Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 88
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27369, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596151

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation has become a routine operation in many transplantation centers worldwide. However, liver graft availability fails to meet patient demands. Split liver transplantation (SPLT), which divides a deceased donor liver into 2 partial liver grafts, is a promising strategy for increasing graft availability for transplantation and ameliorating organ shortage to a certain degree. However, the transplantation community has not yet reached a consensus on SPLT because of the variable results. Specifically, SPLT for 2 adult recipients using full right/left hemi-liver grafts is clinically more challenging in terms of surgical technique and potential postoperative complications. Therefore, this review summarizes the current status of SPLT, focusing on the transplantation of adult recipients. Furthermore, the initiation of the SPLT program, donor allocation, surgical aspects, recipient outcomes, and obstacles to developing this procedure will be thoroughly discussed. This information might help provide an optimal strategy for implementing SPLT for 2 adult recipients among current transplantation societies. Meanwhile, potential obstacles to SPLT might be overcome in the near future with growing knowledge, experience, and refinement of surgical techniques. Ultimately, the widespread diffusion of SPLT may increase graft availability and mitigate organ donation shortages.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256920, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469501

RESUMO

Microdialysis is a minimally invasive sampling technique which is widely applied in many fields including clinical studies. This technique usually has limitation on sampling hydrophobic compounds as aqueous solutions are commonly used as the perfusates. The relative recovery of hydrophobic compounds is often low and irreproducible because of the non-specific binding to microdialysis membranes or catheter tubing. Carriers such as cyclodextrins have been used to improve the recovery and consistency, however the identification of an optimal carrier can only be achieved after time-consuming and costly microdialysis experiments. We therefore developed a rapid, convenient, and low-cost method to identify the optimal carriers for sampling hydrophobic compounds with the use of centrifugal ultrafiltration. Doxorubicin was used as the model compound and its relative recoveries obtained from centrifugal ultrafiltration and from microdialysis were compared. The results show that the relative recoveries are highly correlated (correlation coefficient ≥ 0.9) between centrifugal ultrafiltration and microdialysis when different types or different concentrations of cyclodextrins were used as the carriers. In addition to doxorubicin, this method was further confirmed on three other drugs with different hydrophobicity. This method may facilitate and broaden the use of microdialysis perfusion on sampling or delivering hydrophobic substances in various applications.

3.
J Pers Med ; 11(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357116

RESUMO

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Most infected individuals become lifelong carriers of HBV as the drugs currently used to treat the patients can only control the disease, thereby achieving functional cure (loss of the hepatitis B surface antigen) but not complete cure (elimination of infected hepatocytes). Therefore, we aimed to identify the target genes for the selective killing of HBV-positive hepatocytes to develop a novel therapy for the treatment of HBV infection. Our strategy was to recognize the conditionally essential genes that are essential for the survival of HBV-positive hepatocytes, but non-essential for the HBV-negative hepatocytes. Using microarray gene expression data curated from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and the known essential genes from the Online GEne Essentiality database, we used two approaches, comprising the random walk with restart algorithm and the support vector machine approach, to determine the potential targets for the selective killing of HBV-positive hepatocytes. The final candidate genes list obtained using these two approaches consisted of 36 target genes, which may be conditionally essential for the cell survival of HBV-positive hepatocytes; however, this requires further experimental validation. Therefore, the genes identified in this study can be used as potential drug targets to develop novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of HBV, and may ultimately help in achieving the elusive goal of a complete cure for hepatitis B.

4.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6828-6832, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314048

RESUMO

A cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections was found in a cargo ship under repair in Zhoushan, China. Twelve of 20 crew members were identified as SARS-CoV-2 positive. We analyzed four sequences and identified them all in the Delta branch emerging from India with 7-8 amino acid mutation sites in the spike protein.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200176

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may increase the risk of abnormal birth outcomes, and DNA methylation might mediate these adverse effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal BPA exposure on maternal and fetal DNA methylation levels and explore whether epigenetic changes are related to the associations between BPA and low birth weight. We collected urine and blood samples originating from 162 mother-infant pairs in a Taiwanese cohort study. We measured DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip in 34 maternal blood samples with high and low BPA levels based on the 75th percentile level (9.5 µg/g creatinine). Eighty-seven CpGs with the most differentially methylated probes possibly interacting with BPA exposure or birth weight were selected using two multiple regression models. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was utilized to narrow down 18 candidate CpGs related to disease categories, including developmental disorders, skeletal and muscular disorders, skeletal and muscular system development, metabolic diseases, and lipid metabolism. We then validated these genes by pyrosequencing, and 8 CpGs met the primer design score requirements in 82 cord blood samples. The associations among low birth weight, BPA exposure, and DNA methylation were analyzed. Exposure to BPA was associated with low birth weight. Analysis of the epigenome-wide findings did not show significant associations between BPA and DNA methylation in cord blood of the 8 CpGs. However, the adjusted odds ratio for the dehydrogenase/reductase member 9 (DHRS9) gene, at the 2nd CG site, in the hypermethylated group was significantly associated with low birth weight. These results support a role of BPA, and possibly DHRS9 methylation, in fetal growth. However, additional studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Taiwan/epidemiologia
6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(12): 16219-16228, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157682

RESUMO

More and more aged people are undergoing organ transplantation. Understanding aging effects on immunity will be helpful for post-transplantation care and adjustment of immunosuppressants for aged recipients. A mouse model, using C3H mice as donors and aged/young C57BL/10J mice as recipients, was employed to study aging effects on immunity. The results showed that frequency of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and level of TGF-ß was higher in aged mice than in young mice (4.4 ± 1.4% versus 1.6 ± 1.1%, p = 0.026 for MDSC; 21.04 ± 3.91 ng/ml versus 15.26 ± 5.01 ng/ml, p = 0.026 for TGF-ß). In vivo, skin allograft survived longer on the aged than on young mice (19.7 ± 5.2 days versus 11.9 ± 4.1 days, p = 0.005). When entinostat was applied to block MDSC, the survival of skin allografts on aged mice was shorten to 13.5 ± 4.7 days which was not different from the survival on young mice (p = 0.359). In conclusion, allogeneic immunity was different in aged from young mice in high frequency of MDSC and high serum level of TGF-ß. Blocking the function of MDSC reversed the low immunity in aged mice and caused skin allograft rejection similar to young recipients.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/imunologia , Transplante de Pele , Envelhecimento/sangue , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Teste de Cultura Mista de Linfócitos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
7.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 45(11): 1476-1486, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927156

RESUMO

Pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a distinct type of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated non-small cell carcinoma characterized by a syncytial growth pattern with heavy lymphocytic infiltration. We recently identified a group of non-small cell carcinomas, which are also associated with EBV but lack significant lymphocytic infiltration. These EBV-associated pulmonary carcinomas with low lymphocytic infiltration morphologically resemble nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, but their patient characteristics are more similar to those of LELC, including female sex and nonsmoking status. To clarify the relationships between these disease entities, in this study, we explored the molecular characteristics of the EBV-associated carcinomas with low lymphocytic infiltration using whole-exome sequencing and compared their molecular profiles with those of classic LELC and pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma. We demonstrate that the molecular characteristics of EBV-associated carcinomas with low lymphocytic infiltration are highly similar to those of classic LELC. Both show low tumor mutational burden, lack of commonly mutated driver genes in other types of non-small cell lung cancer, similar mutational signature involving APOBEC-related mutations, and enrichment of CD274 (programmed death-ligand 1) amplification. These molecular characteristics are very different from those of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma. The unique patient demographics and molecular characteristics shared by EBV-associated carcinomas with low lymphocytic infiltration and classic LELC suggest that these tumors represent one single disease entity defined by EBV association. This study supports the proposal for the usage of the term "EBV-associated pulmonary carcinoma" to encompass the entire morphologic spectrum of this distinct EBV-associated disease entity.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807219

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have been applied to treat advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and obtain promising effects. However, tumor response to treatment was unpredictable. A predicting biomarker of objective response or disease-control is an unmet need for patient selection. In this study, 45 advanced HCC patients who failed to sorafenib treatment and received nivolumab, 3 mg/kg bi-weekly, were included. Tumor responses to nivolumab treatment were assessed by the modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECIST) criteria. Tumor responses were correlated to clinical characteristics to find out response predictors. In this small series, the prevalence of extrahepatic nodal metastasis, distant metastasis, and portal vein thrombus among the patients were 22.2% (n = 10), 48.9% (n = 22), and 42.2% (n = 19), respectively. The pre-treatment tumor size was 7.2 ± 4.2 cm in maximal diameter, and the calculated total tumor volume was 619.0 ± 831.1 cm3. Among 45 patients, 3 patients had partial response (PR), 11 had stable disease (SD), and the other 31 had progression of disease. By correlating clinical data to the patients with PR and SD, serum neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.04) and patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) score (HR = 2.30) were the independent factors in multivariate analysis. By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, pre-treatment NLR ≤ 2.5 and PG-SGA score < 4 were the cutoff points to predict tumor response to ICI treatment. In conclusion, biomarkers to predict tumor response for HCC are still lacking in this costly ICI therapy. In this study, NLR ≤ 2.5 and PG-SGA score < 4 indicated disease-control, and can be applied as biomarkers to select the right patients to receive this costly therapy.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539707

RESUMO

Here, we present an ultralight multilayered graphene-based metasurface for suppressing specular reflection. With the help of a joint optimization method, dual low-reflection mechanisms including absorption and random diffusion are realized within the same structure, resulting in a remarkable decrease in the backward reflected energy in an ultrabroadband range of 7.5 to 43 GHz (a relative bandwidth of 140.6%). Experiments demonstrate that our design with a thickness of approximately 3.27 mm can maintain excellent antireflection performance over a wide angle range of 0 to 45° for both TE and TM waves. Additionally, as a result of adopting low-density substrates (polyethylene terephthalate and polymethylacrylimide foam) and multilayered graphene films, the proposed metasurface shows the advantage of ultralight weight, thus opening an avenue for a number of engineering applications such as electromagnetic shielding, information security, and electromagnetic compatibility technology. In addition, owing to the natural characteristics (corrosion resistance, bending resistance, etc.) of multilayered graphene films, the proposed metasurface shows enormous potential in some particular application scenarios with harsh conditions.

10.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(9): 1940-1944, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569553

RESUMO

A facile procedure is reported for the synthesis of various 2-bromo-1-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-3H,7aH-benzo[b]pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazin-3-ones via a radical bromination-induced ipso cyclization-ortho cyclization sequence of N-arylpropiolamides in the presence of TBAB and oxone. The radical cyclization sequence involves a radical bromo α-addition into the alkyne, ipso-cyclization, and ortho-trapping of the spirocyclic intermediate.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(16): 2077-2080, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511384

RESUMO

In this work, by using N-methoxybenzamides as efficient acyl nitrene precursors, an iron-catalyzed acyl nitrene/alkyne metalation is reported for the synthesis of pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-ones. In the reaction, a 5-exo-dig acyl nitrene/alkyne metalation is specifically observed; a counter anion-aided acyl nitrene/alkyne metalation accounts for the formation of pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-ones. Moreover, pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-ones possess good fluorescence properties exhibiting a long Stokes shift (>100 nm), and have been employed as small molecular probes for the detection of Hg2+, hydrazine, and cysteine.

12.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 9(1): 134-143, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has a significant negative impact on liver transplant (LT) recipients. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of real-time DNA quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in the early detection of CMV and predicting post-transplant outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study that enrolled a total of 49 adult LT recipients between December 2016 and October 2019. Serial CMV qPCR were tested weekly. We used operating characteristic curve analysis to quantify qPCR replication numbers to decide the optimal threshold to predict posttransplant complications and overall survival. RESULTS: The optimal cut-off value of 180 copies/ml (=164 IU/ml) was determined. We had 40 patients in the low qPCR group (<180 copies/ml) and nine patients in the high qPCR group (≥180 copies/ml). Higher qPCR was associated with more severe CMV disease, early allograft dysfunction, major posttransplant complications, longer ICU stays, and lower 2-year overall survival (OS; all p < .05). In the univariate logistic regression model, persistent DNAemia ≥ 4 weeks after anti-CMV treatment, coexisted bacterial and/or fungal infection, and high CMV qPCR ≥ 180 copies/ml with p < .100. High CMV qPCR ≥ 180 copies/ml (p = .016; hazard ratio [HR] = 19.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.73-219.49) remained to be the only independent risk factors for major complication by the multivariate analysis. The overall 2-year OS rates were 92.5% and 66.7% in the low and the high qPCR group, respectively (p = .030). CONCLUSION: Our findings support evidence that qPCR is effective in detecting CMV infection provides an objective perspective in predicting posttransplant outcomes. High plasma CMV DNA load (defined as CMV qPCR ≥ 180 copies/ml or 164 IU/ml) not only indicates a hazard in developing major posttransplant complications but also associates with prolonged and refractory treatment courses.

13.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; 4(1): e1294, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic effect and immunosuppressor cell alteration in adding transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) to sorafenib for advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. AIMS: To examine the therapeutic effect and immunosuppressor cell alteration in adding TACE to sorafenib. METHODS: Forty-four advanced stage HCC patients were divided into group A (n = 17) treated by sorafenib (400-600 mg/day) alone and group B patients (n = 27) treated by sorafenib and TACE. The frequency of regulatory T-cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and patients' outcomes were examined. Advanced HCC patients' survival was improved by adding TACE to sorafenib if N/L was reduced from ≥2.5 to <2.5 by TACE. RESULTS: The median (interquartile) follow-up for all patients was 8.5 (3.5 to 15.5) with a range from 1 to 71 months. The median (interquartile) survival was 5.0 (2.3-11.3) months for group A and 11.0 (5.0-19.0) months for group B patients (P = .024). In group A, the patients (n = 8) with neutrophil-to-lymphocytes ratio (N/L) < 2.5 had better survival than the patients (n = 9) with N/L ≥ 2.5 (P = .006). In group B, 6 of 13 patients with N/L ≥ 2.5 had N/L reduction to <2.5 after combination therapy of sorafenib and TACE, and their 6-month, 1-year and 2-year survival were improved (P = .013). For immune cell examination, the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, regulatory T-cell and MDSC were not altered by sorafenib treatment. However, actual number of lymphocytes had a tendency to increase (from 978.5 ± 319.4/mm3 prior to treatment to 1378.0 ± 403.3/mm3 , P = .086) for the patients with N/L reduction. CONCLUSION: Immunosuppressor cells were not altered by sorafeinb. Patients' survival was improved if N/L ≥ 2.5 was reduced to <2.5 by TACE.

14.
Life (Basel) ; 10(11)2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171596

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become the standard of care in various cancers, although their predictive tools have not yet completely developed. Here, we aimed to exam the role of 70-gene chromosomal instability signature (CIN70) in cancers, and its association with previous predictors, tumor mutation burden (TMB), and microsatellite instability (MSI), for patients undergoing ICIs, as well as the possible predictive value for ICIs. We examined the association of CIN70 with TMB and MSI, as well as the impact of these biomarkers on the survival of 33 cancer cohorts from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databank. The predictive value of the ICIs of CIN70 in previously published reports was also validated. Using the TCGA dataset, CIN70 scores were frequently (either positively or negatively) associated with TMB, but were only significantly associated with MSI status in three types of cancer. In addition, our current study showed that all TMB, MSI, and CIN70 had their own prognostic values for survival in patients with various cancers, and that they could be cancer type-specific. In two validation cohorts (melanoma by Hugo et al. and urothelial cancer by Snyder et al.), no significant difference of CIN70 scores was found between responders and non-responders (p-value = 0.226 and 0.108, respectively). In addition, no overall survival difference was noted between patients with a high CIN70 and those with a low CIN70 (p-value = 0.106 and 0.222, respectively). In conclusion, the current study, through a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis, demonstrated a correlation between CIN70 and TMB, but CIN70 is not the predictor for cancer patients undergoing ICIs. Future prospective studies are warranted to validate these findings.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 2489526, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934957

RESUMO

Background: A combination of antihepatitis B immunoglobulin and antiviral agents is the most common regimen for prophylaxis of hepatitis B recurrence after liver transplantation. However, hepatitis B recurrence still happens. The significance of hepatitis B recurrence is less mentioned. Materials: Forty-eight of the 313 hepatitis B liver transplant recipients having hepatitis B recurrence were included in this study. The patients were divided into group A, the patients transplanted for hepatitis B-related liver failure, and group B, the patients transplanted for hepatitis B-related cirrhosis and HCC. The clinical manifestations after hepatitis B recurrence were recorded. Results: Among the 48 patients with hepatitis B recurrence, 23 patients were in group A and 25 patients in group B. The age was 51.6 ± 9.4 years in group A and 52.8 ± 6.4 in group B (p = 0.869). The MELD score prior to transplantation was 23.1 ± 9.9 in group A patients and 12.9 ± 5.6 in group B patients (p < 0.001). The median (interquartile) interval from transplantation to hepatitis B recurrence was 10 (2-19) months for group A patients and 13 (8.5-35) months for group B patients (p = 0.051). After hepatitis B recurrence, the liver function was almost normal in both groups. In group B patients, 10 patients had HCC recurrence with 7 of 10 patients having hepatitis B recurrence earlier than HCC recurrence. The interval between hepatitis B and HCC recurrence was 1 to 15 months. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 82.6%, 73.9%, and 69.0%, respectively, for group A patients and 96%, 76%, and 68%, respectively, for group B patients (p = 0.713). Conclusion: The patients have uneventful liver function under antiviral agent while hepatitis B recurred. For the patients having HCC prior to transplantation, close monitoring of HCC recurrence is necessary if hepatitis B recurs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , DNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue
16.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 9(7): e1145, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617161

RESUMO

Objective: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become the standard of care in various cancers, although the predictive tool is still unknown. Methods: This study aimed to develop a novel gene panel by selecting DNA damage response (DDR) genes from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) databank and validating them in previously reported cohorts. This association between DDR gene mutations and tumor mutation burden or microsatellite status was analysed from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databank. Furthermore, we made the gene panel clinically accessible and predicted the response in clinical patients receiving ICIs by using cell-free DNA. Results: The top 20 mutated DDR genes in various cancers (total 37 genes) were taken from the COSMIC databank, and the DDR genes found to individually predict a response rate > 50% in Van Allen's cohort were selected (Science, 350, 2015 and 207). Eighteen DDR genes were selected as the gene panel. The prevalence and predicted response rate were validated in the other three reported cohorts. Tumor mutational burden-high was positively associated with mutations of the 18 DDR genes for most cancers. We used cell-free DNA to test the DDR gene panel and validated by our patients receiving ICIs. This DDR gene panel accounted for approximately 30% of various cancers, achieving a predicted response rate of approximately 60% in patients with a mutated gene panel receiving ICIs. Conclusion: This gene panel is a novel and reliable tool for predicting the response to ICIs in cancer patients and guides the appropriate administration of ICIs in clinical practice.

17.
Org Lett ; 22(15): 5931-5935, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662274

RESUMO

In this work, a palladium-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 1] cyclization of internal alkynes with double isocyanides is described. This facile procedure is efficient for synthesizing various pyrrolo[3,2-c]quinolin-2-amines. The reaction worked well with a broad reaction scope. In the process, it is believed that sequential double isocyanide insertion, 6-exo-dig cyclization of alkyne, and addition of an imino group are involved.

19.
Curr Pharm Des ; 26(28): 3406-3417, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370710

RESUMO

ABO-incompatible (ABO-I) liver transplantation (LT) has been limited due to the increased rate of complications, including severe cellular and antibody-mediated rejection, hepatic necrosis, hepatic artery thrombosis, and biliary complications. However, several strategies for reducing preformed anti-donor ABO antibodies and B cell desensitization have improved the outcomes of ABO-I LT. As a result, ABO-I LT has become a routine procedure and is a feasible option in countries with a scarce deceased-organ donation or in cases without an available compatible organ donor. In this review, we describe past and present desensitizing protocols as well as emergent therapies for depleting B cell and anti-ABO antibodies with the objective of identifying approaches that could lead to new, refined strategies for maximizing the results of ABO-I LT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Incompatibilidade de Grupos Sanguíneos , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Doadores Vivos , Rituximab , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunological checkpoint blockade is effective in treating various malignancies. Identifying predictive biomarkers to assist patient selection for immunotherapy has become a priority in both clinical and research settings. METHODS: Mutations in patients who responded to immunotherapy were identified through next-generation sequencing. Relationships among protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide (PRKDC) mutations, mutation load and microsatellite instability (MSI) were analyzed using datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas. These relationships were validated by conducting an in vitro study and by using tissue samples from 34 patients with gastric cancer. The CT26 animal model was used to evaluate the role of PRKDC as a predictive biomarker and the efficacy of the DNA-PK inhibitor. RESULTS: From the published literature, we found that among patients whose tumors harbored PRKDC mutations, 75%, 53.8%, and 50% of those with lung cancer, melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma, respectively, responded to immunotherapy. Most of these mutations were truncating and located in functional domains or in a destabilizing PRKDC protein structure. Additional analysis showed that a PRKDC mutation was significantly associated with a high mutation load in cervical cancer, colon adenocarcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma and endometrial cancer. Patients with gastric cancer or colon cancer harboring PRKDC mutations were also highly associated with MSI-high status. Finally, we found that knockout PRKDC or DNA-PK inhibitor (PRKDC encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase) enhanced the efficacy of the anti-programmed cell death protein one pathway monoclonal antibody in the CT26 animal model. CONCLUSIONS: PRKDC is not only a predictive biomarker but also a drug target for immune checkpoint inhibitors.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...