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1.
J Surg Res ; 270: 444-454, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prospective trials comparing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the treatment of multivessel coronary disease (MVCAD) have included mostly younger patients. We compared treatment strategies in the elderly population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a propensity-score-matched comparison of patients ≥75 y who underwent isolated CABG or PCI for MVCAD between 2011 and 2018, excluding those with prior cardiac surgery and/or significant left main disease. The primary outcome was 5-year Kaplan Meier survival, and secondary outcomes included readmissions and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). RESULTS: Propensity-matching yielded 536 patients (266 PCI and 266 CABG). Rates of complete revascularization of all stenotic lesions were higher in the CABG arm (86.8% versus 21.8%; P < 0.001). Thirty-d mortality was similar between cohorts, though PCI recipients had shorter hospital stay and greater likelihood of discharge to home. Unadjusted one- (89.1% versus 88.4%) and 5-year (73.8% versus 60.1%) survival were both higher in patients who underwent CABG (P = 0.0332). Patients undergoing CABG had reduced, but nonsignificant cumulative incidence of all-cause hospital readmission and MACCE at 5 y. Subgroup analysis of patients 80 y or older revealed similar late survival benefit with CABG when compared to PCI. Among patients undergoing CABG, there did not appear to be any 5-year benefits from multi-arterial grafting. CONCLUSIONS: Despite longer hospitalization and higher rate of nonhome discharge, CABG was associated with improved late survival over PCI in the elderly population. Cardiac surgeons should be included in the multidisciplinary evaluation of older patients with MVCAD.

2.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(10): 5582-5591, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795909

RESUMO

Background: This study evaluated operative mortalities following adult cardiac surgical operations to determine if this metric remains appropriate for the modern era. Methods: This was a retrospective review of Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) indexed adult cardiac operations that included coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), aortic valve replacement (AVR), CABG + AVR, mitral valve repair (MVr), CABG + MVr, mitral valve replacement (MVR) and CABG + MVR, performed at a single institution between 2011 and 2017. The primary outcome was the timing and relatedness of operation mortality, as defined by the STS as mortality within 30-day or during the index hospitalization, compared to the index operation. The secondary outcomes evaluated cause of death and the rates of postoperative complications. Results: A total of 11,190 index cardiac operations were performed during the study period and operative mortality occurred in 246 (2.2%) of patients. The distribution of operative mortalities included 83.7% (n=206) who expired within 30-day while an inpatient, 6.9% (n=17) died within 30-day as an outpatient, 11.2% (n=23) expired after 30-day. The most common causes of operative mortality were cardiac (38.7%, n=92), renal failure (15.6%, n=37), and strokes (13.9%, n=33). Furthermore, 98.4% (n=242) of deaths were attributable to the index operation. Postoperative complications occurred frequently in those with operative mortality, with blood transfusions (80.1%), reoperations (65.0%) and prolonged ventilation (62.2%) being most common. Conclusions: Most of the operative mortalities seemed to be attributable to the index cardiac operation. We believe that the current definition of mortality remains appropriate in the modern era.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806126

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the link between psychological, behavioral, and social factors and survival in patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancer. METHODS: A cohort of gastrointestinal cancer patients were administered a battery of questionnaires that assessed trauma, depression, social support, sleep, diet, exercise, quality of life, tobacco and alcohol use, pain, and fatigue. Analyses included Pearson's correlations, analyses of variance, Kaplan Meier survival, and Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Of the 568 patients, the majority were male (57.9%) and Caucasian (91.9%), with a mean age of 61 (S.D. = 10.7). The level of perceived social support was comparable to patients with other medical conditions. Sociodemographic predictors of social support included the number of years of education (r = 0.109, p = 0.05), marital status (F(6,387) = 5.465, p ≤ 0.001), and whether the patients' income met the family's basic needs (F(1,377) = 25.531, p < 0.001). Univariate analyses revealed that older age (p < 0.001), male gender (p = 0.007), being black (p = 0.005), diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (p = 0.046), higher body mass index (p = 0.022), larger tumor size (p = 0.032), initial treatment including chemotherapy rather than surgery (p < 0.001), and lower level of perceived social support (p = 0.037) were associated with poorer survival. Using multivariate Cox regression and adjusting for all factors found to be significant in univariate survival analyses, older age (p = 0.024) and lower perceived social support (HR = 0.441, 95% CI = 0.233, 0.833; p = 0.012) were the factors that remained significantly associated with poorer survival. CONCLUSION: There are several biological and psychosocial factors that predict cancer mortality. Social support appears to be a robust factor affecting mortality in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

4.
Chaos ; 31(10): 103124, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717320

RESUMO

This study investigates the synchronizability of a typical type of two-layer correlation networks formed by two regular networks interconnected with two interlayer linking patterns, namely, positive correlation (PC) and negative correlation (NC). To analyze the network's stability, we consider the analytical expressions of the smallest non-zero and largest eigenvalues of the (weighted) Laplacian matrix as well as the linking strength and the network size for two linking patterns. According to the master stability function, the linking patterns, the linking strength, and the network size associated with two typical synchronized regions exhibit a profound influence on the synchronizability of the two-layer networks. The NC linking pattern displays better synchronizability than the PC linking pattern with the same set of parameters. Furthermore, for the two classical synchronized regions, the networks have optimal intralayer and interlayer linking strengths that maximize the synchronizability while minimizing the required cost. Finally, numerical results verify the validity of the theoretical analyses. The findings based on the representative two-layer correlation networks provide the basis for maximizing the synchronizability of general multiplex correlation networks.

5.
J Card Surg ; 36(12): 4519-4526, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the impact of early massive transfusion and blood component ratios on outcomes following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. METHODS: Adults undergoing LVAD implantation between 2009 and 2018 at a single institution were included. Transfusions were analyzed during the intraoperative and the initial 24-h postoperative period. Patients were stratified into massive and nonmassive transfusion groups. The primary outcome was survival, and secondary outcomes included postoperative complications. Sub-analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of balanced transfusion. RESULTS: A total of 278 patients were included. A total of 45.3% (n = 126) required massive transfusions. The massive transfusion group experienced significantly higher rates of postimplant adverse events, including reoperation, renal failure, and hepatic dysfunction (all, p ≤ .05). Furthermore, the massive transfusion group had significantly lower 30-day, 90-day, 1-year, 2-year, and overall survival rates following LVAD implantation (all, p < .05). In multivariable analysis, massive transfusion significantly impacted overall risk-adjusted mortality rate (hazard ratio: 2.402, 95% confidence Interval: 1.677-3.442, p < .001). In the sub-analyses evaluating the impact of balanced massive transfusion, balanced fresh frozen plasma to packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusion did not provide any survival benefit (all, p > .05). However, balanced platelet to pRBC massive transfusion did improve 2-year and overall mortality rates in the massive transfusion cohort (both, p ≤ .05). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a significant association between early massive transfusion and adverse outcomes following LVAD implantation. Balancing platelet to pRBC transfusion in the early postoperative period may help mitigate some of these detrimental effects of massive transfusion on subsequent survival.


Assuntos
Coração Auxiliar , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Transfusão de Sangue , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to report outcomes of hemiarch replacement with hypothermic circulatory arrest and retrograde cerebral perfusion, and secondarily, to report outcomes of this operative approach by type of underlying aortic disease. METHODS: This was an observational study of aortic surgeries from 2010 to 2018. All patients who underwent hemiarch replacement with retrograde cerebral perfusion were included, whereas patients undergoing partial or total arch replacement or concomitant elephant trunk procedures were excluded. Patients were dichotomized into 2 groups by underlying aortic disease; that is, acute aortic dissection (AAD) or aneurysmal degeneration of the aorta. These groups were analyzed for differences in short-term postoperative outcomes, including stroke and operative mortality (Society of Thoracic Surgeons definition). Multivariable Cox analysis was performed to identify variables associated with long-term survival after hemiarch replacement. RESULTS: A total of 500 patients undergoing hemiarch replacement with hypothermic circulatory arrest plus retrograde cerebral perfusion were identified, of whom 53.0% had aneurysmal disease and 47.0% had AAD. For the entire cohort, operative mortality was 6.4%, whereas stroke occurred in 4.6% of patients. Comparing AAD with aneurysm, operative mortality and stroke rates were similar across each group. Five-year survival was 84.4% ± 0.02% for the entire hemiarch cohort, whereas 5-year survival was 88.0% ± 0.02% for the aneurysm subgroup and was 80.5% ± 0.03% for the AAD subgroup. On multivariable analysis, AAD was not associated with an increased hazard of death, compared with aneurysm (P = .790). CONCLUSIONS: Morbidity and mortality after hemiarch replacement with hypothermic circulatory arrest plus retrograde cerebral perfusion are acceptably low, and this operative approach may be as advantageous for AAD as it is for aneurysm.

7.
J Card Surg ; 36(11): 4015-4023, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the impact of transplanting center donor acceptance patterns on usage of extended-criteria donors (ECDs) and posttransplant outcomes following orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). METHODS: The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients was queried to identify heart donor offers and adult, isolated OHT recipients in the United States from January 1, 2013 to October 17, 2018. Centers were stratified into three equal-size terciles based on donor heart acceptance rates (<13.7%, 13.7%-20.2%, >20.2%). Overall survival was compared between recipients of ECDs (≥40 years, left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <60%, distance ≥500 miles, hepatitis B virus [HBV], hepatitis C virus [HCV], or human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], or ≥50 refusals) and recipients of traditional-criteria donors, and among transplanting terciles. RESULTS: A total of 85,505 donor heart offers were made to 133 centers with 15,264 (17.9%) accepted for OHT. High-acceptance programs (>20.2%) more frequently accepted donors with LVEF <60%, HIV, HCV, and/or HBV, ≥50 offers, or distance >500 miles from the transplanting center (each p < .001). Posttransplant survival was comparable across all three terciles (p = .11). One- and five-year survival were also similar across terciles when examining recipients of all five ECD factors. Acceptance tier and increasing acceptance rate were not found to have any impact on mortality in multivariable modeling. Of ECD factors, only age ≥40 years was found to have increased hazards for mortality (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.46; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Of recipients of ECD hearts, outcomes are similar across center-acceptance terciles. Educating less aggressive programs to increase donor acceptance and ECD utilization may yield higher national rates of OHT without major impact on outcomes.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Doadores de Tecidos , Transplantados , Estados Unidos , Função Ventricular Esquerda
8.
J Card Surg ; 36(11): 4030-4037, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the utilization and outcomes of postcardiotomy mechanical circulatory support (MCS). METHODS: This was a retrospective, single institution analysis of adult cardiac surgery cases that required de novo MCS following surgery from 2011 to 2018. Patients that were bridged with MCS to surgery were excluded. The primary outcomes were early operative mortality and longitudinal survival. Secondary outcomes included postoperative complications, and 5-year all-cause readmission. RESULTS: Five hundred and thirty-three patients required de novo postcardiotomy MCS, with the most commonly performed procedure being isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (29.8%). Median cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times were 185 (IQR 123-260) min and 122 (IQR 81-179) min, respectively. A total of 442 (82.9%) of patients were supported with intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation, 23 (4.3%) with an Impella device, and 115 (21.6%) with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Three (0.6%) patients had an unplanned ventricular assist device placed. Operative mortality was 29.8%. Longitudinal survival was 56.1% and 43.0% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Survival was lowest in those supported with ECMO and highest with those supported with an Impella (p < 0.001). Freedom from readmission was 61.4% at 5 years. Postoperative ECMO was an independent predictor of mortality (HR 5.1, 95% CI 2.0-12.9, p < 0.001), but none of the MCS types predicted long-term hospital readmission after risk adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Postcardiotomy MCS is associated with high operative mortality. Even patients that survive to discharge have compromised longitudinal survival, with nearly only half surviving to 1 year. Close follow-up and early referral to advanced heart failure specialists may be prudent in improving these outcomes.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Coração Auxiliar , Adulto , Humanos , Balão Intra-Aórtico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Cardiogênico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Clin Transplant ; 35(11): e14459, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the impact of the 2018 heart allocation policy change on geographic disparities in United States orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). METHODS: The United Network for Organ Sharing registry was queried to measure geographic disparity in OHT rates between pre-policy and post-policy change eras. We performed multilevel Poisson regression to measure region-level OHT rates. We derived an allocation priority-adjusted median incidence rate ratio (MIRR) for each policy era, a measure of median change in OHT rates between regions. RESULTS: 5958.78 waitlist person-years were analyzed, comprising 6596 OHT procedures (3890 pre-policy and 2706 post-policy). Median region-level OHT rate was .94 transplants/person-years before and 1.51 transplants/person-years after the policy change (P < .001). The unadjusted OHT MIRR across regions was 1.29 (95% CI 1.00-1.50) pre-policy change and 1.17 (95% CI 1.00-1.43) post-policy change, suggesting that the region-related variance in OHT rates decreased under the new allocation. After adjustment for allocation priority risk factors, the MIRR pre-policy change was 1.13 (95% CI 1.01-1.32) and post-policy change was 1.15 (95% CI 1.00-1.35). CONCLUSIONS: Geography accounts for ∼10% of the disparity among United States OHT rates. Despite broader heart sharing, the updated allocation policy did not substantially alter the existing geographic disparities among OHT recipients.

10.
J Card Surg ; 36(9): 3242-3249, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the impact of various sizing metrics on outcomes of female donor to male recipient orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). METHODS: We queried the United Network of Organ Sharing database to analyze all isolated, primary adult OHTs from January 1, 2010 to January 20, 020. Patients were stratified by donor-recipient sex pairing. Logistic regression was used to investigate risk-adjusted effects of current size matching criteria (weight ratio, body mass index [BMI] ratio, predicted heart mass [pHM] ratio) on 1-year posttransplant mortality. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare posttransplant survival among cohorts. RESULTS: A total of 22,450 patients were analyzed, of which 3019 (13.4%) underwent female-to-male transplantation. Of sex-matched pairs, female-to-male donation had the lowest proportion of undersized hearts using weight and BMI ratio metrics (10.5% and 5.2%) but had the highest proportion of undersizing using pHM metrics (48.1%) (all p < 0.001). Female-to-male recipients had the lowest rate of unadjusted 1-year survival (90.0%, p = 0.0169), and increased hazards of mortality after risk adjustment (odds ratio [OR]: 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.36, p = 0.034). Undersizing using pHM (donor-recipient ratio <0.85) was the only metric found to be associated in increased mortality after risk adjustment (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.02-1.71, p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: Female-to-male heart transplantation has the worst survival of all sex-matching combinations. Although female donors in this cohort are appropriately sized using traditional metrics, half are under-sized using pHM. This, combined with its strong association with mortality, underscores the importance of routine pHM assessment when evaluating female donors for male recipients.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Transplante de Coração , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doadores de Tecidos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Complete revascularization literature is limited by variance in patient cohorts and inconsistent definitions. The objective of the current study was to provide risk-adjusted outcomes for complete revascularization of significant nonmain-branch and main-branch vessel stenoses. METHODS: All patients that underwent first-time isolated coronary artery bypass grafting procedures were included. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, cumulative incidence function, and Cox regression were used to analyze outcomes. RESULTS: The total population consisted of 3356 patients that underwent first-time isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. Eight hundred eighty-nine (26.5%) patients had incomplete and 2467 (73.5%) had complete revascularization. For main-branch vessels, 677 (20.2%) patients had incomplete revascularization and 2679 (79.8%) were completely revascularized. Following risk adjustment with inverse probability treatment weighting, all baseline characteristics were balanced (standardized mean difference, ≤ 0.10). On Kaplan-Meier estimates, survival at 1 year (94.6% vs 92.5%) and 5 years (86.5% vs 82.1%) (P = .05) was significantly better for patients who received complete revascularization. Freedom from major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events was significantly higher for the complete revascularization cohort at both 1 year (89.2% vs 84.2%) and 5 years (72.5% vs 66.7%) (P < .001). Complete revascularization (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.95; P = .01) was independently associated with a significant reduction in major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. Incomplete revascularization of nonmain-branch vessels was not associated with mortality (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.8; P = .55) or major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.24; P = .52). CONCLUSIONS: Complete surgical revascularization of all angiographically stenotic vessels in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease is associated with fewer major adverse events. Incomplete revascularization of nonmain-branch vessels is not associated with survival or major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events.

12.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(5): 2874-2884, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34164179

RESUMO

Background: This study evaluates anticoagulation management and its impact on longitudinal clinical outcomes in patients undergoing mechanical valve replacement. Methods: Patients undergoing mechanical mitral valve replacement (MVR) or aortic valve replacement (AVR) from 2010-2018 at a single center were included. Patients were stratified into therapeutic and non-therapeutic anticoagulation groups based on the median percentage of international normalized ratio (INR) values within the reference range (2.0-3.0 for AVR, 2.5-3.5 for MVR) during the first post-operative year. Using Cox regression analysis, comorbidity-adjusted survival and freedom from adverse events were compared. Results: Six hundred and fifty-one patients underwent mechanical valve replacement (166 MVR, 485 AVR). Comorbidity-adjusted survival was similar in the MVR and AVR cohorts (P=0.23). There was a median of 27 [interquartile range (IQR): 14-42] INRs drawn per patient in the first post-operative year. The median percentage of INRs within the reference values during the first post-operative year was 42.85% (IQR: 30.77-53.95%), with the majority of non-therapeutic INRs being subtherapeutic (34.51%; n=6,864). There were no significant differences in adjusted survival between the therapeutic and non-therapeutic groups [hazard ratio (HR): 1.12, P=0.73]. Within the first post-operative year, there were no significant differences in stroke, major bleeding, peripheral non-stroke arterial thromboembolism, and readmission for intravenous heparin in the therapeutic and non-therapeutic groups. Conclusions: Taking into account relevant comorbidities and valve type, patients with a larger proportion of non-therapeutic INRs during the first post-operative year demonstrated no difference in longitudinal clinical outcomes. Further research into more standardized INR monitoring and potentially expanded INR target ranges for patients undergoing mechanical valve replacement is warranted.

13.
Transplantation ; 105(12): 2639-2645, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of hepatitis C virus-positive (HCV+) donors has expanded the donor pool for orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). This study evaluated center-level trends and utilization of HCV+ donors for OHT. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients on adults (≥18 y) undergoing OHT between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2019. Centers performing <10 OHTs during the study period were excluded. Donor utilization rates were evaluated at the center level. Center-level characteristics were compared between centers performing HCV+ donor hepatitis C virus-negative (HCV-) recipient OHTs and those not utilizing HCV+ donors for HCV- recipients. RESULTS: A total of 10 134 patients underwent OHT, including 613 (6.05%) HCV+ donors transplanted into HCV- recipients. The number of HCV+ OHTs increased from 15 of 2512 (0.60%) in 2016 to 285 of 2490 (11.45%) in 2019 (P < 0.001). In 2016, among 105 centers performing OHTs, 7 (6.67%) utilized HCV+ donors compared to 2019 during which 55 (52.89%) of 104 centers utilized HCV+ donors (P < 0.001). In total, 57 of 107 (53.27%) centers utilized HCV+ donors during the study period. Centers utilizing HCV+ donors had higher overall donor utilization rates (7376/24 378 [30.26%] versus 3463/15 335 [22.58%], P < 0.001) and were higher volume as compared to nonutilizing centers (mean annual OHT volume 30.72 ± 1.21 versus 16.2 ± 1.40, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Although the use of HCV+ donors for OHT is rapidly expanding in the United States, almost half of transplant centers remain nonutilizers. Broader education and implementation of HCV+ donor protocols may be important in expanding OHT to more patients with end-stage heart failure.

14.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 7(5): 649-658, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) outcomes (vs. warfarin) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) across body mass index (BMI) categories, including ≥40 and <18.5 kg/m2. BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have not systematically tested the fixed DOAC dosing in underweight and morbidly obese patients. METHODS: We retrospectively included consecutive patients with nonvalvular AF with CHA2DS2-VASc (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75, Diabetes, Stroke/transient ischemic attack/systemic thromboembolism, Vascular disease, Age 65-74, Sex) of ≥1 receiving OACs at our hospital system (2010-2018). Patients were categorized into groups 1 (underweight: BMI of <18.5 kg/m2), 2 (normal/overweight: BMI of 18.5 to <30 kg/m2), 3 (grade 1/2 obesity: BMI of 30 to <40 kg/m2), and 4 (grade 3 obesity: BMI of ≥40 kg/m2). We further classified patients by DOAC versus warfarin use. Outcomes were ischemic stroke, significant bleeding events (i.e., resulting in hospitalization), and mortality. RESULTS: We included 36,094 patients with a mean age of 74 ± 11 years and CHA2DS2-VASc of 3.4 ± 1.5. Groups 1 through 4 included 455 (1.3%), 18,339 (50.8%), 13,376 (37.1%), and 3,924 (10.9%) patients, respectively. DOAC use ranged from 49% to 56%. At 3.8 follow-up years, with multivariable Cox regression, DOACs (vs. warfarin) were associated with lower risk of ischemic stroke, bleeding, and mortality across all BMI groups, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63 to 0.85), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.64 to 0.87), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.88), and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.64 to 0.87) (p < 0.001 for all) for ischemic stroke; 0.42 (95% CI: 0.19 to 0.92), 0.41 (95% CI: 0.19 to 0.89), 0.45 (95% CI: 0.20 to 1.00), and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.94) (p < 0.05 for all) for bleeding; and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.68 to 1.19; p = 0.5), 0.70 (95% CI: 0.66 to 0.75; p < 0.0001), 0.65 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.71; p < 0.0001), and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.56 to 0.77; p < 0.0001) for mortality, in groups 1 to 4, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with nonvalvular AF, DOACs compared to warfarin were associated with better safety and effectiveness across all BMI categories, including underweight and morbidly obese patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Obesidade Mórbida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Card Surg ; 36(7): 2429-2439, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the impact of peak preoperative troponin level on outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients undergoing isolated CABG from 2011 to 2018 with the presentation of NSTEMI. Patients were stratified into low- and high-risk groups based on median preoperative peak troponin (1.95 ng/dl). Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and mortality were compared. Multivariable analysis was performed to model risk factors for MACCE and mortality. RESULTS: This study included 1211 patients, 607 low-risk (≤1.95 ng/dl) and 604 high-risk (>1.95 ng/dl). Patients were well-matched with respect to age and comorbidity. High-risk patients had lower median preoperative ejection fraction (46.5% [interquartile range {IQR}: 35.0%-55.0%] vs. 53.0% [IQR: 40.0%-58.0%]) and higher incidence of preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump (15.9% vs. 8.73%). Intensive care unit and hospital length of stay were longer in the high-risk group, but increasing troponin level was not associated with prolonged intensive care or hospital length of stay (>4 and >14 days, respectively) after risk adjustment. Postoperative complications and 30-day, 1- and 5-year rates of both MACCE and survival were similar between groups. Peak troponin greater than 1.95 ng/dl was not associated with increased hazards for MACCE, mortality, or readmission in multivariable modeling. In subanalysis, neither increasing troponin as a continuous variable nor peak troponin greater than 10.00 ng/ml were associated with increased hazards for these outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative troponin levels do not appear to be predictive of short- or long-term outcomes following CABG, and clinical decisions regarding surgical revascularization should not be dictated by these measurements.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina I
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report long-term outcomes after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) with or without perioperative blood or blood products. METHODS: All patients who underwent proximal aortic surgery with DHCA from 2011 to 2018 were propensity matched according to baseline characteristics. Primary outcomes included short- and long-term mortality. Stratified Cox regression analysis was performed for significant associations with survival. RESULTS: A total of 824 patients underwent aortic replacement requiring circulatory arrest. After matching, there were 224 patients in each arm (transfusion and no transfusion). All baseline characteristics were well matched, with a standardized mean difference (SMD) <0.1. Preoperative hematocrit (41.0 vs 40.6; SMD = 0.05) and ejection fraction (57.5% vs 57.0%; SMD = 0.08) were similar between the no transfusion and blood product transfusion cohorts. Rate of aortic dissection (42.9% vs 45.1%; SMD = 0.05), hemiarch replacement (70.1% vs 70.1%; SMD = 0.00), and total arch replacement (21.9% vs 23.2%; SMD = 0.03) were not statistically different. Cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp time were higher in the blood product transfusion cohort (P < .001). Operative mortality (9.4% vs 2.7%; P = .003), stroke (7.6% vs 1.3%; P = .001), reoperation rate, pneumonia, prolonged ventilation, and dialysis requirements were significantly higher in the transfusion cohort (P < .001). In stratified Cox regression, transfusion was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio, 2.62 [confidence interval, 1.47-4.67]; P = .001). One- and 5-year survival were significantly reduced for the transfusion cohort (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients who underwent aortic surgery with DHCA, perioperative transfusions were associated with poor outcomes despite matching for preoperative baseline characteristics.

17.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is being performed more frequently for left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD). This study evaluated a real-world propensity-matched analysis of surgical vs percutaneous revascularization for LMCAD. METHODS: Adults (≥18 years of age) at a single academic institution undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or PCI for left main stenosis greater than or equal to 50% between 2010 and 2018 were examined. Greedy propensity-matching techniques were used to generate well-matched cohorts, and Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare survival. Multivariable Cox models were created for 5-year mortality and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). RESULTS: A total of 1091 patients with LMCAD were identified (898 CABG, 193 PCI). Patients undergoing PCI were significantly older (77 years of age vs 68 years of age; P < .001), more likely to have heart failure (26.94% vs 13.14%; P < .001), and less likely to have 3-vessel disease (42.49% vs 65.59%; P < .001). Propensity matching yielded 215 CABG and 134 PCI well-matched patients. In the matched analysis, 1-year (77.61% vs 88.37%) and 5-year (48.77% vs 75.62%) survival were lower with PCI. Rates of MACCE at 5 years were also higher with PCI (64.93% vs 32.56%; P < .001). Rates of both myocardial infarction (19.40% vs 7.44%; P = .001) and repeat revascularization (26.12% vs 7.91%; P < .001) were higher with PCI. After risk adjustment, CABG remained associated with reduced risk of mortality (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.54; P < .001) and MACCE (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.48; P < .001) at 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: This real-world, propensity-matched analysis demonstrates substantial advantages in survival and MACCE with CABG for LMCAD, supporting surgical revascularization in this clinical setting in appropriate operative candidates.

18.
Am J Cardiol ; 148: 44-52, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667447

RESUMO

Aspirin remains the gold standard antiplatelet regimen following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), however, there is growing support for dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). This study compares outcomes of aspirin monotherapy versus DAPT following CABG. This was a propensity-matched retrospective study from a large, multi-hospital healthcare system. It included patients who received either aspirin monotherapy or DAPT following isolated CABG between 2011 and 2018. Patients prescribed aspirin monotherapy were started on 81 mg aspirin daily, and patients on DAPT were prescribed 81 mg aspirin daily and 75 mg clopidogrel daily. Patients received alternative drug dosing or antiplatelet agents other than clopidogrel only if this was prescribed for another diagnosis or they had a preexisting contraindication. Primary outcomes included overall survival and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or repeat revascularization. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test were used to compare survival and cumulative incidence curves and Gray's test were used to compare MACCE. A total of 3,562 propensity-matched patients were included, 1,242 (34.9%) receiving aspirin monotherapy and 2,320 (65.1%) receiving DAPT. Groups were well-matched with respect to age, baseline comorbidity, indication for CABG, and completeness of revascularization. Median follow-up was 4.90 years (IQR 3.30 to 6.90 years). DAPT was associated with higher rate of postoperative transfusion (30.7% vs 25.4%, p = 0.001). Overall survival was comparable between groups (1-year aspirin 95.9% versus DAPT 97.2% and 5-years aspirin 86.3% versus DAPT 87.8%; log-rank p = 0.194). Rates of MACCE were also similar (1-year aspirin 9.4% versus DAPT 8.7% and 5-years aspirin 26.7% versus DAPT 24.7%; p = 0.798). In this propensity-matched analysis, DAPT did not confer any advantage in terms of improved survival or freedom from MACCE compared to aspirin monotherapy following isolated CABG, and was associated with a higher postoperative transfusion rate.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Revascularização Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Pontuação de Propensão
19.
J Card Surg ; 36(7): 2277-2283, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This single-center, retrospective study evaluates the impact of hepatic steatosis on outcomes after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. METHODS: Adults undergoing LVAD implantation between 2004 and 2018 with a preoperative noncontrast-enhanced chest and abdominal computed tomography scan were included in the study. Patients were stratified as with and without radiographic signs of hepatic steatosis. The primary outcome was survival, and secondary outcomes included rates of postimplant adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 203 patients were included in the study. 27.6% (n = 56) had radiographic signs of hepatic steatosis. Hepatic steatosis group had a higher body mass index (30.1 vs. 27.0, p < .01), model for end-stage liver disease excluding international normalized ratio score (16.8 vs. 15.1, p = .05), and incidence of diabetes (53.6% vs. 35.4%, p = .02). The rates of postimplant adverse events, including bleeding, infection, reoperation, renal failure, hepatic dysfunction, stroke, and right ventricular failure, were similar between the groups (all, p > .05). Unadjusted survival was comparable between the groups at 30-days, 90-days, 1-year, and 2-year following LVAD implantation (all, p > .05). In addition, hepatic steatosis did not impact risk-adjusted overall mortality when modeled as a categorical variable (odds ratio [OR]: 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46-1.13; p = .15). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the presence of preoperative hepatic steatosis on imaging is not predictive of increased morbidity or mortality following LVAD implantation. Despite the association with obesity, metabolic diseases, and heart failure, hepatic steatosis on imaging appears to have a limited role in patient selection or prognostication in LVAD patients.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coração Auxiliar , Disfunção Ventricular Direita , Adulto , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 33(4): 1027-1034, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600994

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of hospital readmissions within 30-days of discharge, on long-term postoperative outcomes. All patients who underwent cardiac surgery from 2011 - 2018 were included. Patients who had transcatheter procedures, VAD, and transplant were excluded. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) propensity scoring was used for population risk adjustment. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify association with long-term mortality and readmission. The total risk adjusted (propensity scoring with IPTW) patient population consisted of 14,538 patients divided into those who were not readmitted in 30-days (nonreadmitted) (n = 12,627) and patients who were readmitted within 30-days (30-day readmitted) (n = 1911). Following IPTW, all baseline characteristics and postoperative complications were equivalent between cohorts (SMD <0.10). Patients who required intraoperative [OR 1.178 (1.05, 1.32); P = 0.006] and postoperative [1.32 (1.18, 1.48); P < 0.001] blood transfusions were at greater risk for 30-day readmission. Median follow-up period was 4.19 years (2.45 - 6.10). The 30-day readmission cohort had a significantly higher mortality risk during early (6 months) follow-up [HR 2.49 (2.01-3.10); P < 0.001] and late (60 months) follow-up [HR 1.30 (1.16-1.47); P < 0.001]. After risk adjustment, the 30-day readmission cohort was significantly associated with increased mortality over the study follow-up period [HR 1.62 (1.48, 1.78); P < 0.001]. 30-day readmissions were an independent predictor of subsequent long-term hospital readmission [HR 1.61 (1.50, 1.73); P < 0.001]. Patients who require 30-day readmissions following cardiac surgery are at increased risk of long-term mortality and repeat readmissions. Early postoperative hospital readmission may be a marker for worse long-term outcomes in cardiac surgery.

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