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1.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(28): 8545-8551, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lumbar facet joint syndrome (LFJS) is a pain condition arising from lumbar facet joint diseases. Treatments of LFJS includes patient education, oral medication, bed rest, physical therapy, and procedural interventions. For some refractory cases that fail conservative therapies, dorsal ramus medial brunch radiofrequency ablation is warranted. However, as nerve fibers can regenerate, their efficacy is impermanent, and the recurrence rate is relatively high. Considering synovial impingement is a paramount pathogenesis of LFJS, in this case, we removed the culprit hyperplastic articular capsule and the articular process partially through a spinal endoscope. As the culprit hyperplastic joint capsule was excised, it is supposed to generate more prolonged efficacy and a lower recurrence rate than radiofrequency treatment. CASE SUMMARY: A 40-year-old female patient was diagnosed with LFJS. She complained of low back pain and right buttock pain for half a year. The patient was placed in the prone position. After disinfection and draping, a 25-cm 18-gauge needle was inserted into the dorsal surface of the right L5 articular process. Subsequently, a guidewire, dilating tubes, and a working cannula was inserted successively. The spinal endoscope was positioned in the working cannula. Under the endoscope, the microvascular tissue, muscle tissue attached on the L5 inferior articular process and S1 superior articular process, as well as the capsule and minor portion of the inferior articular process were removed. After the joint space was clear and no bleeding points existed, the endoscope and working cannula were shifted, and the incision was sutured. After treatment, the symptoms were completely relieved. The patient was pain-free during the follow-up period of 6 mo. CONCLUSION: The endoscopic partial joint capsule and articular process excision is an effective procedure for LFJS, especially for cases caused by synovial impingement.

2.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 723388, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557491

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that nicotine could impair the germ cell cyst breakdown and the primordial follicle assembly by autophagy. In this paper, we discovered that luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) could counteract the damage caused by nicotine of mouse germ cell cyst breakdown. The neonatal mice were separately intraperitoneally injected with nicotine, nicotine plus LH, nicotine plus FSH, and saline (control) for 4 days. Compared with the nicotine group, the quality of oocytes and the number of follicles were remarkably increased in the nicotine plus LH group or nicotine plus FSH group. LH and FSH could alleviate nicotine-induced oocyte autophagy by different pathways. LH reduced the nicotine-induced autophagy by restoring the phosphorylation level of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase α-1, while FSH by downregulating the phosphorylation level of Forkhead box class O 1. In addition, in a subsequent study of 6-week mice in different treated groups, we found that LH and FSH supplementation significantly improved normal maturation rates, fertilization rates, and embryo's developmental potential of oocytes in oocytes exposed to nicotine. Taken together, these results suggested that LH and FSH could counteract the damage caused by nicotine and finally ensure normal germ cell cyst breakdown and early embryo development.

3.
ASN Neuro ; 13: 17590914211043087, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579557

RESUMO

Maternal social stress among breastfeeding women can be adapted in chronic process. However, neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying such adaptation remain to be identified. Here, we report the effects of 2 hr/day unfamiliar male rat invasion (UMI) stress on maternal behaviors in lactating rats during postpartum day 8 (UMI8) to postpartum day 12 (UMI12). Rat dams at UMI8 presented signs of maternal anxiety, depression, and attacks toward male intruder. These changes partially reversed at UMI12 except the sign of anxiety. In the supraoptic nucleus (SON), UMI12 but not UMI8 significantly increased the expression of c-Fos and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2. At UMI8 but not UMI12, length of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, astrocytic cytoskeletal element) filaments around oxytocin (OT) neurons was significantly longer than that of their controls; the amount of GFAP fragments at UMI12 was significantly less than that at UMI8. Expression of cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS, enzyme for H2S synthesis) at UMI12 was significantly higher than that at UMI8. CBS expression did not change significantly in the somatic zone of the SON but decreased significantly at the ventral glia lamina at UMI8. In brain slices of the SON, aminooxyacetate (a CBS blocker) significantly increased the expression of GFAP proteins that were molecularly associated with CBS. Aminooxyacetate also reduced the firing rate of OT neurons whereas Na2S, a donor of H2S, increased it. The adaptation during chronic social stress is possibly attributable to the increased production of H2S by astrocytes and the subsequent retraction of astrocytic processes around OT neurons.

4.
Psychiatry Investig ; 18(7): 679-687, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adolescents. The present study investigated the cortical morphology features and their relationship with working memory (WM). METHODS: In the present study, a total of 36 medication naïve children with ADHD (aged from 8 to 15 years) and 36 age- and gendermatched healthy control (HC) children were included. The digit span test was used to evaluate WM. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to examine the characteristics of cortical morphology. Firstly, we compared the cortical morphology features between two groups to identify the potential structural alterations of cortical volume, surface, thickness, and curvature in children with ADHD. Then, the correlation between the brain structural abnormalities and WM was further explored in children with ADHD. RESULTS: Compared with the HC children, the children with ADHD showed reduced cortical volumes in the left lateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) (p=6.67×10-6) and left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (p=3.88×10-4). In addition, the cortical volume of left lateral STG was positively correlated with WM (r=0.36, p=0.029). CONCLUSION: Though preliminary, these findings suggest that the reduced cortical volumes of left lateral STG may contribute to the pathogenesis of ADHD and correlate with WM in children with ADHD.

5.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(8): e1009859, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383852

RESUMO

Wolbachia is a group of intracellular symbiotic bacteria that widely infect arthropods and nematodes. Wolbachia infection can regulate host reproduction with the most common phenotype in insects being cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which results in embryonic lethality when uninfected eggs fertilized with sperms from infected males. This suggests that CI-induced defects are mainly in paternal side. However, whether Wolbachia-induced metabolic changes play a role in the mechanism of paternal-linked defects in embryonic development is not known. In the current study, we first use untargeted metabolomics method with LC-MS to explore how Wolbachia infection influences the metabolite profiling of the insect hosts. The untargeted metabolomics revealed 414 potential differential metabolites between Wolbachia-infected and uninfected 1-day-old (1d) male flies. Most of the differential metabolites were significantly up-regulated due to Wolbachia infection. Thirty-four metabolic pathways such as carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid, and vitamin and cofactor metabolism were affected by Wolbachia infection. Then, we applied targeted metabolomics analysis with GC-MS and showed that Wolbachia infection resulted in an increased energy expenditure of the host by regulating glycometabolism and fatty acid catabolism, which was compensated by increased food uptake. Furthermore, overexpressing two acyl-CoA catabolism related genes, Dbi (coding for diazepam-binding inhibitor) or Mcad (coding for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase), ubiquitously or specially in testes caused significantly decreased paternal-effect egg hatch rate. Oxidative stress and abnormal mitochondria induced by Wolbachia infection disrupted the formation of sperm nebenkern. These findings provide new insights into mechanisms of Wolbachia-induced paternal defects from metabolic phenotypes.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Metaboloma , Fenótipo , Reprodução , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia , Feminino , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Masculino
6.
ASN Neuro ; 13: 17590914211014731, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210188

RESUMO

Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide produced in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei, is not only essential for lactation and maternal behavior but also for normal immunological activity. However, mechanisms underlying OT regulation of maternal behavior and its association with immunity around parturition, particularly under mental and physical stress, remain unclear. Here, we observed effects of OT on maternal behavior in association with immunological activity in rats after cesarean delivery (CD), a model of reproductive stress. CD significantly reduced maternal interests to the pups throughout postpartum day 1-8. On postpartum day 5, CD decreased plasma OT levels and thymic index but increased vasopressin, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6 and IL-10 levels. CD had no significant effect on plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels. In the hypothalamus, CD decreased corticotropin-releasing hormone contents in the PVN but increased OT contents in the PVN and SON and OT release from hypothalamic implants. CD also increased c-Fos expression, particularly in the cytoplasm of OT neurons. Lastly, CD depolarized resting membrane potential and increased spike width while increasing the variability of the firing rate of OT neurons in brain slices. Thus, CD can increase hypothalamic OT contents and release but reduce pituitary release of OT into the blood, which is associated with depressive-like maternal behavior, increased inflammatory cytokine release and decreased relative weight of the thymus.

7.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 341, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation is widely used in atrial fibrillation (AF) management. In this study, we are aimed to investigate the incidence of postprocedural cognitive decline in a larger population undergoing AF ablation under local anesthesia, and to evaluate the associated risk factors. METHODS: This study included 287 patients with normal cognitive functions, with 190 ablated AF patients (study group) and 97 AF patients who are awaiting ablation (practice group). We assessed the neuropsychological function of each patient for twice (study group: 24 h prior to ablation and 48 h post ablation; practice group: on the day of inclusion and 72 h later but before ablation). The reliable change index was used to analyze the neuropsychological testing scores and to identify postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) at 48 h post procedure. Patients in the study group accepting a 6-month follow up were given an extra cognitive assessment. RESULTS: Among the ablated AF patients, 13.7% (26/190) had POCD at 48 h after the ablation procedure. Multivariable analysis revealed that, a minimum intraoperative activated clotting time (ACT) < 300 s (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.48-9.96, P = 0.006) and not taking oral anticoagulants within one month prior to ablation(OR 10.35, 95% CI 3.54-30.27, P < 0.001) were significantly related to POCD at 48 h post-ablation. In 172 patients of the study group accepting a 6-month follow up, there were 23 patients with POCD at 48 h post-ablation and 149 patients without POCD. The global cognitive scores were decreased in 48 h post-operation tests (0 ± 1 vs - 0.15 ± 1.10, P < 0.001) and improved significantly at 6 months post-operation (0 ± 1 vs 0.43 ± 0.92, P < 0.001). In the 23 patients with POCD at 48 h after the procedure, global cognitive performance at 6 months was not significantly different compared with that at baseline (- 0.05 ± 1.25 vs - 0.19 ± 1.33, P = 0.32), while 13 of them had higher scores than baseline level. CONCLUSIONS: Incident of POCD after ablation procedures is high in the short term. Inadequate periprocedural anticoagulation are possible risk factors. However, most POCD are reversible at 6 months, and a general improvement was observed in cognitive function at 6 months after ablation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Neuroscience ; 468: 235-246, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166764

RESUMO

Oxytocin (OT) is a key factor for maternal behavior. However, neurochemical regulation of OT neurons, the major source of OT, remains incompletely understood. Here we report the effect of intranasally-applied OT (IAO) on OT neuronal activity in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and on maternal behavior in a rat model of cesarean delivery (CD) at day 4-5 (stage I) and day 8-9 (stage II) following delivery. We found that at stage I, CD dams exhibited significantly longer latency of pup retrieval, lower number of anogenital licks and smaller acinar area of the mammary glands. In the SON, the number of OT neurons expressing phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (pERK 1/2) decreased significantly. IAO reversed the depressive-like maternal behavior and involution-like change in the mammary glands, and restored the number of pERK1/2-positive OT neurons in CD dams. At stage II, CD did not significantly influence the latency of retrieval and pERK1/2 expression in the SON. However, CD still reduced the number of anogenital licks during suckling, which was reversed by IAO. Notably, IAO but not hypodermic OT application in CD dams significantly increased litter's body weight gains. In brain slices, CD but not CD plus IAO significantly depolarized membrane potential and increased spike duration in OT neurons. In vasopressin neurons, CD, but not CD plus IAO, significantly depolarized membrane potential and increased the firing rate. Thus, decreased OT neuronal activity and increased vasopressin neuronal activity impair maternal behavior in CD dams, which can be prevented by IAO .


Assuntos
Ocitocina , Núcleo Supraóptico , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Materno , Neurônios , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Brain Behav ; 11(7): e02173, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076367

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Most youths who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) lose their diagnosis in the first 1-2 years. However, there are few studies on this brain mechanism, and the heterogeneity of the findings is partially due to the different stimuli applied and the mixed trauma history. Therefore, the use of trauma-related/unrelated stimuli to study the remittance mechanism of earthquake-induced PTSD could advance our knowledge of PTSD and inspire future treatment. METHODS: Thirteen youths with PTSD, 18 remitted participants, and 18 control participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while viewing trauma-related pictures, trauma-unrelated negative pictures, and scrambled pictures. RESULTS: Under trauma-unrelated condition, the neural activity of the left hippocampus in the remitted group was between the two other groups. Under trauma-related condition, the PTSD and the remitted group exhibited higher neural activity in the right middle occipital gyrus than controls. The remitted group showed higher neural activity in the right parahippocampal gyrus and right lingual gyrus under trauma-related condition than trauma-unrelated condition, while no significant difference was found in PTSD group. CONCLUSION: PTSD status-related group differences are mainly reflected in the left hippocampus under the trauma-unrelated condition, while the hyperactivity in the right middle occipital gyrus under trauma-related condition could be an endophenotype for PTSD.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adolescente , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
J Affect Disord ; 293: 97-108, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with impaired executive function (EF), depressive/anxiety symptoms, and poor quality of life (QoL). In this study, we aimed to investigate correlations among these variables and to build a simple or serial mediation model for exploring the mechanisms between adult ADHD and QoL. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. The sample included 223 participants with ADHD and 54 healthy volunteers. Participants were required to complete the following scales: ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), Brief Version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Correlations among EF, depressive/anxiety symptoms and QoL were analyzed using Pearson correlation. The simple and serial mediation models were analyzed using PROCESS (version 3.3). RESULTS: The correlations between EF and QoL, depressive/anxiety symptoms and QoL, and depressive/anxiety symptoms and EF were statistically significant. In ADHD adults with comorbidities, the correlation coefficients were between -0.19 and -0.47, -0.20 and -0.62, 0.28 and 0.50, respectively. In simple mediation models, EF and depressive/anxiety symptoms were significant mediators respectively between ADHD and QoL, respectively. In a serial two-mediator model, ADHD could affect QoL indirectly via EF and then via depressive/anxiety symptoms significantly. LIMITATIONS: The average age was young, the degree of education was high, and only self-reported scales were relied on. CONCLUSIONS: There is a mutual effect between EF and emotional symptoms. This was the first study to build a serial two-mediator model between ADHD and QoL, suggesting the importance of EF and depressive/anxiety symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Função Executiva , Humanos
11.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 30(2): 113-119, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109346

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the existence of tertiary lymphoid structures(TLS) in oral lichenoid lesions and its compositional characteristics of immune cells. METHODS: Tissue samples of normal oral mucosa, oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid tissue reaction(OLTR) were collected, thirty cases in each group. Hematoxylin-eosin(H-E) staining was performed to identify the TLS-like structures, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was applied to assess the structure and amount of infiltrating CD3+ T cells, CD19+, CD20+ B cells, CD21+ follicular dendritic cells (FDC), Bcl-6+ germinal centers, CD34+ PNAd+ venules and CD34+ Gp36+ micro lymphatic vessels in TLS of OLL. Histopathology and molecular markers were used to evaluate the morphological performance of TLS in OLL. Chi-square test (Fisher exact probability method) was applied to compare the proportion of TLS in each group; integral optical density (IOD) method was used to calculate the expression level of each molecular marker, nonparametric t test (Mann-Whitney U test) was employed to analyze their difference. Statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad Prism 7.0 software. RESULTS: In OLP group and OLTR group, 46.7% (14/30) and 23.4% (7/30) cases had TLS-like structures, respectively. The frequency of TLS-like structures was not correlated with the type of disease(P>0.05). Compared with the control group, the molecular markers in OLP group and OLTR group were highly expressed, and the expression of CD19, CD20, and CD21 in OLP group had morphological and structural characteristics of TLS. The expression of Bcl-6(mean and standard deviation of IOD were 15 498±15 108 vs. 1 841±2 276, P<0.0001), CD20 (13 067±9 049 vs. 7 695±5 159, P<0.05), CD21 (13 968±14 560 vs. 2 552±2 584, P<0.0001), PNAd (10 328±10 383 vs. 1 756±1 570, P<0.0001) and Gp36 (12 778±12 390 vs. 2 313±2 578, P<0.0001) showed significant differences between OLP and OLTR tissues, but it could not be used as the criteria for identifying the type of diseases without morphological characters. CONCLUSIONS: TLS exists in OLL lesions, mainly presented as non-classical forms. The classical forms can be occasionally found. CD20 and CD21 can be used as the biomarkers to identify the TLS in OLL. TLS can not be used as the diagnosing criteria for identifying OLP or OLTR.


Assuntos
Líquen Plano Bucal , Erupções Liquenoides , Doenças da Boca , Humanos , Tecido Linfoide , Fenótipo
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060219

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in the management of prostate cancer (PCa). Quantitative MRI (qMRI) parameters, derived from multi-parametric MRI, provide indirect measures of tumour characteristics such as cellularity, angiogenesis and hypoxia. Using Artificial Intelligence (AI), relevant information and patterns can be efficiently identified in these complex data to develop quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs) of tumour function and biology. Such QIBs have already demonstrated potential in the diagnosis and staging of PCa. In this review, we explore the role of these QIBs in monitoring treatment response during and after PCa radiotherapy (RT). Recurrence of PCa after RT is not uncommon, and early detection prior to development of metastases provides an opportunity for salvage treatments with curative intent. However, the current method of monitoring treatment response using prostate-specific antigen levels lacks specificity. QIBs, derived from qMRI and developed using AI techniques, can be used to monitor biological changes post-RT providing the potential for accurate and early diagnosis of recurrent disease.

13.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) ; 232(3): e13672, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978309

RESUMO

AIM: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) molecularly associates with aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in astrocytic plasticity. Here, we further examined how AQP4 modulates osmotic effects on vasopressin (VP) neurons in rat supraoptic nucleus (SON) through interactions with GFAP in astrocytes. METHODS: Brain slices from adult male rats were kept under osmotic stimulation. Western blot, co-immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemistry and patch-clamp recordings were used for analysis of expressions and interactions between GFAP and AQP4, astrocyte-specific proteins in the SON, as well as their influence on VP neuronal activity. Data were analysed using SPSS software. RESULTS: Hyposmotic challenge (HOC) of acute SON slices caused an early (within 5 minutes) and transient increase in the colocalization of AQP4 with GFAP filaments. This effect was prominent at astrocytic processes surrounding VP neuron somata and was accompanied by inhibition of VP neuronal activity. Similar HOC effect was seen in the SON isolated from rats subjected to in vivo HOC, wherein a transiently increased molecular association between GFAP and AQP4 was detected using co-immunoprecipitation. The late stage rebound excitation (10 minutes) of VP neurons in brain slices subjected to HOC and the associated astrocytic GFAP's 'return to normal' were both hampered by 2-(nicotinamide)-1,3,4-thiadiazole, a specific AQP4 channel blocker that itself did not influence VP neuronal activity. Moreover, this agent prevented hyperosmotic stress-evoked excitation of VP neurons and associated reduction in GFAP filaments. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that osmotically driven increase in VP neuronal activity requires the activation of AQP4, which determines a retraction of GFAP filaments.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 4/metabolismo , Núcleo Supraóptico , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ratos , Núcleo Supraóptico/metabolismo , Vasopressinas/metabolismo
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11152, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045597

RESUMO

A significant proportion of the land area of Heilongjiang Province, China, is composed of saline-alkaline soil, which severely inhibits maize growth. Although Trichoderma treatment is widely regarded as a promising strategy for improving the soil environment and promoting plant growth, the mechanism through which Trichoderma asperellum enhances maize resistance to saline-alkaline stress is not clear. In this study, we explored the effect of T. asperellum application at different concentrations to soil saline-alkaline environment on the seedlings of two maize cultivars, assessing the biochemical parameters related to oxidation resistance. Increasing spore densities of T. asperellum suspension effectively regulated the soil ion balance in the rhizosphere of maize seedlings, reduced the soil pH by 2.15-5.76% and sodium adsorption ratios by 22.70-54.13%, increased soil nutrient content and enzyme activity, and improved the soil environment for seedling growth. Additionally, T. asperellum treatment increased the maize seedling content of osmo-regulating substances and rate of glutathione:oxidised glutathione (43.86-88.25%) and ascorbate:oxidised ascorbate (25.26-222.32%) by affecting the antioxidant enzyme activity in the roots, increasing reactive oxygen species scavenging, and maintaining the osmotic balance and metabolic homeostasis under saline-alkaline stress. T. asperellum also improved the saline-alkaline tolerance of maize seedlings by improving the root growth characteristics. Moreover, results showed that Trichoderma applied at high concentration had the greatest effect. In conclusion, improvement in the saline-alkaline tolerance of maize seedlings by T. asperellum under saline-alkaline soil conditions may be achieved through diverse effects that vary among maize cultivars.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9927498, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954204

RESUMO

Background: Sepsis is a potentially lethal complication for both flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). This study is aimed at comparing the sepsis rate after fURS and PCNL and the risk factors for sepsis in patients with solitary proximal ureteral stone. Methods: We reviewed the data of patients with calculi between 10 mm to 20 mm who underwent fURS or PCNL surgery from Tongji Hospital's database. A total of 910 patients were eligible with 412 fURS cases and 498 PCNL cases. We used univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the risk factors for sepsis. Subgroup analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis. Results: In the cohort, 27 (6.6%) and 19 (3.8%) patients developed sepsis after fURS and PCNL, respectively. Multivariate analysis shows that the risk factors for sepsis are fURS (OR = 3.160, P = 0.004), serum WBC ≥ 10,000 cells/µL (OR = 3.490, P = 0.008), albumin - globulin ratio < 1.2 (OR = 2.192, P = 0.029), positive urine culture (OR = 6.145, P < 0.001), and prolonged operation time (OR = 1.010, P = 0.046). Subgroup analysis was conducted using potential risk factors: stone size, serum WBC, urine culture, and albumin-globulin ratio (AGR). In subgroup of positive urine culture, patients were more likely to develop sepsis after fURS than PCNL. Conclusions: PCNL may be a better choice than fURS to reduce postoperative sepsis, especially for patients with positive urine culture.


Assuntos
Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/etiologia , Cálculos Ureterais/cirurgia , Cálculos Ureterais/urina , Ureteroscopia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Maleabilidade , Fatores de Risco
16.
Oncol Lett ; 22(1): 517, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986877

RESUMO

SRY-related high-mobility group box 9 (SOX9) is an important transcriptional factor that regulates diverse genes involved in development and stemness. Dysregulation of SOX9 encourages carcinogenesis in various types of cancer, including breast cancer. The present study aimed to explore the role of SOX9 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). SOX9 expression was significantly upregulated in the TNBC MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-436 and MDA-MB-468 cell lines compared with that in BT-549 cells. Based on a lentivirus assay, SOX9 inhibition in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436 cells suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation. Apoptosis was increased and the cell cycle was arrested at the G0/G1 phase in SOX9-knockdown cells. Transwell and wound-healing assays demonstrated that SOX9 inhibition decreased the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436 cells. RNA sequencing identified that numerous genes were regulated by SOX9, including nucleophosmin, thioredoxin reductase 1, succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D, nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 2, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4γ1 and glycogen phosphorylase L. Overall, the current study suggested that SOX9 acted as an oncogene in TNBC.

17.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(2): 333-341, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886395

RESUMO

In higher education, it is a great challenge for instructors to teach international medical students (IMSs) efficiently. These students usually have different learning obstacles and learning style preferences from domestic students. Thus it is necessary to use teaching modalities targeting the specific characteristics of IMSs. Accordingly, we have developed a teaching modality composed of classical teacher-centered approach (TCA), enriched with components of student-centered approach (SCA) and online interactions targeting the learning characteristics of IMSs, which we defined as TESOT (an acronym made of the underlined words' initials). Aside from the online interactions that provide both answers to questions raised by students and guidance throughout a course, this modality contains additional in-classroom components (i.e., pre-lecture quiz, student-led summary, and post-lecture quiz). The effectiveness of this modality was tested in the nervous system module of the Physiology course for IMSs. The final exam scores in the nervous system module in the year taught with TESOT were higher than those earned by students taught with a classical TCA modality in preceding 2 yr. The improvement of teaching effectiveness is attributable to increasing communication, bridging course contexts, and meeting diverse learning style preferences. These results indicate that TESOT as an effective teaching modality is useful for enhancing efficiency of teaching IMSs.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Ensino
18.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 27(5): 603-616, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644999

RESUMO

AIMS: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder of substantial heritability, yet emerging evidence suggests that key risk variants might reside in the noncoding regions of the genome. Our study explored the association of lncRNAs (long noncoding RNAs) with ADHD as represented at three different phenotypic levels guided by the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework: (i) ADHD caseness and symptom dimension, (ii) executive functions as functional endophenotype, and (iii) potential genetic influence on white matter architecture as brain structural endophenotype. METHODS: Genotype data of 107 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 10 candidate lncRNAs were analyzed in 1040 children with ADHD and 630 controls of Chinese Han descent. Executive functions including inhibition and set-shifting were assessed by STROOP and trail making tests, respectively. Imaging genetic analyses were performed in a subgroup of 33 children with ADHD and 55 controls using fractional anisotropy (FA). RESULTS: One SNP rs3908461 polymorphism in RNF219-AS1 was found to be significantly associated with ADHD caseness: with C-allele detected as the risk genotype in the allelic model (P = 8.607E-05) and dominant genotypic model (P = 9.628E-05). Nominal genotypic effects on inhibition (p = 0.020) and set-shifting (p = 0.046) were detected. While no direct effect on ADHD core symptoms was detected, mediation analysis suggested that SNP rs3908461 potentially exerted an indirect effect through inhibition function [B = 0.21 (SE = 0.12), 95% CI = 0.02-0.49]. Imaging genetic analyses detected significant associations between rs3908461 genotypes and FA values in corpus callosum, left superior longitudinal fasciculus, left posterior limb of internal capsule, left posterior thalamic radiate (include optic radiation), and the left anterior corona radiate (P FWE corrected  < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our present study examined the potential roles of lncRNA in genetic etiological of ADHD and provided preliminary evidence in support of the potential RNF219-AS1 involvement in the pathophysiology of ADHD in line with the RDoC framework.

19.
J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol ; 336(5): 417-430, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734578

RESUMO

Many ribosomal proteins (RPs) not only play essential roles in ribosome biogenesis, but also have "extraribosomal" functions in various cellular processes. RpL36 encodes ribosomal protein L36, a component of the 60S subunit of ribosomes in Drosophila melanogaster. We report here that RpL36 is required for spermatogenesis in D. melanogaster. After showing the evolutionary conservation of RpL36 sequences in animals, we revealed that the RpL36 expression level in fly testes was significantly higher than in ovaries. Knockdown RpL36 in fly testes resulted in a significantly decreased egg hatch rate when these males mated with wild-type females. Furthermore, 76.67% of the RpL36 knockdown fly testes were much smaller in comparison to controls. Immunofluorescence staining exhibited that in the RpL36 knockdown testis hub cell cluster was enlarged, while the number of germ cells, including germ stem cells, was reduced. Knockdown of RpL36 in fly testis caused much fewer or no mature sperms in seminal vesicles. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) signal was stronger in RpL36 knockdown fly testes than in the control testes, but the TUNEL-positive cells could not be stained by Vasa antibody, indicating that apoptotic cells are not germ cells. The percentage of pH3-positive cells among the Vasa-positive cells was significantly reduced. The expression of genes involved in cell death, cell cycle progression, and JAK/STAT signaling pathway was significantly changed by RpL36 knockdown in fly testes. These results suggest that RpL36 plays an important role in spermatogenesis, likely through JAK/STAT pathway, thus resulting in defects in cell-cycle progression and cell death in D. melanogaster testes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Biologia Computacional , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Masculino , Filogenia , Espermatogênese/genética
20.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 106(4): e21779, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660341

RESUMO

Shrub (CG8055) encodes the vps32/snf7 protein, a filament-forming subunit of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport)-III complex involved in inward membrane budding. It was reported that shrub was required for abscission in female germline stem cells. In this study, we showed that the expression level of shrub in the testis was significantly higher than that in the ovary of 1-day-old Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting a role in male reproduction. Then we used nosGal4 driver to knockdown shrub specifically in the fly testis and found that this resulted in a significantly lower paternal effect egg hatch rate relative to the control group. Immunofluorescence staining showed that shrub knockdown in fly testes caused an accumulation of early-stage germ cells and lack of spectrin caps. In the late stages (spermiogenesis), the control testis contained multiple compacted spermatid bundles and individualization complexes (ICs) consisting of actin cones, whereas there were scattered spermatid nuclei and only a few ICs with disorganized actin cones in the shrub knockdown testis. Finally, the control seminal vesicle was full of mature sperms with needle-like heads, but in shrub knockdown testis 75% of seminal vesicles had no mature sperms. We also found that knockdown of shrub in fly testes led to upregulated expression of several cytoskeleton-associated genes, and an accumulation of ubiquitylated proteins. These results suggest that knockdown of shrub in fly testes might damage spermatogenesis by affecting transportability.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Ovário/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo
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