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2.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 130(8): 807-814, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843287

RESUMO

Prospection refers to the ability to mentally construct future events, which is closely related to motivation and anhedonia. The neural underpinning of impaired prospection in psychiatric populations remains unclear. We recruited 34 individuals with autistic traits (AT), 27 individuals with schizotypal traits (ST), 31 individuals with depressive symptoms (DS), and 35 controls. Participants completed a prospection task while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We found that regions of the "default mode network" including the medial frontal gyrus, the posterior cingulate cortex, the precuneus and the parahippocampus were activated; and regions of the "task-positive network" including the inferior parietal lobe, the inferior frontal gyrus and the precentral gyrus were deactivated during prospection in controls. Compared with controls, AT, ST, and DS showed comparable behavioral performance on prospection. However, reduced activation in anterior cingulate cortex and frontal gyrus was found in AT individuals relative to controls during prospection. ST individuals showed hyperactivation in the caudate relative to controls when processing positive emotion, while DS individuals and controls showed similar neural responses during prospection. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 772068, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790139

RESUMO

Introduction: Sleep disorders (SLD) are supposed to be associated with increased risk and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and patients with AD are more likely to show SLD. However, neurobiological performance of patients with both AD and SLD in previous studies is inconsistent, and identifying specific patterns of the brain functional network and structural characteristics in this kind of comorbidity is warranted for understanding how AD and SLD symptoms interact with each other as well as finding effective clinical intervention. Thus, the aims of this systematic review were to summarize the relevant findings and their limitations and provide future research directions. Methods: A systematic search on brain functional and structural changes in patients with both AD and SLD was conducted from PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases. Results: Nine original articles published between 2009 and 2021 were included with a total of 328 patients with comorbid AD and SLD, 367 patients with only AD, and 294 healthy controls. One single-photon emission computed tomography study and one multislice spiral computed tomography perfusion imaging study investigated changes of cerebral blood flow; four structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies investigated brain structural changes, two of them used whole brain analysis, and another two used regions of interest; two resting-state functional MRI studies investigated brain functional changes, and one 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) investigated 18F-FDG-PET uptake in patients with comorbid AD and SLD. Findings were inconsistent, ranging from default mode network to sensorimotor cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and pineal gland, which may be due to different imaging techniques, measurements of sleep disorder and subtypes of AD and SLD. Conclusions: Our review provides a systematic summary and promising implication of specific neuroimaging dysfunction underlying co-occurrence of AD and SLD. However, limited and inconsistent findings still restrict its neurobiological explanation. Further studies should use unified standards and comprehensive brain indices to investigate the pathophysiological basis of interaction between AD and SLD symptoms in the development of the disease spectrums.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626218

RESUMO

Hubs in the brain network are the regions with high centrality and are crucial in the network communication and information integration. Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) exhibit wide range of abnormality in the hub regions and their connected functional connectivity (FC) at the whole-brain network level. Study of the hubs in the brain networks supporting complex social behavior (social brain network, SBN) would contribute to understand the social dysfunction in patients with SCZ. Forty-nine patients with SCZ and 27 healthy controls (HC) were recruited to undertake the resting-state magnetic resonance imaging scanning and completed a social network (SN) questionnaire. The resting-state SBN was constructed based on the automatic analysis results from the NeuroSynth. Our results showed that the left temporal lobe was the only hub of SBN, and its connected FCs strength was higher than the remaining FCs in both two groups. SCZ patients showed the lower association between the hub-connected FCs (compared to the FCs not connected to the hub regions) with the real-life SN characteristics. These results were replicated in another independent sample (30 SCZ and 28 HC). These preliminary findings suggested that the hub-connected FCs of SBN in SCZ patients exhibit the abnormality in predicting real-life SN characteristics.

5.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 48674211009623, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although brain structural changes have been reported in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), results from previous studies have been inconsistent. A growing number of studies have focused on obsessive beliefs and impulsivity which could be involved in the occurrence and maintenance of OCD symptoms. The present study aimed to examine whether there are distinct brain structural changes in patients with different OCD subgroups. METHODS: Eighty-nine patients with OCD and 42 healthy controls were recruited to undergo structural magnetic resonance imaging brain scan. OCD patients were classified into subgroups according to scores of the Obsessive Belief Questionnaire (OBQ-44) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) using cluster analysis. Group comparisons in cortical thickness and subcortical volumes between all OCD patients and healthy controls, as well as between subgroups of OCD patients and healthy controls, were carried out. RESULTS: OCD patients with more obsessive beliefs and attentional impulsivity (OCD_OB_AT) had reduced cortical thickness at the inferior parietal gyrus, the superior and middle temporal gyrus and the insula compared with OCD patients with higher score on the non-planning impulsivity (OCD_NP, corrected p < 0.05). The whole group of OCD patients and both subgroups showed reduced cortical thickness at the superior parietal gyrus compared with controls (uncorrected p < 0.01, number of vertices > 100). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that apart from distinct phenomenology, there are distinct neural correlates of different OCD subgroups based on obsessive beliefs and impulsivity. These neural correlates may have clinical significance and should be considered in future research.

6.
Schizophr Res ; 232: 77-84, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044349

RESUMO

Social behaviour requires the brain to efficiently integrate multiple social processes, but it is not clear what neural substrates underlie general social behaviour. While psychosis patients and individuals with subclinical symptoms are characterized by social dysfunction, the neural mechanisms underlying social dysfunctions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders remains unclear. We first constructed a general social brain network (SBN) using resting-state functional connectivity (FC) with regions of interest based on the automatic meta-analysis results from NeuroSynth. We then examined the general SBN and its relationship with social network (SN) characteristics in 30 individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) and 33 individuals with social anhedonia (SA). We found that patients with SCZ exhibited deficits in their SN, while SA individuals did not. SCZ patients showed decreased segregation and functional connectivity in their SBN, while SA individuals showed a reversed pattern with increased segregation and functional connectivity of their SBN. Sparse canonical correlation analysis showed that both SCZ patients and SA individuals exhibited reduced correlation between SBN and SN characteristics compared with their corresponding healthy control groups. These preliminary findings suggest that both SCZ and SA participants exhibit abnormality in segregation and functional connectivity within the general SBN and reduced correlation with SN characteristics. These findings could guide the development of non-pharmacological interventions for social dysfunction in SCZ spectrum disorders.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Anedonia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Rede Social
7.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anticipatory pleasure deficits are closely correlated with negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and may be found in both clinical and subclinical populations along the psychosis continuum. Prospection, which is an important component of anticipatory pleasure, is impaired in individuals with social anhedonia (SocAnh). In this study, we examined the neural correlates of envisioning positive future events in individuals with SocAnh. METHODS: Forty-nine individuals with SocAnh and 33 matched controls were recruited to undergo functional MRI scanning, during which they were instructed to simulate positive or neutral future episodes according to cue words. Two stages of prospection were distinguished: construction and elaboration. RESULTS: Reduced activation at the caudate and the precuneus when prospecting positive (v. neutral) future events was observed in individuals with SocAnh. Furthermore, compared with controls, increased functional connectivity between the caudate and the inferior occipital gyrus during positive (v. neutral) prospection was found in individuals with SocAnh. Both groups exhibited a similar pattern of brain activation for the construction v. elaboration contrast, regardless of the emotional context. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide further evidence on the neural mechanism of anticipatory pleasure deficits in subclinical individuals with SocAnh and suggest that altered cortico-striatal circuit may play a role in anticipatory pleasure deficits in these individuals.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389057

RESUMO

The prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia patients is as around 30%. Evidence suggested that mild OCS could reduce symptoms of schizophrenia, supporting the presence of compensatory functions. However, severe OCS could aggravate various impairments in schizophrenia patients, supporting the "double jeopardy hypothesis". Patients with schizo-obsessive comorbidity, schizophrenia patients and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients have been found to have similarities in executive dysfunctions and altered resting-state functional connectivity within the executive control network (ECN). Executive functions could be associated with the ECN. However, little is known as to whether such overlap exists in the subclinical populations of individuals with schizo-obsessive traits (SOT), schizotypal individuals and individuals with high levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS). In this study, we recruited 30 schizotypal individuals, 25 individuals with OCS, 29 individuals with SOT and 29 controls for a resting-state ECN-related functional connectivity (rsFC) and a go/shift/no-go task. We found that individuals with SOT exhibited increased rsFC within the ECN compared with controls, while schizotypal individuals exhibited the opposite. Individuals with OCS exhibited decreased rsFC within the ECN and between the ECN and the default mode network (DMN), relative to controls. No significant correlational results between altered rsFC related to the ECN with executive function performance were found after corrections for multiple comparisons in three subclinical groups. Our findings showed that individuals with SOT had increased rsFC within the ECN, while schizotypal individuals and individuals with OCS showed the opposite. Our findings provide evidence for possible neural substrates of subclinical comorbidity of OCS and schizotypy.

9.
Schizophr Bull ; 47(5): 1452-1462, 2021 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479738

RESUMO

Cerebellar dysfunction is associated with neurological soft signs (NSS), which is a promising endophenotype for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, the relationship between cerebellar-cerebral resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and NSS is largely unexplored. Moreover, both NSS and cerebellar-cerebral rsFC have been found to be correlated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Here, we investigated the correlations between NSS and cerebellar-cerebral rsFC, explored their relationship with negative symptoms in a main dataset, and validated the significant findings in a replication dataset. Both datasets comprised schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. In schizophrenia patients, we found positive correlations between NSS and rsFC of the cerebellum with the inferior frontal gyrus and the precuneus, and negative correlations between NSS and rsFC of the cerebellum with the inferior temporal gyrus. In healthy controls, NSS scores were positively correlated with rsFC of the cerebellum with the superior frontal gyrus and negatively correlated with rsFC between the cerebellum and the middle occipital gyrus. Cerebellar-prefrontal rsFC was also positively correlated with negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These findings were validated in the replication dataset. Our results suggest that the uncoupling of rsFC between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex may underlie the expression of NSS in schizophrenia. NSS-related cerebellar-prefrontal rsFC may be a potential neural pathway for possible neural modulation to alleviate negative symptoms.

10.
Autism Res ; 14(4): 668-680, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314710

RESUMO

Temporal proximity is an important clue for multisensory integration. Previous evidence indicates that individuals with autism and schizophrenia are more likely to integrate multisensory inputs over a longer temporal binding window (TBW). However, whether such deficits in audiovisual temporal integration extend to subclinical populations with high schizotypal and autistic traits are unclear. Using audiovisual simultaneity judgment (SJ) tasks for nonspeech and speech stimuli, our results suggested that the width of the audiovisual TBW was not significantly correlated with self-reported schizotypal and autistic traits in a group of young adults. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state activity was also acquired to explore the neural correlates underlying inter-individual variability of TBW width. Across the entire sample, stronger resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the left superior temporal cortex and the left precuneus, and weaker rsFC between the left cerebellum and the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex were correlated with a narrower TBW for speech stimuli. Meanwhile, stronger rsFC between the left anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right inferior temporal gyrus was correlated with a wider audiovisual TBW for non-speech stimuli. The TBW-related rsFC was not affected by levels of subclinical traits. In conclusion, this study indicates that audiovisual temporal processing may not be affected by autistic and schizotypal traits and rsFC between brain regions responding to multisensory information and timing may account for the inter-individual difference in TBW width. LAY SUMMARY: Individuals with ASD and schizophrenia are more likely to perceive asynchronous auditory and visual events as occurring simultaneously even if they are well separated in time. We investigated whether similar difficulties in audiovisual temporal processing were present in subclinical populations with high autistic and schizotypal traits. We found that the ability to detect audiovisual asynchrony was not affected by different levels of autistic and schizotypal traits. We also found that connectivity of some brain regions engaging in multisensory and timing tasks might explain an individual's tendency to bind multisensory information within a wide or narrow time window. Autism Res 2021, 14: 668-680. © 2020 International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals LLC.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Percepção do Tempo , Percepção Auditiva , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Fala , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 47(2): 282-294, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881562

RESUMO

Using Chinese characters, we investigated how stroke count and frequency of use influence attention and short-term memory (STM) encoding in Mainland Chinese speakers. To isolate specific components of attention we employed the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), which allowed estimates of STM capacity, processing speed, and the threshold of visual perception. An analysis of TVA parameters revealed that familiarity affects both the memory capacity and processing speed of objects, whereas the threshold for visual perception remained unaffected. Interestingly, our results also indicate that modulation of attention is driven solely by familiarity with the characters, independent of the actual physical aspect of Chinese characters. We propose that mental categories and prior knowledge play a vital role in the processing of information in attention, as well as in how this information is stored and represented in visual STM. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção , Idioma , Memória de Curto Prazo , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Percepção Visual , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Schizophr Res ; 224: 88-94, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046333

RESUMO

In this study, we applied brain grey matter volume and structural covariance methods on T1 weighted images to delineate potential structural brain changes in individuals with high schizotypy, who were defined as healthy individuals scoring in the top tenth percentile of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Eighty-seven college students with high schizotypy and 122 controls were recruited in China. Differences in grey matter volume and volume covariance between the two groups, and correlations of grey matter volume with SPQ scores in the high schizotypy group were examined. We found that individuals with high schizotypy had decreased grey matter volume at the left medial superior frontal gyrus (medsFG) extending towards the superior frontal gyrus, decreased structural covariance within the right medsFG, between the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG), the right superior temporal gyrus and the right anterior insula; and increased structural covariance between the caudate and the right inferior temporal gyrus. Correlation analysis revealed that grey matter volume of the left middle temporal pole and the right sFG correlated positively with the SPQ total scores, volume of the bilateral cerebellum 9 sub-region correlated negatively with the SPQ cognitive-perceptual sub-scale scores, volume of the bilateral striatum correlated positively with the SPQ interpersonal sub-scale scores, and volume of the bilateral superior temporal pole correlated positively with the SPQ disorganization sub-scale scores in the high schizotypy group. These results highlight important grey matter structural changes in the medsFG in individuals with high schizotypy.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral , China , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 305: 111170, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836136

RESUMO

In this study, we examined differences in resting-state functional connectivity between sub-regions of the Default Mode Network (DMN) and whole brain voxels in 22 individuals with high schizo-obsessive traits (SOT), 30 with high schizotypal traits (SCT) alone, 20 with high obsessive-compulsive traits (OCT) alone and 30 with low trait scores (LT). We found that the SOT group showed the most reduced functional connectivity within the DMN compared with the other groups. The SOT group also showed increased connectivity between the DMN and the Salience Network, and between the DMN and the Auditory Network compared with the LT group. The SCT group exhibited increased connectivity between the DMN and the Salience Network, and between the DMN and the Executive Control Network (ECN) compared with the LT group. The OCT group exhibited decreased connectivity within the DMN, between the DMN and the Salience Network, and between the DMN and the ECN compared with the LT group. These findings highlight different changes in DMN-related functional connectivity associated with high SOT, SCT and OCT traits and may provide insight into the dysfunctional brain networks in the early stage of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

14.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 54: 102220, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653847

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence implicates that individuals at high-risk of psychosis have already exhibited pathophysiological changes in brain metabolites including glutamate, gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA), N-Acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (MI) and choline (Cho). These changes may contribute to the development of schizophrenia and associate with psychotic genes. However, specific metabolic changes of brain sub-regions in individuals at risk have still been controversial. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the brain metabolic changes including glutamate, Glx, GABA, GABA/Glx, NAA, Cr, MI and Cho levels in individuals at risk by conducting a case-control meta-analysis and meta-regression of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies. Primary outcomes revealed that individuals at risk exhibited increased Cr levels at the rostral medial prefrontal cortex (rmPFC), decreased NAA and Cr levels at the thalamus, and increased MI levels at the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Sub-group analyses further indicated that individuals with clinical high-risk (CHR) exhibited increased Cr levels at the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and decreased Glx levels at the thalamus, while individuals with genetic risk (siblings of psychiatric patients) exhibited significant increased Glx and MI levels at the mPFC. However, GABA, GABA/Glx and Cho levels showed no significant result. These findings suggest that the dysfunctional metabolites at the mPFC and the thalamus may be an essential neurobiological basis at the early stage of psychosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Ácido Glutâmico , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
15.
Psych J ; 9(5): 749-759, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677322

RESUMO

Empirical findings suggest that there is an overlap between schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These disorders also have a high comorbidity rate. However, little is known about the impact of co-occurring schizotypal and obsessive-compulsive traits on executive function, emotion experience, and emotion expressivity in the normal population. The present study examined the prevalence of coexisting schizotypal and obsessive-compulsive traits and the relationship between these two traits in a sample of healthy college students. We also conducted a moderation analysis to explore the effect of these two type of traits on executive function, emotion experience, and emotion expressivity. We recruited 3,319 participants to complete the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised (OCI-R). A subset of them (n = 575) also completed the Chinese versions of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX), the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), and the Emotional Expressivity Scale (EES). We found that the prevalence of co-occurring schizotypal and OCD traits was 3.33%. All the subscales of the SPQ and the OCI-R significantly correlated with each other. Both traits had a negative impact on executive function and emotion expressivity. The interaction between the disorganization dimension of schizotypal traits and OCD traits had a significant effect on executive function, but not emotion experience or emotion expressivity. This study was limited by its cross-sectional design and recruitment of only college students. These findings suggest that there is an approximately 3% rate of co-occurring schizotypal and obsessive-compulsive traits in a healthy college student sample. The interaction between these two types of traits may influence executive function.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Função Executiva , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/epidemiologia , Estudantes
16.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizotypy refers to schizophrenia-like traits below the clinical threshold in the general population. The pathological development of schizophrenia has been postulated to evolve from the initial coexistence of 'brain disconnection' and 'brain connectivity compensation' to 'brain connectivity decompensation'. METHODS: In this study, we examined the brain connectivity changes associated with schizotypy by combining brain white matter structural connectivity, static and dynamic functional connectivity analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. A total of 87 participants with a high level of schizotypal traits and 122 control participants completed the experiment. Group differences in whole-brain white matter structural connectivity probability, static mean functional connectivity strength, dynamic functional connectivity variability and stability among 264 brain sub-regions of interests were investigated. RESULTS: We found that individuals with high schizotypy exhibited increased structural connectivity probability within the task control network and within the default mode network; increased variability and decreased stability of functional connectivity within the default mode network and between the auditory network and the subcortical network; and decreased static mean functional connectivity strength mainly associated with the sensorimotor network, the default mode network and the task control network. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the specific changes in brain connectivity associated with schizotypy and indicate that both decompensatory and compensatory changes in structural connectivity within the default mode network and the task control network in the context of whole-brain functional disconnection may be an important neurobiological correlate in individuals with high schizotypy.

18.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 52: 102096, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315977

RESUMO

Altered brain structures have been found in patients with schizo-obsessive disorder, schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder in previous studies. However, it is unclear whether similar brain changes are also found in individuals with high schizo-obsessive traits (SOT), high schizotypal traits (SCT) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS). We examined grey matter volume (GMV) and white matter integrity (WMI, including fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity) in 26 individuals with high SOT, 30 individuals with high SCT, 25 individuals with OCS and 30 individuals with low trait scores (LT) in this study. Correlation analysis between GMV, WMI, Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) scores and Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) scores in the subclinical groups was also carried out. We found that the SOT group exhibited increased GMV at the right superior occipital gyrus and the left postcentral gyrus compared with the LT group. The SCT group exhibited increased GMV at the right precentral gyrus and the bilateral cuneus compared with the LT group, and decreased fractional anisotropy at the anterior corona radiata compared with the other three groups. The OCS group exhibited increased GMV at the left superior temporal gyrus and decreased GMV at the left pre-supplementary motor area compared with the LT group. These findings highlight specific brain changes in individuals with high SOT, high SCT and OCS, and may thus provide new insights into the neurobiological changes that occur in sub-clinical populations of these disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Esquizofrenia , Substância Branca , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(10): 4593-4603, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306050

RESUMO

River-bay system is a transitional zone connecting land and ocean and an important natural source for methane emission. Methanogens play important roles in the global greenhouse gas budget and carbon cycle since they produce methane. The abundance and community assemblage of methanogens in such a dynamic system are not well understood. Here, we used quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing of the mcrA gene to investigate the abundance and community composition of methanogens in the Shenzhen River-Bay system, a typical subtropical river-bay system in Southern of China, during the wet and dry seasons. Results showed that mcrA gene abundance was significantly higher in the sediments of river than those of estuary, and was higher in wet season than dry season. Sequences of mcrA gene were mostly assigned to three orders, including Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanobacteriales. Specifically, Methanosarcina, Methanosaeta, and Methanobacterium were the most abundant and ubiquitous genera. Methanogenic communities generally clustered according to habitat (river vs. estuary), and salinity was the major factor driving the methanogenic community assemblage. Furthermore, the indicator groups for two habitats were identified. For example, Methanococcoides, Methanoculleus, and Methanogenium preferentially existed in estuarine sediments, whereas Methanomethylovorans, Methanolinea, Methanoregula, and Methanomassiliicoccales were more abundant in riverine sediments, indicating distinct ecological niches. Overall, these findings reveal the distribution patterns of methanogens and expand our understanding of methanogenic community assemblage in the river-bay system. Key Points • Abundance of methanogens was relatively higher in riverine sediments. • Methanogenic community in estuarine habitat separated from that in riverine habitat. • Salinity played a vital role in regulating methanogenic community assemblage.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Baías/microbiologia , Metano/biossíntese , Microbiota/genética , Rios/microbiologia , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Bactérias/metabolismo , China , Enzimas de Restrição do DNA/genética , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise Espacial
20.
Schizophr Bull ; 46(2): 442-453, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355879

RESUMO

A phenomenon in schizophrenia patients that deserves attention is the high comorbidity rate with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Little is known about the neurobiological basis of schizo-obsessive comorbidity (SOC). We aimed to investigate whether specific changes in white matter exist in patients with SOC and the relationship between such abnormalities and clinical parameters. Twenty-eight patients with SOC, 28 schizophrenia patients, 30 OCD patients, and 30 demographically matched healthy controls were recruited. Using Tract-based Spatial Statistics and Probabilistic Tractography, we examined the pattern of white matter abnormalities in these participants. We also used ANOVA and Support Vector Classification of various white matter indices and structural connection probability to further examine white matter changes among the 4 groups. We found that patients with SOC had decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity in the right sagittal stratum and the left crescent of the fornix/stria terminalis compared with healthy controls. We also found changed connection probability in the Default Mode Network, the Subcortical Network, the Attention Network, the Task Control Network, the Visual Network, the Somatosensory Network, and the cerebellum in the SOC group compared with the other 3 groups. The classification results further revealed that FA features could differentiate the SOC group from the other 3 groups with an accuracy of .78. These findings highlight the specific white matter abnormalities found in patients with SOC.


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/patologia , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Substância Branca/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
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