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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813831

RESUMO

Given that many people suffer from extensive skin damage, wound repair has drawn tremendous attention in research. Among the various assistant dressing materials that promote healing, a porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM), as a skin substitute, can efficiently accelerate healing by promoting cell migration and proliferation. However, a simple, low-cost preparation process remains a challenge facing PADM development, particularly because of the inferior elasticity. To overcome these drawbacks, a CaCl2-ethanol-H2O solution (ternary solution) combined with an additional enzyme treatment was used to obtain a transparent, porous, and elastic PADM that retained the major extracellular matrix composition of the dermis. Our results indicated that alterations in the fiber organization and secondary structural changes in the collagen occurred after treatment. Furthermore, the in vivo wound healing and histological analyses clearly revealed an extremely expedited wound repair process following the application of the biocompatible PADM. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the development of a transparent PADM with a porous structure and good elasticity that can be used as a skin substitute to accelerate the wound healing process. Moreover, this effective technique could potentially be used to extrapolate other decellularized materials in the future.

2.
J Virol ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827944

RESUMO

Koi herpesvirus (KHV) is highly contagious and lethal to cyprinid fish, causing significant economic losses to the carp aquaculture industry, particularly to koi carp breeders. Vaccines delivered through intramuscular needle injection or gene gun are not suitable for mass vaccination of carp. So, the development of cost-effective, oral vaccines that are easily applicable at farm level is highly desirable. In this study, we utilized chitosan-alginate capsules as oral delivery system for a live probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus) vaccine pYG-KHV-ORF81/LR CIQ249 expressing KHV ORF81 protein. The tolerance of the encapsulated recombinant Lactobacillus to various digestive environments and the ability of the probiotics strain to colonize the intestine of carp was tested. The immunogenicity and the protective efficacy of the encapsulated probiotic vaccine was evaluated by determining IgM levels, lymphocyte proliferation, expression of immune-related genes, and viral challenge to vaccinated fish. It was clear that the chitosan-alginate capsules protected the probiotics vaccine effectively against extreme digestive environments, and significant level (p < 0.01) of antigen-specific IgM with KHV-neutralizing activity was detected, which provided protection rate of ca. 85% for koi carp against KHV challenge. The strategy of using chitosan-alginate capsules to deliver probiotic vaccines is easily applicable for mass oral vaccination of fish.ImportanceAn oral probiotic vaccine pYG-KHV-ORF81/LR CIQ249 encapsulated by chitosan-alginate capsules as oral delivery system was developed for koi carp against KHV infection. This encapsulated probiotic vaccine can be protected from various digestive environments and maintain effectively high viability, showing a good tolerance to digestive environments. This encapsulated probiotic vaccine has a good immunogenicity in koi carp via oral vaccination, and the significant level of antigen-specific IgM was effectively induced after oral vaccination, displaying effective KHV-neutralizing activity. This encapsulated probiotic vaccine can provide effective protection for koi carp against KHV challenge, which is handling stress-free for the fish, cost-effective, and suitable for the mass oral vaccination of koi carp at farm level, suggesting a promising vaccine strategy for fish.

3.
BMJ ; 372: n530, 2021 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of spontaneous abortion with the risk of all cause and cause specific premature mortality (death before the age of 70). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Nurses' Health Study II (1993-2017), United States. PARTICIPANTS: 101 681 ever gravid female nurses participating in the Nurses' Health Study II. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Lifetime occurrence of spontaneous abortion in pregnancies lasting less than 6 months, determined by biennial questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all cause and cause specific premature death according to the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, estimated with time dependent Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During 24 years of follow-up, 2936 premature deaths were recorded, including 1346 deaths from cancer and 269 from cardiovascular disease. Crude all cause mortality rates were comparable for women with and without a history of spontaneous abortion (1.24 per 1000 person years in both groups) but were higher for women experiencing three or more spontaneous abortions (1.47 per 1000 person years) and for women reporting their first spontaneous abortion before the age of 24 (1.69 per 1000 person years). The corresponding age adjusted hazard ratios for all cause premature death during follow-up were 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.11), 1.39 (1.03 to 1.86), and 1.27 (1.11 to 1.46), respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors and updated dietary and lifestyle factors, the occurrence of spontaneous abortion was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.19 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.30) for premature mortality during follow-up. The association was stronger for recurrent spontaneous abortions (hazard ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 2.15 for three or more spontaneous abortions; 1.23, 1.00 to 1.50 for two; and 1.16, 1.05 to 1.28 for one compared with none), and for spontaneous abortions occurring early in a woman's reproductive life (1.32, 1.14 to 1.53 for age ≤23; 1.16, 1.01 to 1.33 for ages 24-29; and 1.12, 0.98 to 1.28 for age ≥30 compared with none). When cause specific mortality was evaluated, the association of spontaneous abortion with premature death was strongest for deaths from cardiovascular disease (1.48, 1.09 to 1.99). Spontaneous abortion was not related to premature death from cancer (1.08, 0.94 to 1.24). CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous abortion was associated with an increased risk of premature mortality, particularly death from cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Causas de Morte , Mortalidade Prematura , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(10): 1302-1312, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) are leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. However, it is uncertain whether HDPs are associated with long-term risk of premature mortality (before age 70 years). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether HDPs were associated with premature mortality. METHODS: Between 1989 and 2017, the authors followed 88,395 parous female nurses participating in the Nurses' Health Study II. The study focused on gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia within the term HDPs. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between HDPs and premature mortality were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustment for relevant confounders. RESULTS: The authors documented that 2,387 women died before age 70 years, including 1,141 cancer deaths and 212 CVD deaths. The occurrence of HDPs, either gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia, was associated with an HR of 1.31 (95% CI: 1.18 to 1.46) for premature death during follow-up. When specific causes of death were examined, these relations were strongest for CVD-related mortality (HR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.67 to 3.07). The association between HDPs and all-cause premature death persisted, regardless of the subsequent development of chronic hypertension (HR: 1.20 [95% CI: 1.02 to 1.40] for HDPs only and HR: 2.02 [95% CI: 1.75 to 2.33] for both HDPs and subsequent chronic hypertension). CONCLUSIONS: An occurrence of HDPs, either gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia, was associated with an increased risk of premature mortality, particularly CVD mortality, even in the absence of chronic hypertension.

6.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 202: 106004, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious virus spreading all around the world. Deep learning has been adopted as an effective technique to aid COVID-19 detection and segmentation from computed tomography (CT) images. The major challenge lies in the inadequate public COVID-19 datasets. Recently, transfer learning has become a widely used technique that leverages the knowledge gained while solving one problem and applying it to a different but related problem. However, it remains unclear whether various non-COVID19 lung lesions could contribute to segmenting COVID-19 infection areas and how to better conduct this transfer procedure. This paper provides a way to understand the transferability of non-COVID19 lung lesions and a better strategy to train a robust deep learning model for COVID-19 infection segmentation. METHODS: Based on a publicly available COVID-19 CT dataset and three public non-COVID19 datasets, we evaluate four transfer learning methods using 3D U-Net as a standard encoder-decoder method. i) We introduce the multi-task learning method to get a multi-lesion pre-trained model for COVID-19 infection. ii) We propose and compare four transfer learning strategies with various performance gains and training time costs. Our proposed Hybrid-encoder Learning strategy introduces a Dedicated-encoder and an Adapted-encoder to extract COVID-19 infection features and general lung lesion features, respectively. An attention-based Selective Fusion unit is designed for dynamic feature selection and aggregation. RESULTS: Experiments show that trained with limited data, proposed Hybrid-encoder strategy based on multi-lesion pre-trained model achieves a mean DSC, NSD, Sensitivity, F1-score, Accuracy and MCC of 0.704, 0.735, 0.682, 0.707, 0.994 and 0.716, respectively, with better genetalization and lower over-fitting risks for segmenting COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal the benefits of transferring knowledge from non-COVID19 lung lesions, and learning from multiple lung lesion datasets can extract more general features, leading to accurate and robust pre-trained models. We further show the capability of the encoder to learn feature representations of lung lesions, which improves segmentation accuracy and facilitates training convergence. In addition, our proposed Hybrid-encoder learning method incorporates transferred lung lesion features from non-COVID19 datasets effectively and achieves significant improvement. These findings promote new insights into transfer learning for COVID-19 CT image segmentation, which can also be further generalized to other medical tasks.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos
7.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 42(6): e2000699, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625750

RESUMO

Conventional thermosets consisting of polymer networks with robust and irreversible chemical linkages are incapable of reshaping or reprocessing once formed. In contrast, reversible non-covalent crosslinks can impart structurally flexible and reconfigurable feature to the networks, but at the expense of certain mechanical strength. The integration of fixed covalent bonds and noncovalent bonds into these materials can usually attain enhanced mechanical properties and meanwhile provide dynamic and adaptable functions, such as responsive and healing ability to external stimuli. Here a double-cross-linked frustrated Lewis pair network (FLPN) is developed through a specific three-component reaction among triarylborane, triarylphosphine, and CO2 , which is composed of permanent chemical crosslinks and dynamic CO2 gas-bridged connections. The amount of CO2 added can regulate the density of supramolecular node in such FLPN, so as to control the strength and toughness of the gel material. Moreover, the broken gel can be rapidly healed by CO2 stimulus through the reconstruction of dynamic covalent network. This study will inspire a new way to create gas-based smart materials by incorporating frustrated Lewis pair chemistry into traditional gel system.

8.
J Diabetes Complications ; 35(4): 107881, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiorenal complications are common in patients with dysmetabolism and diabetes. The present study aimed to examine if a nonhuman primate (NHP) model with spontaneously developed metabolic disorder and diabetes develops similar complications to humans, such as proteinuria and cardiac dysfunction at resting condition or diminished cardiac functional reserve following dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 66 dysmetabolic and diabetic cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) NHPs were enrolled to select 19 NHPs (MetS) with marked metabolic disorders and diabetes (fasting blood glucose: 178 ±â€¯18 vs. 61 ±â€¯3 mg/dL) accompanied by proteinuria (ACR: 134 ±â€¯34 vs. 1.5 ±â€¯0.4 mg/mmol) compared to 8 normal NHPs (CTRL). Under resting condition, MetS NHPs showed mild left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (E/A: 1 ±â€¯0.06 vs. 1.5 ±â€¯0.13), but with preserved ejection fraction (EF: 65 ±â€¯2 vs. 71 ±â€¯3%) compared to CTRL. DSE with an intravenous infusion of dobutamine at ascending doses (5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 µg/kg/min, 7 min for each dose) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cardiac function, however, with a significantly diminished magnitude at the highest dose of dobutamine infusion (40 µg/kg/min) in both diastole (E/A: -12 ±â€¯3 vs. -38 ±â€¯5%) and systole (EF: 25 ±â€¯3 vs. 33 ±â€¯5%) as well as ~42% reduced cardiac output reserve (COR: 63 ±â€¯8 vs. 105 ±â€¯18%, p < 0.02) in the MetS compared to CTRL NHPs. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that MetS NHPs with cardiorenal complications: proteinuria, LV diastolic dysfunction and preserved LV systolic function under resting conditions displayed compromised cardiac functional reserve under dobutamine stress. Based on these phenotypes, this NHP model of diabetes with cardiorenal complications can be used as a highly translational model mimic human disease for pharmaceutical research.

9.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 25, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Mainland China, advance directives (ADs) and end-of-life care for patients with tumours, especially patients with brain tumours who may have lost consciousness or the ability to speak at the early stage of their illness, have been poorly acknowledged. Thus, this study aimed to clarify the knowledge and preferences of ADs and end-of-life care in patients with brain tumours and to investigate predictors of patient preferences. METHODS: This was a population-based cross-sectional survey that was conducted via face-to-face interviews. Information on sociodemographic factors, brain tumour illness, knowledge and preferences of the advanced decisions and end-of-life care of the patients was collected. RESULTS: A total of 88.61% of participants had never heard of ADs, but 65.18% reported that they would like to make ADs. Knowledge of ADs, receiving surgical treatment or radiotherapy, being younger than 70 years old, being male, having educational qualifications of college or beyond, being childless, having medical insurance for nonworking or working urban residents and self-paying medical expenses were predictors of preference for making ADs. A total of 79.43% of participants wanted to discuss end-of-life arrangements with medical staff, and 63.29% of participants were willing to receive end-of-life care, even though it would not delay death. A total of 65.82% of patients with brain tumours wanted resuscitation, and as many as 45.45% of the patients thought that they did not need life support if they were in a persistent vegetative state. Brain primary tumours, being younger than 70 years old, male sex, educational qualification of junior middle school or below, having children, having new rural cooperative medical insurance and having medical expenses paid by children or spouses were predictors of choosing appropriate palliative care. CONCLUSIONS: ADs and end-of-life care have been poorly acknowledged among patients with brain tumours in mainland China. Additional efforts should be encouraged amongst patients with primary brain tumours, those who are undergoing surgery and radiotherapy and those who have low socioeconomic status. A longitudinal and comprehensive study is encouraged to promote disease-specific ADs among Chinese patients with brain tumours.

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 134, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420022

RESUMO

Understanding the factors that contribute to efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection of human cells may provide insights on SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility and pathogenesis, and reveal targets of intervention. Here, we analyze host and viral determinants essential for efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection in both human lung epithelial cells and ex vivo human lung tissues. We identify heparan sulfate as an important attachment factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Next, we show that sialic acids present on ACE2 prevent efficient spike/ACE2-interaction. While SARS-CoV infection is substantially limited by the sialic acid-mediated restriction in both human lung epithelial cells and ex vivo human lung tissues, infection by SARS-CoV-2 is limited to a lesser extent. We further demonstrate that the furin-like cleavage site in SARS-CoV-2 spike is required for efficient virus replication in human lung but not intestinal tissues. These findings provide insights on the efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection of human lungs.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , /transmissão , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Ligação Viral , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Furina/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Heparitina Sulfato/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/virologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , Células Vero , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 408: 124904, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385727

RESUMO

Humans are ubiquitously exposed to arsenic from multiple sources, and chronic arsenic exposure may be associated with male reproductive health. Although association regarding arsenic exposure and sex hormone secretion in blood has been reported, sex hormone excretion in urine studies is lacking. Urinary sex hormone excretion has emerged as a complementary strategy to evaluate gonadal function. Herein, we determined the associations between environmental exposure to arsenic and urinary sex hormone elimination and in vitro Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Concentrations of arsenic and testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in repeated urine samples were determined among 451 reproductive-age males. Moreover, an in vitro Leydig cell MLTC-1 steroidogenesis experiment was designed to simulate real-world scenarios of low human exposure. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the associations of urinary arsenic levels with urinary hormones. Urinary arsenic concentrations were positively associated with urinary sex hormone (T, E2, and P) levels. An in vitro test further demonstrated that a population-based environmental exposure range (0.01-5 µM) of arsenic induced Leydig cell steroidogenesis potency. Our results indicate that low-dose arsenic exposure exhibits an endocrine disrupting effect by stimulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis and accelerating urinary steroid excretion, which extends previous knowledge of the inverse association of high-dose arsenic exposure with sexual steroid production that is assumed to be anti-androgen.

12.
Med Phys ; 48(3): 1197-1210, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354790

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Accurate segmentation of lung and infection in COVID-19 computed tomography (CT) scans plays an important role in the quantitative management of patients. Most of the existing studies are based on large and private annotated datasets that are impractical to obtain from a single institution, especially when radiologists are busy fighting the coronavirus disease. Furthermore, it is hard to compare current COVID-19 CT segmentation methods as they are developed on different datasets, trained in different settings, and evaluated with different metrics. METHODS: To promote the development of data-efficient deep learning methods, in this paper, we built three benchmarks for lung and infection segmentation based on 70 annotated COVID-19 cases, which contain current active research areas, for example, few-shot learning, domain generalization, and knowledge transfer. For a fair comparison among different segmentation methods, we also provide standard training, validation and testing splits, evaluation metrics and, the corresponding code. RESULTS: Based on the state-of-the-art network, we provide more than 40 pretrained baseline models, which not only serve as out-of-the-box segmentation tools but also save computational time for researchers who are interested in COVID-19 lung and infection segmentation. We achieve average dice similarity coefficient (DSC) scores of 97.3%, 97.7%, and 67.3% and average normalized surface dice (NSD) scores of 90.6%, 91.4%, and 70.0% for left lung, right lung, and infection, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this work presents the first data-efficient learning benchmark for medical image segmentation, and the largest number of pretrained models up to now. All these resources are publicly available, and our work lays the foundation for promoting the development of deep learning methods for efficient COVID-19 CT segmentation with limited data.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado de Máquina , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Benchmarking , Humanos
13.
J Exp Bot ; 72(7): 2463-2476, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340036

RESUMO

Seeds are major vehicles of propagation and dispersal in plants. A number of transcription factors, including APETALA2 (AP2), play crucial roles during the seed development process in various plant species. However, genes essential for seed development and the regulatory networks that operate during seed development remain unclear in lettuce. Here, we identified a lettuce AP2 (LsAP2) gene that was highly expressed during the early stages of seed development. LsAP2 knockout plants obtained by the CRISPR/Cas9 system were used to explore the biological function of LsAP2. Compared with the wild type, the seeds of Lsap2 mutant plants were longer and narrower, and developed an extended tip at the seed top. After further investigating the structural characteristics of the seeds of Lsap2 mutant plants, we proposed a new function of LsAP2 in seed dispersal. Moreover, we identified several interactors of LsAP2. Our results showed that LsAP2 directly interacted with the lettuce homolog of BREVIPEDICELLUS (LsBP) and promoted the expression of LsBP. Transcriptome analysis revealed that LsAP2 might also be involved in brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signaling pathways. Taken together, our data indicate that LsAP2 has a significant function in regulating seed shape in lettuce.

14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(2): 338-347, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single measurements of waist circumference (WC) predict the incident cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, long-term patterns of WC and their association with the incidence of CVD are poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify WC trajectories and determine their association with incident CVD (stroke and myocardial infarction) and examine whether the association persisted among individuals without obesity. METHODS: We included 75,535 participants from a community-based cohort in China who were aged >18 y and free of stroke, coronary artery disease, and cancer in 2010 (the baseline). WC and other covariates were repeatedly measured in 2006, 2008, and 2010. WC trajectories were identified by latent mixture modeling. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the association between WC trajectories and incident CVD, after adjustment for age, sex, income, education, systolic blood pressure, lipid profiles, plasma concentrations of glucose, C-reactive protein, smoking, and alcohol drinking. RESULTS: We identified 4 WC trajectories based on 2006 WC measurement and change patterns during 2006-2010: low stable (n = 12,072; mean WC 74.1-75.1 cm), moderate stable (n = 41,750; mean WC 85.1-86.6 cm), moderate-high stable (n = 19,914; mean WC 95.6-97.2 cm), and high stable (n = 1,799; mean WC 106.3-110.9 cm). During 2010-2016, we documented 2819 incident CVD events. Compared with the low-stable group, groups with elevated WC trajectories had a higher risk of CVD events during 6 y of follow-up (2010-2016). Adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 1.49 (1.21, 1.83) for the moderate stable group, 1.71(1.38, 2.12) for the moderate-high stable group, and 1.45 (1.06, 2.00) for the high stable group. After further adjusting for BMI or excluding obese participants, we observed similar results. The positive association between WC and incident CVD was higher in individuals who were aged <60 y (P-interaction < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: WC trajectory patterns were associated with altered risk of CVD among Chinese adults, even among people without BMI-defined obesity. When stratifying by age, the association was observed to be higher in younger adults.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Med Image Anal ; 67: 101821, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049579

RESUMO

There is a large body of literature linking anatomic and geometric characteristics of kidney tumors to perioperative and oncologic outcomes. Semantic segmentation of these tumors and their host kidneys is a promising tool for quantitatively characterizing these lesions, but its adoption is limited due to the manual effort required to produce high-quality 3D segmentations of these structures. Recently, methods based on deep learning have shown excellent results in automatic 3D segmentation, but they require large datasets for training, and there remains little consensus on which methods perform best. The 2019 Kidney and Kidney Tumor Segmentation challenge (KiTS19) was a competition held in conjunction with the 2019 International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) which sought to address these issues and stimulate progress on this automatic segmentation problem. A training set of 210 cross sectional CT images with kidney tumors was publicly released with corresponding semantic segmentation masks. 106 teams from five continents used this data to develop automated systems to predict the true segmentation masks on a test set of 90 CT images for which the corresponding ground truth segmentations were kept private. These predictions were scored and ranked according to their average Sørensen-Dice coefficient between the kidney and tumor across all 90 cases. The winning team achieved a Dice of 0.974 for kidney and 0.851 for tumor, approaching the inter-annotator performance on kidney (0.983) but falling short on tumor (0.923). This challenge has now entered an "open leaderboard" phase where it serves as a challenging benchmark in 3D semantic segmentation.

16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2027928, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346844

RESUMO

Importance: Menstrual cycle dysfunction is associated with insulin resistance, a key feature early in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. However, the evidence linking irregular and long menstrual cycles with type 2 diabetes is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: To evaluate the associations between menstrual cycle characteristics at different points throughout a woman's reproductive life span and risk of type 2 diabetes and the extent to which this association is modified by lifestyle factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 75 546 premenopausal US female nurses participating in the Nurses' Health Study II from 1993 to June 30, 2017. Data analysis was performed from February 1 to December 30, 2019. Exposures: Self-reported usual length and regularity of menstrual cycles at the age ranges of 14 to 17 years, 18 to 22 years, and 29 to 46 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident type 2 diabetes identified through self-report and confirmed by validated supplemental questionnaires. Results: Among the 75 546 women in the study at baseline, the mean (SD) age was 37.9 (4.6) years (range, 29.0-46.0 years). A total of 5608 participants (7.4%) had documented new cases of type 2 diabetes during 1 639 485 person-years of follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, women reporting always having irregular menstrual cycles between the age ranges of 14 to 17 years, 18 to 22 years, and 29 to 46 years were, respectively, 32% (95% CI, 22%-44%), 41% (95% CI, 23%-62%), and 66% (95% CI, 49%-84%) more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than women reporting very regular cycles (within 3-4 days of expected period) in the same age range. Similarly, women reporting a usual cycle length of 40 days or more between the age ranges of 18 to 22 years and 29 to 46 years were, respectively, 37% (95% CI, 19%-57%) and 50% (95% CI, 36%-65%) more likely to develop type 2 diabetes during follow-up compared with women reporting a usual cycle length of 26 to 31 days in the same age ranges. These associations appeared to be stronger among women with overweight or obesity, a low-quality diet, and low levels of physical activity. The relative excess risk of type 2 diabetes due to the interaction between irregular and long menstrual cycles and the overall unhealthy lifestyle score was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.57-0.89) and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.54-0.83), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of US female nurses participating in the Nurses' Health Study II, irregular and long menstrual cycles throughout life were associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes, particularly among women with overweight or obesity, a low-quality diet, and low levels of physical activity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Ciclo Menstrual , Distúrbios Menstruais/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Distúrbios Menstruais/epidemiologia , Distúrbios Menstruais/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among various cooking methods, steaming is favored by many because it can cause less damage to nutrient components in muscle, retain the inherent food flavor, and reduce the generation of harmful substances. Steaming conditions are closely related to fish flavor, fat and protein oxidation, and digestibility. RESULTS: The black carp steamed for 4 to 14 min was studied in this article based on sensory assessment, electronic tongue, free amino acids, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-related compounds, total nitrogen and non-protein nitrogen to explore the effect of steaming time on the taste substances and protein degradation of pickled black carp. The experimental result showed that the meat steamed within 8 min tasted better, showing high tastiness. The sensory assessment score increased significantly to the maximum value of 82.33 at 6 min. The content of umami and sweet amino acids increased significantly to the maximum value of 1.6801 g kg-1 at 6 min. In the meantime, the IMP (inosine monophosphate) content was 1.9128 g kg-1 , with its taste activity value (TAV) reaching 7.65, which proved that IMP affected the taste most. Furthermore, the total nitrogen content was 30.77 g kg-1 , which meant protein degraded a great deal. Based on equivalent umami concentration (EUC) and its TAV, the meat tasted best at 6-8 min. The longer the steaming time, the faster the protein degradation and the more the flavor precursors. CONCLUSION: The black carp pickled products (with a weight of 20 g, with the size of 3 cm × 3 cm × 2 cm) is suggested to be steamed for 6 to 8 min. This conclusion provides a theoretical basis for its better taste quality. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(52): 32962-32969, 2020 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318219

RESUMO

Clinical investigations have shown that a nonimmunogenic "cold" tumor is usually accompanied by few immunopositive cells and more immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME), which is still the bottleneck of immune activation. Here, a fluorine assembly nanocluster was explored to break the shackles of immunosuppression, reawaken the immune system, and turn the cold tumor "hot." Once under laser irradiation, FS@PMPt produces sufficient reactive oxygen species (ROS) to fracture the ROS-sensitive linker, thus releasing the cisplatin conjugated PMPt to penetrate into the tumors and kill the regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Meanwhile, ROS will induce potent immunogenic cell death (ICD) and further promote the accumulation of dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells, therefore not only increasing the infiltration of immunopositive cells from the outside but also reducing the immunosuppressive cells from the inside to break through the bottleneck of immune activation. The FS@PMPt nanocluster regulates the immune process in TME from negative to positive, from shallow to deep, to turn the cold tumor into a hot tumor and provoke a robust antitumor immune response.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Flúor/química , Fatores Imunológicos/síntese química , Nanoconjugados/química , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dendrímeros/química , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Células Supressoras Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Platina/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
19.
Adv Funct Mater ; : 2008452, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349747

RESUMO

The world-wide spreading of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has greatly shaken human society, thus effective and fast-speed methods of non-daily-life-disturbance sterilization have become extremely significant. In this work, by fully benefitting from high-quality AlN template (with threading dislocation density as low as ≈6×108 cm-2) as well as outstanding deep ultraviolet (UVC-less than 280 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) structure design and epitaxy optimization, high power UVC LEDs and ultra-high-power sterilization irradiation source are achieved. Moreover, for the first time, a result in which a fast and complete elimination of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus causes COVID-19) within only 1 s is achieved by the nearly whole industry-chain-covered product. These results advance the promising potential in UVC-LED disinfection particularly in the shadow of COVID-19.

20.
Environ Res ; : 110373, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190805

RESUMO

A single measurement of organophosphate flame retardant (OPFR) metabolites in a spot sample is often used in epidemiological studies to estimate individual exposures. Over seven consecutive days, we collected 661 spot samples, including 127 first morning voids (FMVs) and 123 simulated 24-h collections, from 20 healthy adults and analyzed for eight OPFR metabolites. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to evaluate the variability of the analyzed metabolites. In spot samples group, serial measurements of OPFR metabolites showed poor reproducibility (0.0422 ≤ ICC ≤ 0.349), and the within-day variability was the main contributor of the total variability. The estimated ICCs based on different correction methods for urine dilution (i.e., specific gravity-adjusted, creatinine-adjusted, and creatinine as a covariate) were similar, but varied according to gender and body mass index. Uniformly low sensitivities (0.417-0.633) were observed when using a single FMV or spot sample to predict the 1-week highly (top 33.0%) exposed volunteers. Therefore, using a single urinary measurement to predict chronic exposure to OPFRs can lead to a high degree of classification errors. When multiple urine samples are collected, considering the sampling type, the time of collection, and demographic characteristics may provide a more complete approach to assess exposure to diverse OPFRs.

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