19. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Online survey from 6 April 2020 to 5 May 2020 in China. PARTICIPANTS: This study included 10,165 persons who lived in China, understood Chinese, and were not health care providers. METHODS: Descriptive statistics were used to assess the public's mask-wearing behaviours. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors affecting the mask-wearing behaviours. RESULTS: Nearly all (99%) people wore a mask during the covid-19 pandemic, with most (73.3%) demonstrating good compliance with face mask use. However, 41.8% of the participants seldom cleaned their hands before putting on a face mask, and more than half (55.3%, 62.1%) of those who touched (n=8108, 79.8%) or adjusted (n=9356, 92.0%) their mask while using it failed to consistently wash their hands afterward. When removing a used mask, 7.6% of the participants discarded it into a garbage bin without a lid and 22.5% discarded it into a garbage bin in their reach regardless of presence of a lid. Participants reported wearing disposable medical masks (93.8%), followed by N95 respirators (26.2%), and cloth face masks (8.5%). Some participants wore multiple masks simultaneously (occasionally 26.5%, often 2.1%, always 1.5%). A total of 5,981 (58.8%) participants reported reusing disposable masks, with nearly two thirds (n=3923, 65.6%) indicating they would hang the used masks in well-ventilated places. More than one-third (37.6%) of the respondents did not replace mask when it had been used for more than 8 hours. Exposure to instructions on face mask use was the strongest predictor of good compliance (odds ratio=4.13, 95% confidential interval= 3.60-4.75, p=0.000). Other factors included specific situations, location, and gender. The influence of age needs further investigation. Most participants (76.4%) accessed information mainly via social media platforms. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly all people wore face mask and most of them used it properly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Hand hygiene before and during mask-wearing, choosing an appropriate type of face mask, reusing disposal face mask, and disposing of used face masks should be particularly emphasized in future evidence dissemination or behaviour-change interventions. Information on social media platforms for evidence dissemination and behaviour change may benefit the public the most, but this initiative requires further research to investigate its effectiveness.

19.
Food Chem ; 345: 128765, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340892

RESUMO

The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of tree peony seed protein (TPSP) hydrolysates by Alcalase, Neutrase, Papain, Protamex, and Flavourzyme were investigated in this study. The physicochemical properties were characterized by SDS-PAGE, particle size distribution, fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy etc. The antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH radical, ABTS radical, Fe2+ chelating, and reducing power. The results showed five proteases produced hydrolysates with a significantly reduced average particle size, α-helices, and surface hydrophobicity compared to TPSP. Alcalase and Neutrase hydrolysis enhanced the nutritional value of the hydrolysates. Alcalase hydrolysates possessed the highest degree of hydrolysis (27.97%) and lowest molecular weight (<13 kDa) with average particle size (231.33 nm). Alcalase hydrolysate displayed the highest radical scavenging (DPPH IC50 = 0.18 mg/mL, ABTS IC50 = 1.57 mg/mL), Fe2+ chelating activity (IC50 = 0.99 mg/mL), and reducing power (0.594). These results provide the fundamentals for TPSP hydrolysates as antioxidants to be employed in food industry or pharmaceutical industry.

20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 4725314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134377

RESUMO

Background: Deciphering the immune characteristics within tumors and identifying the immune signals related to the prognostic factor are helpful for the treatment and management of tumor patients. However, systematic analysis of immune signatures in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains largely unstudied. Methods: A total of 718 immune-related genes were extracted from RNA sequencing data from 519 HNSCC patients in the TCGA database, and survival analysis with integrated bioinformatics analyses was performed to build the final predictive prognosis model. Results: The 178 survival-associated genes (P < 0.05) participated in important immune functions, including immune cell activation and migration. Multivariate regression analysis using 93 genes (P < 0.01), together with survival-associated clinicopathological parameters, identified 35 independent prognostic factors. The most significant 8 independent factors were CD3E, CD40LG, TNFRSF4, CD3G, CD5, ITGA2B, ABCB1, and TNFRSF13b. The final prognostic model achieved outstanding predictive efficiency with the highest AUC of 0.963. Conclusion: Our prognostic model based on the immune signature could effectively predict the prognosis of HNSCC patients, providing novel predictive biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for HNSCC patients.

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