Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 214
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Psychiatry Res ; 285: 112817, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine brain white matter integrity in children with ADHD. METHODS: In a cohort of children with ADHD (n = 83) and healthy controls (n = 122), we used tract-based spatial statistics on Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data to obtain the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) in 40 bilateral regions of interest (ROIs). Lateralization Index (LI) was calculated. The difference in LI between groups and correlations between the LI of each ROI and ADHD symptom scores as well as cognitive function were examined. RESULTS: Children with ADHD had significantly greater LI at the posterior thalamic radiation (PTR) compared with healthy controls (mean LI in ADHD = 0.0096; in Control = 0.0044, p = 0.0143), and LI of the external capsule (EC) was significantly correlated with inattention symptoms in both groups (ß = -0.00059, p = 0.0181). LI of the PTR was significantly correlated with inhibitory function in healthy controls (ß = -0.0008510, p = 0.0248), but not in children with ADHD. CONCLUSION: We found increased brain white matter asymmetry (leftward) in children with ADHD compared with healthy controls at the posterior thalamic radiation. Leftward lateralization of FA values at the external capsule was negatively correlated with ADHD symptoms in both children with ADHD and healthy controls.

2.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(5): 815-826, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071551

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of death globally. Integrin α1 (ITGA1) belongs to integrin family and involves in regulating cell adhesion, invasion, proliferation and tumorigenicity, its expression is up-regulated in various cancers, including CRC. However, the molecular understanding and clinical relevance of ITGA1 in the development and progression of CRC remain unclear. In the present study, we detected ITGA1 in 50 CRC tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues, sera from 100 CRC patients and 50 healthy subjects, and four CRC cell lines using immunohistochemistry staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. We found that the ITGA1 protein was significantly higher in human CRC tissues and cell lines than both paired non-tumor tissues and normal cells, respectively. In addition, the serum concentration of ITGA1 was also higher in CRC patients compared to the healthy subjects (p<0.01) and was significantly associated with metastatic TNM stages (p<0.0001) and circulating carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) (p<0.022). Furthermore, down-regulation of ITGA1 with transfecting LV-shITGA1 inhibited the progressive capacity of cell migration and invasion in CRC SW480 cell line and the tumorgenicity in nude mice. In functional studies, ITGA1 knockdown also inhibited Ras/ERK signaling pathway by decreasing the expression of Ras, p-Erk1/2 and c-Myc in SW480. Contrastly, when evelated expression of ITGA1 in NCM460 coincided with the increased expression of Ras, p-Erk1/2 and c-Myc. Taken together, our findings suggest that ITGA1 is an oncogene with a capability to promote CRC cell migration, invasion and tumorigenicity by activating the Ras/Erk signaling, implying that it may be a novel target for the diagnosis and treatment of CRC, and warrants further investigation.

3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(5): 535-549, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few effective tools to predict survival in patients with invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas. AIM: To develop comprehensive nomograms to individually estimate the survival outcome of patients with invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas. METHODS: Data of 1219 patients with invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms after resection were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, and randomly divided into the training (n = 853) and the validation (n = 366) cohorts. Based on the Cox regression model, nomograms were constructed to predict overall survival and cancer-specific survival for an individual patient. The performance of the nomograms was measured according to discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility. Moreover, we compared the predictive accuracy of the nomograms with that of the traditional staging system. RESULTS: In the training cohort, age, marital status, histological type, T stage, N stage, M stage, and chemotherapy were selected to construct nomograms. Compared with the American Joint Committee on Cancer 7th staging system, the nomograms were generally more discriminative. The nomograms passed the calibration steps by showing high consistency between actual probability and nomogram prediction. Categorial net classification improvements and integrated discrimination improvements suggested that the predictive accuracy of the nomograms exceeded that of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. With respect to decision curve analyses, the nomograms exhibited more preferable net benefit gains than the staging system across a wide range of threshold probabilities. CONCLUSION: The nomograms show improved predictive accuracy, discrimination capability, and clinical utility, which can be used as reliable tools for risk classification and treatment recommendations.

4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 129-138, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957389

RESUMO

We examined the effects of a combination of slow-release urea (PCU) and common urea (PU) applied at different soil depths (0-30 cm soil layer) on inorganic nitrogen content, enzyme activity, and crop yield during two years (2017-2018) in a field experiment. There were eight treatments: CK (without N fertilizer); PU1(common urea applied at 5-10 cm deep soil layer); PU2(common urea applied at 5-10 cm deep soil layer, 60% seed fertilizer + 40% topdressing); PU3(20% common urea at 5-10 cm soil depth, 30% common urea at 15-20 cm soil depth, 50% common urea at 25-30 cm soil depth); PCU1(20% total nitrogen application rate at 5-10 cm soil depth, 30% total nitrogen application rate at 15-20 cm soil depth, 50% total nitrogen application rate at 25-30 cm soil depth), the N fertilizer at 5-10 cm was common urea, but, at 15-20 and 25-30 cm, it was a combination of PCU and PU at ratios of 3:7 and 3:7; PCU2 was as PCU1 but the ratio of PCU and PU was 5:5 at 15-20 cm and 5:5 at 25-30 cm; in PCU3, the ratio of PCU and PU was 3:7 at 15-20 cm and 5:5 at 25-30 cm; in PCU4, the ratio of PCU and PU was 5:5 at 15-20 cm and 3:7 at 25-30 cm. The results showed that PU1 could meet nitrogen demand at the 0-10 cm layer in the early growth stage compared with CK. PU2 and PU3 could meet nitrogen demand for 10-30 cm soil layer in the early stage of maize development. The combined application of slow release urea and common urea could meet nitrogen demand for the whole growth period of maize. In the filling and maturing period, combined application of slow release and common urea significantly increased not only NO3--N, NH4+-N, and alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen contents but also urease and protease activities in the 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm soil layers compared with PU1-PU3. Compared with PU3, maize yield increased by 2.3%-24.6% and 1.3%-16.5% in the PCU1-PCU4 treatments in 2017 and 2018, respectively. PCU4 had the highest yield, with 13899 and 12439 kg·hm-2, respectively. Therefore, the combined application of slow-release and common urea at different soil layers could meet nitrogen demand in the early growth stage of maize and increase the content of inorganic nitrogen and enzyme activities in the 10-30 cm soil layers in the later growth period, which promoted the growth and increased the yield of maize. Among all the treatments PCU4 treatment was the most effective.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Solo , Agricultura , Fertilizantes , Ureia , Zea mays
5.
Oral Dis ; 26(1): 122-130, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We determined the bacterial community structure of the buccal mucosa in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and evaluated the potential association of Fusobacterium nucleatum with OLP. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We collected buccal mucosal swab samples of patients with OLP (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 10) and performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing and real-time PCR to determine potentially different bacteria. Damaged and adjacent non-damaged mucosal swab samples of 25 OLP patients were used to detect the amount of F. nucleatum by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, enrichment of Fusobacterium and Granulicatella was more abundant in patients with OLP (p = .0146 and 0.0034). The abundance of Fusobacterium and F. nucleatum was significantly enriched on buccal mucosa of patients with OLP compared with healthy controls (p = .0043 and 0.0235). Compared with adjacent non-damaged buccal mucosa of OLP patients, the amount of F. nucleatum in the damaged mucosa was significantly increased (p = .001). We examined third-level KEGG pathways for bacteria on mucosal surface and found that genes controlling sporulation and ether lipid metabolism were enriched in patients with OLP. CONCLUSIONS: A high amount of F. nucleatum may be associated with OLP. Further studies are required to investigate the precise association of F. nucleatum with OLP.


Assuntos
Fusobacterium nucleatum/isolamento & purificação , Líquen Plano Bucal/microbiologia , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
6.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 26(2): 197-206, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231983

RESUMO

AIMS: Functional brain abnormalities, including altered cerebral perfusion and functional connectivities, have been illustrated in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (aADHD). The present study attempted to explore the alterations of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) simultaneously to understand the neural mechanisms for adults with ADHD comprehensively. METHODS: Resting-state arterial spin labeling (ASL) and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were acquired for 69 male aADHD and 69 matched healthy controls (HCs). The altered CBFs associated with aADHD were explored based on both categorical (aADHD vs HCs) and dimensional (correlation with aADHD core symptoms) perspectives. Then, the seed-based RSFC analyses were developed for the regions showing significant alterations of CBF. RESULTS: Significantly decreased CBF in the large-scale resting-state networks regions (eg, ventral attentional network, somatomotor network, limbic network) and subcortical regions was indicated in aADHD compared with HCs. The correlation analyses indicated that the hypoperfusion in left putamen/global pallidum and left amygdala/hippocampus was correlated with ADHD inattentive and total symptoms, respectively. Further, weaker negative functional connectivity between left amygdala and bilateral supplementary motor area, bilateral superior frontal gyrus, and left medial frontal gyrus was found in adults with ADHD. CONCLUSION: The present findings suggested alterations of both cerebral perfusion and functional connectivity for the left amygdala in aADHD. The combination of CBF and RSFCs may help to interpret the neuropathogenesis of ADHD more comprehensively.

7.
Insect Sci ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617302

RESUMO

Wolbachia are Gram-negative endosymbionts that are known to cause embryonic lethality when infected male insects mate with uninfected females or with females carrying a different strain of Wolbachia, a situation characterized as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). However, the mechanism of CI is not yet fully understood, although recent studies on Drosophila melanogaster have achieved great progress. Here, we found that Wolbachia infection caused changes in the expressions of several immunity-related genes, including significant upregulation of kenny (key), in the testes of D. melanogaster. Overexpression of key in fly testes led to a significant decrease in egg hatch rates when these flies mate with wild-type females. Wolbachia-infected females could rescue this embryonic lethality. Furthermore, in key overexpressing testes terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling signal was significantly stronger than in the control testes, and the level of reactive oxygen species was significantly increased. Overexpression of key also resulted in alterations of some other immunity-related gene expressions, including the downregulation of Zn72D. Knockdown of Zn72D in fly testes also led to a significant decrease in egg hatch rates. These results suggest that Wolbachia might induce the defect in male host fertility by immunity-related pathways and thus cause an oxidative damage and cell death in male testes.

8.
Phys Rev E ; 100(3-1): 033214, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640078

RESUMO

Extensive quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations are performed to determine the equation of state, sound velocity, and phase diagram of middle-Z krypton in a warm dense regime where the pressure (P) is up to 300 GPa and the temperature is up to 60 kK. The shock wave experimental data are used to validate the present theoretical models. It is found that, within the regime of the current density (ρ) and temperature (T), sound velocity can effectively discriminate differences between different theoretical models, and therefore it is more suitable as a benchmark to verify the practicability of models. The QMD-simulated results of the ionic structures and electronic properties imply the occurrence of two kinds of phase transitions, including transition from a solidlike to fluid state and that from an insulator to conductive fluid in this T-P regime. The calculated electrical conductivities confirm that the metallization transition occurs at about 60 GPa and 17.5 kK along the principal Hugoniot. With the help of simulation results and experimental data, a comprehensive phase diagram for krypton is constructed by using the solid-fluid and insulator-metal fluid phase boundaries, which fills the gap of the experimental work [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 7925 (2015)PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1421801112]. These results will provide an instructive basis for the experimental investigations of rare gases over a wide T-P range.

9.
Glia ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626364

RESUMO

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a type III intermediate filament, is a marker of mature astrocytes. The expression of GFAP gene is regulated by many transcription factors (TFs), mainly Janus kinase-2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 cascade and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell signaling. GFAP expression is also modulated by protein kinase and other signaling molecules that are elicited by neuronal activity and hormones. Abnormal expression of GFAP proteins occurs in neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, brain edema-eliciting diseases, traumatic brain injury, psychiatric disorders and others. GFAP, mainly in α-isoform, is the major component of cytoskeleton and the scaffold of astrocytes, which is essential for the maintenance of astrocytic structure and shape. GFAP also has highly morphological plasticity because of its quick changes in assembling and polymerizing states in response to environmental challenges. This plasticity and its corresponding cellular morphological changes endow astrocytes the functions of physical barrier between adjacent neurons and stabilizer of extracellular environment. Moreover, GFAP colocalizes and even molecularly associates with many functional molecules. This feature allows GFAP to function as a platform for direct interactions between different molecules. Last, GFAP involves transportation and localization of other functional proteins and thus serves as a protein transport guide in astrocytes. This guiding role of GFAP involves an elastic retraction and extension cytoskeletal network that couples with GFAP reassembling, transporting, and membrane protein recycling machinery. This paper reviews our current understanding of the expression and functions of GFAP as well as their regulation.

10.
Insect Sci ; 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631529

RESUMO

As one of the most successful intracellular symbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia can infect many arthropods and nematodes. Wolbachia infection usually affects the reproduction of their hosts to promote their own proliferation and transmission. Currently, most of the studies focus on the mechanisms of Wolbachia interactions with host reproduction. However, in addition to distribution in the reproductive tissues, Wolbachia also infect various somatic tissues of their hosts, including the brain. This raises the potential that Wolbachia may influence some somatic processes, such as behaviors in their hosts. So far, information about the effects of Wolbachia infection on host behavior is still very limited. The present review presents the current literature on different aspects of the influence of Wolbachia on various behaviors, including sleep, learning and memory, mating, feeding and aggression in their insect hosts. We then highlight ongoing scientific efforts in the field that need addressing to advance this field, which can have significant implications for further developing Wolbachia as environmentally friendly biocontrol agents to control insect-borne diseases and agricultural pests.

11.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 692, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611824

RESUMO

Many studies have shown abnormal functional connectivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). However, few studies illustrated that to what extent these findings were consistent across different datasets. The present study aimed to assess the consistency of abnormal functional connectivity in children with ADHD across the four datasets from a public-assess rs-fMRI ADHD cohort, namely, ADHD-200. We employed the identical analysis process of previous studies and examined a few factors, including connectivity with the seed regions of the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral middle frontal gyrus; connectivity between default mode network and executive control network; stringent and lenient statistical thresholds; and the ADHD subtypes. Our results revealed a high inconsistency of abnormal seed-based connectivity in children with ADHD across all datasets, even across three datasets from the same research site. This inconsistency could also be observed with a lenient statistical threshold. Besides, each dataset did not show abnormal connectivity between default mode network and executive control network for ADHD, albeit this abnormal connectivity between networks was intensively reported in previous studies. Importantly, the ADHD combined subtype showed greater consistency than did the inattention subtype. These findings provided methodological insights into the studies on spontaneous brain activity of ADHD, and the ADHD subtypes deserve more attention in future studies.

12.
J Insect Physiol ; 118: 103938, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491378

RESUMO

Wolbachia is a genus of endosymbiotic bacteria that induce a wide range of effects on their insect hosts. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common phenotype mediated by Wolbachia and results in embryonic lethality when Wolbachia-infected males mate with uninfected females. Studies have revealed that bacteria can regulate many cellular processes in their hosts using small non-coding RNAs, so we investigated the involvement of small RNAs (sRNAs) in CI. Comparison of sRNA libraries between Wolbachia-infected and uninfected Drosophila melanogaster testes revealed 18 novel microRNAs (miRNAs), of which 12 were expressed specifically in Wolbachia-infected flies and one specifically in Wolbachia-uninfected flies. Furthermore, ten miRNAs showed differential expression, with four upregulated and six downregulated in Wolbachia-infected flies. Of the upregulated miRNAs, nov-miR-12 exhibited the highest upregulation in the testes of D. melanogaster. We then identified pipsqueak (psq) as the target gene of nov-miR-12 with the greatest complementarity in its 3' untranslated region (UTR). Wolbachia infection was correlated with reduced psq expression in D. melanogaster, and luciferase assays demonstrated that nov-miR-12 could downregulate psq through binding to its 3'UTR region. Knockdown of psq in Wolbachia-free fly testes significantly reduced egg hatching rate and mimicked the cellular abnormalities of Wolbachia-induced CI in embryos, including asynchronous nuclear division, chromatin bridging, and chromatin fragmentation. These results suggest that Wolbachia may induce CI in insect hosts by miRNA-mediated changes in host gene expression. Moreover, these findings reveal a potential molecular strategy for elucidating the complex interactions between endosymbionts and their insect hosts, such as Wolbachia-driven CI.

13.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 102(4): e21612, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482645

RESUMO

Zn72D encodes the Drosophila zinc finger protein Zn72D. It was first identified to be involved in phagocytosis and indicated to have a role in immunity. Then it was demonstrated to have a function in RNA splicing and dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we discovered a new function of Zn72D in male fertility. We showed that knockdown of Zn72D in fly testes caused an extremely low egg hatch rate. Immunofluorescence staining of Zn72D knockdown testes exhibited scattered spermatid nuclei and no actin cones or individualization complexes (ICs) during spermiogenesis, whereas the early-stage germ cells and the spermatocytes were observed clearly. There were no mature sperms in the seminal vesicles of Zn72D knockdown fly testes, although a few sperms could be found close to the seminal vesicle. We further showed that many cytoskeleton-related genes were significantly downregulated in fly testes due to Zn72D knockdown. Taken together these findings suggest that Zn72D may have an important function in spermatogenesis by sustaining the cytoskeleton-based morphogenesis and individualization thus ensuring the proper formation of sperm in D. melanogaster.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Espermatogênese/genética , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Ovário/metabolismo , Testículo/citologia , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/metabolismo
14.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 82(11): 845-848, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian stimulation with clomiphene (CC) or progestin has been applied for patients with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). However, it remains unclear which treatment confers greater benefits. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) protocol vs CC-primed ovarian stimulation (CPOS) in infertile women with DOR. METHODS: A before-and-after self-controlled study was conducted to retrospectively investigate the data from 50 infertile women with DOR, who failed to conceive in their first in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-frozen embryo transfer cycle when stimulated with CPOS, and switched to PPOS, in the Reproductive Medicine Center of Changzhou Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital. RESULTS: Our results showed that PPOS significantly suppressed the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and yielded more satisfactory results in patients with DOR, including increased number of retrieved oocytes, MII mature oocytes, normal fertilized oocytes, cleaved embryos, high-grade embryos, cryopreserved embryos, pregnancy rate, live-birth rate, and decreased miscarriage rates. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that compared with CPOS protocol, PPOS protocol could not only suppress the LH surge but also improved the quantity, particularly the quality of oocytes in patients with DOR, suggesting that PPOS treatment is more effective than CPOS for patients with DOR.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467576

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule (DJC) on the proliferation and apoptosis functions of NIT-1 pancreatic ß-cells exposed to high-glucose load through GLP-1 activated Akt/ FoxO1 signaling pathway. Methods: Cellular apoptosis of NIT-1 pancreatic ß-cells was induced by culturing in medium with 33.3mmol/L high glucose (HG). Then low-dose DJC (HG +LD), high-dose DJC (HG +HD), high-dose DJC+ GLP-1 inhibition (HG +HD +GI), and high-dose DJC+AKT inhibition (HG +HD+AI) were added, respectively. Cellular proliferation was accessed by cell counting kit (CCK-8) and cellular apoptosis was measured by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The protein levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (p-PI3K), phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), phosphorylated Forkhead box protein O1 (p-FoxO1), and cleaved caspase-3 were detected by Western blotting. The mRNA expression of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1), CyclinD1, Bcl-2, and insulin was tested by Q-PCR. Results: Comparing to HG group, (HG+HD) group showed a significantly increased cellular proliferation. The apoptosis of NIT-1 cells also was obviously reduced, with downregulated cleaved caspase-3 protein level and upregulated PDX-1, CyclinD1, and Bcl-2 mRNA levels (P<0.05). Additionally, (HG+HD) group manifested increased insulin mRNA expression; the protein levels of p-PI3K and p-AKT were markedly increased and p-FoxO1 was decreased. All of the above therapeutic effects by DJC intervention had been reversed by GLP-1 inhibition in (HG+HD+GI) group or AKT inhibition in (HG+HD+AI) group. Conclusion: DJC was able to attenuate the toxicity of high-glucose load in NIT-1 pancreatic ß-cells, ascribed to the improvement of cellular proliferation and apoptosis by GLP-1/Akt signaling pathway. This study could supply a new mechanism of DJC effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment.

17.
Psychiatry Res ; 279: 23-33, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280035

RESUMO

The study aimed to explore whether cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) combined with medication is superior to CBT alone in core symptoms, emotional symptoms, self-esteem as well as social and cognitive functions of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. Samples from a previous RCT study and outpatient participants were all included. A total of 124 patients received 12 weeks of manualized CBT sessions, either with (n = 57) or without (n = 67) medication. Efficacy variables were evaluated at baseline and each week. Mixed linear models (MLM) were used to compare differences between the two groups in all of the above domains. Within-group comparisons showed that both groups had robust improvements in core ADHD symptoms, emotional symptoms and social functional outcomes. The CBT + M group presented more domains of improvement in executive functions than the CBT group. However, comparisons between groups didn't indicate the superiority of CBT + M in core symptoms, emotional symptoms and self-esteem. Instead, the CBT group showed a greater improvement in the physical domain of the WHOQOL-BREF than the CBT + M group. This study further indicated that CBT is an effective treatment for adults with ADHD. A combination of CBT and medication presented broader improvements in executive functions, but not in clinical symptoms, than CBT alone.

18.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 608, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common phenotype induced by endosymbiont Wolbachia and results in embryonic lethality when Wolbachia-modified sperm fertilize eggs without Wolbachia. However, eggs carrying the same strain of Wolbachia can rescue this embryonic death, thus producing viable Wolbachia-infected offspring. Hence Wolbachia can be transmitted mainly by hosts' eggs. One of the models explaining CI is "titration-restitution", which hypothesized that Wolbachia titrated-out some factors from the sperm and the Wolbachia in the egg would restitute the factors after fertilization. However, how infected eggs rescue CI and how hosts' eggs ensure the proliferation and transmission of Wolbachia are not well understood. RESULTS: By RNA-seq analyses, we first compared the transcription profiles of Drosophila melanogaster adult ovaries with and without the wMel Wolbachia and identified 149 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 116 genes were upregulated and 33 were downregulated by Wolbachia infection. To confirm the results obtained from RNA-seq and to screen genes potentially associated with reproduction, 15 DEGs were selected for quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Thirteen genes showed the same changing trend as RNA-seq analyses. To test whether these genes are associated with CI, we also detected their expression levels in testes. Nine of them exhibited different changing trends in testes from those in ovaries. To investigate how these DEGs were regulated, sRNA sequencing was performed and identified seven microRNAs (miRNAs) that were all upregulated in fly ovaries by Wolbachia infection. Matching of miRNA and mRNA data showed that these seven miRNAs regulated 15 DEGs. Wolbachia-responsive genes in fly ovaries were involved in biological processes including metabolism, transportation, oxidation-reduction, immunity, and development. CONCLUSIONS: Comparisons of mRNA and miRNA data from fly ovaries revealed 149 mRNAs and seven miRNAs that exhibit significant changes in expression due to Wolbachia infection. Notably, most of the DEGs showed variation in opposite directions in ovaries versus testes in the presence of Wolbachia, which generally supports the "titration-restitution" model for CI. Furthermore, genes related to metabolism were upregulated, which may benefit maximum proliferation and transmission of Wolbachia. This provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of Wolbachia-induced CI and Wolbachia dependence on host ovaries.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia , Ovário/microbiologia , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Animais , Citosol , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes de Insetos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Testículo/microbiologia , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima
19.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 454, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178679

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cardiovascular disease responsible for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The major pathophysiological basis of CAD is atherosclerosis in association with varieties of immunometabolic disorders that can suppress oxytocin (OT) receptor (OTR) signaling in the cardiovascular system (CVS). By contrast, OT not only maintains cardiovascular integrity but also has the potential to suppress and even reverse atherosclerotic alterations and CAD. These protective effects of OT are associated with its protection of the heart and blood vessels from immunometabolic injuries and the resultant inflammation and apoptosis through both peripheral and central approaches. As a result, OT can decelerate the progression of atherosclerosis and facilitate the recovery of CVS from these injuries. At the cellular level, the protective effect of OT on CVS involves a broad array of OTR signaling events. These signals mainly belong to the reperfusion injury salvage kinase pathway that is composed of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-endothelial nitric oxide synthase cascades and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2. Additionally, AMP-activated protein kinase, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase signaling and many others are also implicated in OTR signaling in the CVS protection. These signaling events interact coordinately at many levels to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of apoptotic pathways. A particular target of these signaling events is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial oxidative stress that interact through mitochondria-associated ER membrane. In contrast to these protective effects and machineries, rare but serious cardiovascular disturbances were also reported in labor induction and animal studies including hypotension, reflexive tachycardia, coronary spasm or thrombosis and allergy. Here, we review our current understanding of the protective effect of OT against varieties of atherosclerotic etiologies as well as the approaches and underlying mechanisms of these effects. Moreover, potential cardiovascular disturbances following OT application are also discussed to avoid unwanted effects in clinical trials of OT usages.

20.
Neuroimage Clin ; 23: 101851, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Neuroimaging studies have independently demonstrated brain anatomical and functional impairments in participants with ADHD. The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between structural and functional brain alterations in ADHD through an integrated analysis of multimodal neuroimaging data. METHODS: We performed a multimodal analysis to integrate resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), structural MRI, and diffusion-weighted imaging data in a large, single-site sample of children with and without diagnosis for ADHD. The inferred subject contributions were fed into regression models to investigate the relationships between diagnosis, symptom severity, gender, and age. RESULTS: Compared with controls, children with ADHD diagnosis showed altered white matter microstructure in widespread white matter fiber tracts as well as greater gray matter volume (GMV) in bilateral frontal regions, smaller GMV in posterior regions, and altered functional connectivity (FC) in default mode and fronto-parietal networks. Age-related growth of GMV of bilateral occipital lobe, FC in frontal regions as well as age-related decline of GMV in medial regions seen in controls appeared reversed in children with ADHD. In the whole group, higher symptom severity was related to smaller GMV in widespread regions in bilateral frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes, as well as greater GMV in intracalcarine and temporal cortices. CONCLUSIONS: Through a multimodal analysis approach we show that structural and functional alterations in brain regions known to be altered in subjects with ADHD from unimodal studies are linked across modalities. The brain alterations were related to clinical features of ADHD, including disorder status, age, and symptom severity.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA