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1.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 8445-8453, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819752

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize the clinical application effects of three different types of flaps for repairing soft tissue defects of the heel, and to discuss the importance of tissue repair and heel reconstruction. Methods: A total of 46 cases with skin tissue defects of the heel with deep tissue exposure were treated. The reasons for the defect were trauma (n = 26), burns and electric shocks (n = 12), chronic ulcers (n = 2), postoperative infection of the calcaneus and Achilles tendon (n = 5), and tumor resection (n = 1). The scope of wound defect was 2.0×2.5 to approximately 15.0×20.0 cm. The flaps used were medial plantar island flaps (n = 9), distal pedicled sural neurovascular island flaps (n = 23), and free anterolateral thigh (perforator) flaps (n = 14). The flap cutting range was 3.0×3.5 to approximately 16.0×22.0 cm. Results: After surgery, all 46 flaps survived. In two cases, patients experienced partial epidermal necrosis at the distal end of the flap that healed after local dressing exchange, and after this treatment, the complete skin grafts survived. Follow-up was conducted in 40 cases, with an average follow-up duration of 8.2 months (3-44 months) and the two-point discrimination of 5-14 mm. The average American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scale was 89.2 points with good flap color and texture, satisfactory appearance, and normal gait. Conclusion: The repair method should be selected according to the"5-zone method": The plantar medial island flap is suitable for small area (<5 cm) of medial, posterior and plantar defects. The distal pedicled sural neurovascular flap is suitable for lateral, posterior, and medium-range (6-10 cm) joint area defects. The free anterolateral thigh perforator flap is suitable for large-scale (>10 cm) joint area defects.

2.
Atherosclerosis ; 337: 35-41, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Elevated fibrinogen levels have been observed in patients with acute ischemic stroke, but the association of fibrinogen with stroke outcomes is still undefined. We aimed to assess the association between baseline or 90-day fibrinogen levels and long-term outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: Using data from the China National Stroke Registry Ⅲ, this substudy included 10 518 patients within 7 days (baseline) of onset and 6268 patients at 90 days of recovery. Multivariate Cox regression and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations of fibrinogen with poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 3-6), dependence (modified Rankin Scale score 3-5), all-cause death, and stroke recurrence at 1 year. RESULTS: Fibrinogen levels at 90 days were higher than those at baseline (443.5 mg/dl versus 393.7 mg/dl; p < 0.001). A high baseline fibrinogen level was associated with poor functional outcome (odds ratio [OR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-1.97) and dependence (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.36-2.09) after adjusting for all confounding risk factors. In contrast, further adjustment for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein attenuated the association between baseline fibrinogen level and all-cause death or stroke recurrence. Furthermore, a high 90-day fibrinogen level was also associated with poor functional outcome (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.07-2.00) and dependence (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.03-1.98) after adjusting for all confounding risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: High baseline and 90-day fibrinogen levels were associated with outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke or TIA.

3.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(15): 1224, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532361

RESUMO

Background: Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is crucial for secondary stroke prevention in stroke patients with preexisting cardiovascular diseases (CVD) or cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD). However, data on attainment of guideline-recommended LDL-C levels are lacking. Methods: We analyzed data from the Chinese Stroke Center Alliance (CSCA) program for patients with ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) hospitalized between August 2015 and July 2019. Participants were classified into different disease groups according to preexisting CeVD (stroke/TIA) or CVD [coronary heart disease (CHD) or myocardial infarction (MI)]. Results: Of 858,509 patients presenting with an acute stroke/TIA, 251,176 (29.3%) had a preexisting CeVD, 44,158 (5.1%) had preexisting CVD, 33,070 (3.9%) had concomitant preexisting CeVD and CVD, and 530,105 (61.7%) had no documented history of CeVD/CVD. Overall, only 397,596 (46.3%) met the target for LDL-C <2.6 mmol/L, 128,177 (14.9%) for LDL-C <1.8 mmol/L and 55,275 (6.4%) for LDL-C <1.4 mmol/L, and patients with concomitant CeVD and CVD had higher attainment rates than other disease groups (P<0.001). Despite improvements over time in the proportion of patients who attain LDL-C targets (P for trend <0.05), it remains suboptimal. Younger age, women, having a history of hypertension or dyslipidemia, current smoking or drinking, and being admitted to hospitals located in eastern China were associated with lower odds of meeting the LDL-C goals. Conclusions: Overall attainment of guideline LDL-C targets in a population of stroke/TIA patients is low and indicates the need for better management of dyslipidemia, particularly for high-risk stroke patients with pre-existing CeVD or CVD.

4.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(9)2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577686

RESUMO

A micro ball tip is a core component of high precision coordinate measuring machines. The present micro ball tips cannot satisfy the high-precision measuring requirements of high aspect ratio microstructures due to their large diameter and low accuracy. In the previous study, we fabricated a micro monolithic tungsten ball tip by using arc discharge and surface tension principles. However, the fabrication success rate of forming a micro ball tip is less than 10%. In the present study, the Taguchi method has been applied to increase the fabrication success rate, and it has increased to 57.5%. The output response is evaluated in terms of the diameter, roundness, and center offset of the tungsten probe ball tips. The smaller-the-better signal-to-noise ratio is applied to analyze the influence of various parameters. The proposed parameters can be used to increase the fabrication success rate and accuracy of the monolithic probe ball tip.

5.
Eur J Neurol ; 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous assessments of sex differences for patients with acute ischemic stroke were limited in a specific region or population, narrow scope, or small sample size. METHODS: Patients with acute ischemic stroke hospitalized in the China Stroke Center Alliance hospitals were analyzed. Absolute standardized differences (ASDs) were used to assess sex differences in vascular risk factors, guideline-recommended in-hospital management measures and outcomes, including stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale≥16), death/discharge against medical advice, major adverse cardiovascular events, pneumonia, and disability (modified Rankin Scale≥3). RESULTS: Of 838,229 patients analyzed, 524351 (62.6%) were men and 313,878 (37.4%) were women. Compared with men, women were older (68.6 vs. 64.7 years), had higher prevalence of hypertension (67.7% vs. 62.4%), diabetes (24.7% vs. 19.5%), and atrial fibrillation (7.1% vs. 4.3%), but lower prevalence of smoking (4.5% vs. 56.6%) and drinking (2.6% vs 35.8%) (ASDs >10%). No sex differences were seen in guideline-directed management measures, indicated by risk-adjusted individual measures and the all-or-null summary measure (34.5% vs 34.9%, ASD = 1.0%). Compared to men, women tended to have strokes that were more severe at presentation (6.5% vs. 4.5%, ASD = 8.8%) and more disabilities at discharge (34.9% vs 30.5%, ASD =9.4%). However, all sex-related differences in outcomes were attenuated to null after risk adjustments (ASDs<2%). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to male patients, female patients had more vascular risk factors and received similar in-hospital care. They had strokes that were more severe at presentation and more disabilities at discharge, both of which may be explained by worse vascular risk profiles.

6.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490953

RESUMO

The nutritional level of vitamin D may affect musculoskeletal health. We have reported that vitamin D is a pivotal protector against tissue injuries by suppressing local renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This study aimed to explore the role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the protection against muscle atrophy and the underlying mechanism. A cross-sectional study on participants (n = 1034) in Shanghai (China) was performed to analyze the association between vitamin D level and the risk of low muscle strength as well as to detect the circulating level of angiotensin II (Ang II). In animal studies, dexamethasone (Dex) was applied to induce muscle atrophy in wild-type (WT) and VDR-null mice, and the mice with the induction of muscle atrophy were treated with calcitriol for 10 days. The skeletal muscle cell line C2C12 and the muscle satellite cells were applied in in vitro studies. The increased risk of low muscle strength was correlated to a lower level of vitamin D (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.58) accompanied by an elevation in serum Ang II level. Ang II impaired the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts as illustrated by the decrease in the area of myotubes and the downregulation of myogenic factors (myosin heavy chain [MHC] and myogenic differentiation factor D [MyoD]). The phenotype of muscle atrophy induced by Dex and Ang II was aggravated by VDR ablation in mice and in muscle satellite cells, respectively, and mediated by RAS and its downstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/forkhead box O1 (PI3K/Akt/FOXO1) signaling. Calcitriol treatment exhibited beneficial effects on muscle function as demonstrated by the increased weight-loaded swimming time, grip strength, and fiber area, and improved fiber type composition via regulating ubiquitin ligases and their substrates MHC and MyoD through suppressing renin/Ang II axis. Taken together, VDR protects against skeletal muscle atrophy by suppressing RAS. Vitamin D could be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

7.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(10): 10253-10275, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shenqisherong pill (SQSRP) has been used clinically to treat cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) with satisfactory results; however, its active ingredients and mechanisms are unclear. The present study aimed to explore the active ingredients and molecular mechanisms of SQSRP against CSM using network pharmacology and molecular docking. METHODS: The compounds in SQSRP were obtained from public databases and related literature, and oral bioavailability (≥30%) and drug-likeness (≥0.18) were screened using absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) criteria. Compounds-related and CSM-related target genes were identified using public databases, and the overlapping genes between compounds and CSM target genes were identified using a Venn diagram. Cytoscape and STRING were used to construct, visualize, and analyze the interaction network between these overlapping targets. Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of overlapping targets used Omicshare tools and constructed a compound-overlapping targets network, target-pathway network, and compound-target-pathway network using Cytoscape. Finally, molecular docking software was used to verify the targets. RESULTS: A total of 447 compounds in SQSRP were identified, and ADME screening identified 96 compounds as potentially active ingredients. A total of 249 compound-related genes and 280 CSM-related genes were identified using public databases, and 53 overlapping genes were identified. The results of compound targets and protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that the pharmacological effects of SQSRP against CSM involved 56 compounds and 53 genes. The results of GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis suggested that the therapeutic effects of SQSRP against CSM were exerted by reducing inflammation, inhibiting apoptosis, and protecting neurons. The molecular mechanisms may be strongly associated with PI3K-Akt, MAPK, IL-17, and TNF, which might be pivotal signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The active ingredients and mechanisms of SQSRP against CSM were investigated using network pharmacology. The findings proved that the pill could treat CSM through multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway synergy and provide a theoretical basis for the subsequent extraction of active ingredients from SQSRP.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Doenças da Medula Espinal , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2120745, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387677

RESUMO

Importance: Stroke represents a significant burden on the health care system of China. The Chinese Stroke Center Alliance was launched in 2015 to monitor and improve care quality and outcomes for patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, management, and in-hospital clinical outcomes and complications among patients with stroke or TIA in China. Design, Setting, and Participants: This quality improvement study assessed stroke or TIA admissions to 1476 participating hospitals in the Chinese Stroke Center Alliance between August 1, 2015, and July 31, 2019. Exposures: Stroke types and calendar year. Main Outcomes and Measures: Eleven guideline-based admission or discharge management measures and 2 summary measures: an all-or-none binary outcome and a composite score (range, 0 [nonadherence] to 1 [perfect adherence]) for adherence to evidence-based stroke and TIA care and in-hospital clinical outcomes, including death or discharge against medical advice (DAMA), major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, TIA, or myocardial infarction; and in-hospital complications. Results: Of 1 006 798 patients with stroke or TIA (mean [SD] age, 65.7 [12.2] years; 383 500 [38.1%] female), 838 229 (83.3%) had an ischemic stroke, 64 929 (6.4%) had TIA, 85 705 (8.5%) had intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and 11 241 (1.1%) had subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Management measures varied by cerebrovascular event type, with the mean (SD) composite score ranging from 0.57 (0.31) in SAH to 0.83 (0.24) in TIA. Poor outcomes and complications were highest among patients with SAH (21.9%; 95% CI, 21.0%-22.8% in-hospital death or DAMA; 9.6%; 95% CI, 9.1%-10.2% MACEs; and 31.4%; 95% CI, 30.6%-32.3% in-hospital complications) and patients with ICH (17.2%; 95% CI, 16.9%-17.5% in-hospital death or DAMA; 9.3%; 95% CI, 9.1%-9.5% MACEs; and 31.3%; 95% CI, 31.0%-31.6% in-hospital complications), followed by patients with ischemic stroke (6.1%; 95% CI, 6.0%-6.1% in-hospital death or DAMA; 6.3%; 95% CI, 6.3%-6.4% MACEs; and 12.8%; 95% CI, 12.7%-12.9% in-hospital complications), and lowest in patients with TIA (5.0%; 95% CI, 4.8%-5.2% in-hospital death or DAMA; 2.4%; 95% CI, 2.3%-2.5% MACEs; and 0.8%; 95% CI, 0.7%-0.8% in-hospital complications). Temporal improvements in management measures were observed from 2015 to 2019, especially in administration of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (+60.3% relatively; 95% CI, 52.9%-70.5%), dysphagia screening (+14.7% relatively; 95% CI, 14.0%-15.6%), and use of anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation (+31.4% relatively; 95% CI, 25.7%-37.3%). Temporal improvements in in-hospital death or DAMA (-9.7% relatively; 95% CI, -9.6% to -8.5%) and complications (-27.1% relatively; 95% CI, -28.6% to -25.3) were also observed. Conclusions and Relevance: In this quality improvement study, performance measure adherence and poor outcomes and complications varied by cerebrovascular event type; although there were substantial improvements over time, these results suggest that support for the use of evidence-based practices is needed.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2118816, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323982

RESUMO

Importance: Adherence to oral anticoagulants (OACs) per guideline recommendations is crucial in reducing ischemic stroke and systemic thromboembolism in high-risk patients with ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation. However, data on OAC use are underreported in China. Objective: To assess adherence to the Chinese Stroke Association or the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association's clinical management guideline-recommended prescription of OACs, the temporal improvement in adherence, and the risk factors associated with OAC prescriptions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This quality improvement study was conducted at 1430 participating hospitals in the Chinese Stroke Center Alliance (CSCA) among patients with ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation enrolled in the CSCA between August 1, 2015, and July 31, 2019. Exposure: Calendar year. Main Outcomes and Measures: Adherence to the Chinese Stroke Association or the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association's clinical management guideline-recommended prescribing of OACs (warfarin and non-vitamin K OACs, including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) at discharge. Results: Among 35 767 patients (18 785 women [52.5%]; mean [SD] age, 75.5 [9.2] years) with previous atrial fibrillation at admission, the median CHA2DS2-VASc (cardiac failure or dysfunction, hypertension, age 65-74 [1 point] or ≥75 years [2 points], diabetes, and stroke, transient ischemic attack or thromboembolism [2 points]-vascular disease, and sex category [female]) score was 4.0 (interquartile range, 3.0-5.0); 6303 (17.6%) were taking OACs prior to hospitalization for stroke, a rate that increased from 14.3% (20 of 140) in the third quarter of 2015 to 21.1% (118 of 560) in the third quarter of 2019 (P < .001 for trend). Of 49 531 eligible patients (26 028 men [52.5%]; mean [SD] age, 73.4 [10.4] years), 20 390 (41.2%) had an OAC prescription at discharge, an increase from 23.2% (36 of 155) in the third quarter of 2015 to 47.1% (403 of 856) in the third quarter of 2019 (P < .001 for trend). Warfarin was the most commonly prescribed OAC (11 956 [24.2%]) and had the largest temporal increase (from 5.8% [9 of 155] to 20.7% [177 of 856]). Older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] per 5 year increase, 0.89;95% CI, 0.89-0.90), lower levels of education (aOR for below elementary school, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74-0.95 ), lower income (aOR for ≤¥1000 [$154], 0.66; 95% CI, 0.59-0.73), having new rural cooperative medical scheme insurance (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87-0.96), prior antiplatelet use (aOR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.66-0.74), having several cardiovascular comorbid conditions (including stroke or transient ischemic attack [aOR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.75-0.82], hypertension [aOR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.89], diabetes [aOR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99], dyslipidemia [aOR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.94], carotid stenosis [aOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.98], and peripheral vascular disease [aOR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71-0.90]), and admission to secondary hospitals (aOR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.68-0.74) or hospitals located in the central region of China (aOR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.75-0.84) were associated with not being prescribed an OAC at discharge. Conclusions and Relevance: This quality improvement study suggests that, despite significant improvement over time, OAC prescriptions remained low. Efforts to increase OAC prescriptions, especially non-vitamin K OACs, are needed for vulnerable subgroups by age, socioeconomic status, and presence of comorbid conditions.

11.
J Vis Exp ; (172)2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279506

RESUMO

As a severe progressive degenerative disease, cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) has a poor prognosis and is associated with physical pain, stiffness, motor or sensory dysfunction, and a high risk of spinal cord injury and acroparalysis. Thus, therapeutic strategies that promote efficient spinal cord regeneration in this chronic and progressive disease are urgently needed. Effective and reproducible animal spinal cord compression models are required to understand the complex biological mechanism underlying CSM. Most spinal cord injury models reflect acute and structural destructive conditions, whereas animal models of CSM present a chronic compression in the spinal cord. This paper presents a protocol to generate a rat spinal cord compression model, which was further evaluated by assessing the behavioral score and observing the compressed spinal cord region. The behavioral assessments showed decreased monitor motor disability, including joint movements, stepping ability, coordination, trunk stability, and limb muscle strength. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunostaining revealed considerable neuronal apoptosis in the compressed region of the spinal cord.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Transtornos Motores , Compressão da Medula Espinal , Espondilose , Animais , Apoptose , Vértebras Cervicais , Humanos , Ratos , Medula Espinal , Compressão da Medula Espinal/etiologia
12.
Stroke ; 52(7): 2250-2257, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis to elucidate the effectiveness and safety of dual antiplatelet (DAPT) therapy with P2Y12 inhibitors (clopidogrel/ticagrelor) and aspirin versus aspirin monotherapy in patients with mild ischemic stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack. METHODS: Following Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis standards for meta-analyses, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials that included patients with a diagnosis of an acute mild ischemic stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack, intervention of DAPT therapy with clopidogrel/ticagrelor and aspirin versus aspirin alone from January 2012 to July 2020. The outcomes included subsequent stroke, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, hemorrhage (mild, moderate, or severe), and myocardial infarction. A DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model was used to estimate pooled risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI in R package meta. We assessed the heterogeneity of data across studies with use of the Cochran Q statistic and I2 test. RESULTS: Four eligible trials involving 21 493 participants were included in the meta-analysis. DAPT therapy started within 24 hours of symptom onset reduced the risk of stroke recurrence by 24% (RR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.68-0.83], I2=0%) but was not associated with a change in all-cause mortality (RR, 1.30 [95% CI, 0.90-1.89], I2=0%), cardiovascular death (RR, 1.34 [95% CI, 0.56-3.17], I2=0%), mild bleeding (RR, 1.25 [95% CI, 0.37-4.29], I2=94%), or myocardial infarction (RR, 1.45 [95% CI, 0.62-3.39], I2=0%). However, DAPT was associated with an increased risk of severe or moderate bleeding (RR, 2.17 [95% CI, 1.16-4.08], I2=41%); further sensitivity tests found that the association was limited to trials with DAPT treatment duration over 21 days (RR, 2.86 [95% CI, 1.75-4.67], I2=0%) or ticagrelor (RR, 2.17 [95% CI, 1.16-4.08], I2=37%) but not within 21 days or clopidogrel. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with noncardioembolic mild stroke or high-risk transient ischemic attack, DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel/ticagrelor is more effective than aspirin alone for recurrent stroke prevention with a small absolute increase in the risk of severe or moderate bleeding.

13.
Front Neurol ; 12: 652941, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935953

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the association between serum phosphate level and 1-year clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. Methods: We included 7,353 patients with acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack from the China National Stroke Registry III for analysis. Participants were divided into 4 groups according to serum phosphate quartiles. Composite end point included recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, other ischemic vascular events, and all-cause mortality. Poor functional outcome is defined as modified Rankin Scale score of 3 to 6. Multivariable Cox regression or logistic regression was used to evaluate the independent association of serum phosphate with 1-year all-cause mortality, recurrent stroke, composite end point and poor functional outcome. Results: The mean age of the included 7,353 patients was 62.5 years, and 68.6% of them were men. Plotting hazard ratios over phosphate levels suggested a U-shaped association especially for recurrent stroke and composite end point, and therefore the third quartile group was set as reference group. Compared with the third quartile of phosphate (1.06-1.20 mmol/L), the adjusted hazard ratios/odds ratios (95% CI) of the lowest quartile (<0.94 mmol/L) were 0.98 (0.67-1.42) for all-cause mortality, 1.31 (1.05-1.64) for stroke recurrence, 1.26 (1.02-1.57) for composite end point, and 1.27 (1.01-1.61) for poor functional outcome, and the adjusted odds ratio of the highest quartile (≥1.2 mmol/L) was 1.40 (1.11-1.77) for poor functional outcome. Conclusions: Serum phosphate may be an independent predictor of stroke recurrence, composite end point and poor functional outcome after ischemic stroke.

14.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(8): 626, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987324

RESUMO

Background: It is unknown about the influence of prestroke antiplatelet use on early outcomes in patients with and without the indication. We aimed to evaluate the in-hospital prognosis of first-ever noncardiogenic ischemic stroke patients with and without indications of antiplatelet use for primary prevention. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study based on a prospective hospital-based registry (Chinese Stroke Center Alliance). Using the data with 436,660 first-ever noncardiogenic acute ischemic strokes recorded from Aug 1, 2015, to July 31, 2019, from 1,453 hospitals in China, we examined the associations between the indication for prestroke antiplatelet use and in-hospital clinical outcomes. Results: Among 436,660 first-ever noncardiogenic ischemic stroke patients, 42,409 patients (9.7%) had a documented previous vascular indication and 394,251 (90.3%) did not. Compared to those without, patients with the indication were associated with increased prevalence of in-hospital morbid conditions, including stroke severity (OR 2.71; 95% CI: 2.62-2.81; P<0.0001), length of stay >14 days (OR 1.16; 95% CI: 1.13-1.19; P<0.0001), mortality (OR 2.20; 95% CI: 1.96-2.46, P<0.0001), and recurrence of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.43-1.59, P<0.0001). Among patients without indication, prestroke antiplatelet use was associated with lower mortality (OR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.96; P=0.0221); while among patients with indication, those receiving prestroke antiplatelet had lower odds ratios in stroke severity (P<0.0001) and disability (P=0.0003) than those who not. Conclusions: Patients with indications of prestroke antiplatelet use were more likely to have unfavorable outcomes than those without. Prestroke antiplatelet might be associated with lower mortality, less disability, and less stroke severity in certain population groups. Future studies to improve risk prediction rules are needed to guide effective primary prevention for ischemic stroke.

15.
Atherosclerosis ; 325: 24-29, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Serum calcium abnormality is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but the effects of serum calcium level on stroke outcomes remain unknown. We aimed to assess the relationship between serum calcium level and 1-year outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. METHODS: We included 9375 stroke patients from the China National Stroke Registry III for analysis. Participants were divided into 4 groups according to albumin corrected-calcium quartiles. Composite end point comprised recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, other ischemic vascular events, and all-cause mortality. Multivariable Cox or logistic regression was used to evaluate the independent association of albumin corrected-calcium with all-cause mortality, recurrent stroke, composite end point, and poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥3). RESULTS: Compared with the lowest calcium quartile (<2.16 mmol/L), the adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of the top quartile (≥2.31 mmol/L) was 1.56 (1.11-2.18) for all-cause mortality, 1.06 (0.87-1.28) for recurrent stroke and 1.08 (0.90-1.01) for composite end point, and the adjusted odds ratio for poor functional outcome was 1.18 (0.96-1.44). The addition of serum calcium to conventional risk factors improved risk prediction of all-cause mortality, leading to a small but significant increase in C-statistics and reclassification with non-significant integrated discrimination improvement (C-statistics, p = 0.02; net reclassification index 11.8%, p = 0.038; integrated discrimination improvement 0.08%, p = 0.42). CONCLUSIONS: High serum calcium levels at baseline were associated with all-cause mortality at 1-year after ischemic stroke, suggesting that serum calcium may be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Biomarcadores , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Cálcio , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
16.
Front Neurol ; 12: 630638, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33841304

RESUMO

Background: Abnormal sleep duration predicts depression and anxiety. We seek to evaluate the impact of sleep duration before stroke on the occurrence of depression and anxiety at 3 months after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Methods: Nationally representative samples from the Third China National Stroke Registry were used to examine cognition and sleep impairment after AIS (CNSR-III-ICONS). Based on baseline sleep duration before onset of stroke as measured by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), 1,446 patients were divided into four groups: >7, 6-7, 5-6, and <5 h of sleep. Patients were followed up with the General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for 3 months. Poststroke anxiety (PSA) was defined as GAD-7 of ≥5 and poststroke depression (PSD) as PHQ-9 of ≥5. The association of sleep duration with PSA and PSD was evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Results: The incidences of PSA and PSD were 11.2 and 17.6% at 3 months, respectively. Compared to a sleep duration of >7 h, 5-6 h, and <5 h of sleep were identified as risk factors of PSA [odds ratio (OR), 1.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-3.07; P < 0.01 and OR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.94-6.04; P < 0.01) and PSD (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.00-2.17; P = 0.04 and OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.85-5.02; P < 0.01), while 6-7 h of sleep was associated with neither PSA (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.71-1.67; P = 0.68) nor PSD (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.64-1.30; P = 0.64). In interaction analysis, the impact of sleep duration on PSA and PSD was not affected by gender (P = 0.68 and P = 0.29, respectively). Conclusions: Sleep duration of shorter than 6 h was predictive of anxiety and depression after ischemic stroke.

17.
J Dig Dis ; 22(6): 318-328, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate systematically previous studies on the accuracy of artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted diagnostic models in detecting esophageal neoplasms on endoscopic images so as to provide scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these models. METHODS: A literature search was conducted on the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases for studies on the AI-assisted detection of esophageal neoplasms on endoscopic images published up to December 2020. A bivariate mixed-effects regression model was used to calculate the pooled diagnostic efficacy of AI-assisted system. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses were performed to explore the sources of heterogeneity. The effectiveness of AI-assisted models was also compared with that of the endoscopists. RESULTS: Sixteen studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratio and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve regarding AI-assisted detection of esophageal neoplasms were 94% (95% confidence interval [CI] 92%-96%), 85% (95% CI 73%-92%), 6.40 (95% CI 3.38-12.11), 0.06 (95% CI 0.04-0.10), 98.88 (95% CI 39.45-247.87) and 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98), respectively. AI-based models performed better than endoscopists in terms of the pooled sensitivity (94% [95% CI 84%-98%] vs 82% [95% CI 77%-86%, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The use of AI results in increased accuracy in detecting early esophageal cancer. However, most of the included studies have a retrospective study design, thus further validation with prospective trials is required.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Endoscopia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Chin J Integr Med ; 27(6): 408-416, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of Qishe Pill () on neck pain in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: A multi-center, prospective, observational surveillance in 8 hospitals across Shanghai was conducted. During patients receiving 4-week Qishe Pill medication, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) assessments have been used to assess their pain and function, while safety monitoring have been observed after 2 and 4 weeks. RESULTS: Results from 2,023 patients (mean age 54.5 years) suggest that the drug exposure per unit of body mass was estimated at 3.41 ± 0.62 g/kg. About 8.5% (172/2,023) of all participants experienced adverse events (AEs), while 3.8% (78/2,023) of all participants experienced adverse reaction. The most common AEs were gastrointestinal events and respiratory events. The VAS score (pain) and NDI score (function) significantly decreased after 4-week treatment. An effect-quantitative analysis was also conducted to show that the normal clinical dosage may be consider as 3-4 g/kg, at which dosage the satisfactory pain-relief effect may achieve by 40-mm reduction in VAS. CONCLUSION: These findings showed that patients with cervical radiculopathy who received Qishe Pill experienced significant improvement on pain and function. (Registration No. NCT01875562).


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais , Cervicalgia , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cervicalgia/tratamento farmacológico , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 632210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693019

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to use machine learning algorithms to identify critical preoperative variables and predict the red blood cell (RBC) transfusion during or after liver transplantation surgery. Study Design and Methods: A total of 1,193 patients undergoing liver transplantation in three large tertiary hospitals in China were examined. Twenty-four preoperative variables were collected, including essential population characteristics, diagnosis, symptoms, and laboratory parameters. The cohort was randomly split into a train set (70%) and a validation set (30%). The Recursive Feature Elimination and eXtreme Gradient Boosting algorithms (XGBOOST) were used to select variables and build machine learning prediction models, respectively. Besides, seven other machine learning models and logistic regression were developed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) was used to compare the prediction performance of different models. The SHapley Additive exPlanations package was applied to interpret the XGBOOST model. Data from 31 patients at one of the hospitals were prospectively collected for model validation. Results: In this study, 72.1% of patients in the training set and 73.2% in the validation set underwent RBC transfusion during or after the surgery. Nine vital preoperative variables were finally selected, including the presence of portal hypertension, age, hemoglobin, diagnosis, direct bilirubin, activated partial thromboplastin time, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. The XGBOOST model presented significantly better predictive performance (AUROC: 0.813) than other models and also performed well in the prospective dataset (accuracy: 76.9%). Discussion: A model for predicting RBC transfusion during or after liver transplantation was successfully developed using a machine learning algorithm based on nine preoperative variables, which could guide high-risk patients to take appropriate preventive measures.

20.
Neural Regen Res ; 16(9): 1848-1855, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510092

RESUMO

High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) interacts with pattern-recognition receptors of immune cells to activate the inflammatory response. Astrocytes play a positive role in the inflammatory response of the central nervous system by expressing a broad range of pattern-recognition receptors. However, the underlying relationship between HMGB1 and the inflammatory reaction of astrocytes remains unclear. In this study, we established rat models of spinal cord injury via laminectomy at the T8-10 level, and the injured spinal cord was subjected to transcriptome sequencing. Our results showed that the HMGB1/Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) axis was involved in the activation of astrocyte inflammatory response through regulation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signaling. Both TLR4 and COX2 were distributed in astrocytes and showed elevated protein levels following spinal cord injury. Stimulation of primary astrocytes with recombinant HMGB1 showed that COX2 and microsomal PGE synthase (mPGES)-1, rather than COX1, mPGES-2, or cytosolic PGE synthase, were significantly upregulated. Accordingly, PGE2 production in astrocytes was remarkably increased in response to recombinant HMGB1 challenges. Pharmacologic blockade of TLR2/4 attenuated HMGB1-mediated activation of the COX2/PGE2 pathway. Interestingly, HMGB1 did not impact the production of tumor necrosis factor-α or interleukin-1ß in astrocytes. Our results suggest that HMGB1 mediates the astrocyte inflammatory response through regulating the COX2/PGE2 signaling pathway. The study was approved by the Laboratory Animal Ethics Committee of Nantong University, China (approval No. 20181204-001) on December 4, 2018.

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