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1.
J Virol ; 93(20)2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375578

RESUMO

Avian reovirus (ARV) p17 protein continuously shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm via transcription-dependent and chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-independent mechanisms. Nevertheless, whether cellular proteins modulate nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of p17 remains unknown. This is the first report that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 serves as a carrier protein to modulate nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of p17. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that direct interaction of p17 with hnRNP A1 maps within the amino terminus (amino acids [aa] 19 to 40) of p17 and the Gly-rich region of the C terminus of hnRNP A1. Furthermore, our results reveal that the formation of p17-hnRNP A1-transportin 1 carrier-cargo complex is required to modulate p17 nuclear import. Utilizing sequence and mutagenesis analyses, we have identified nuclear export signal (NES) 19LSLRELAI26 of p17. Mutations of these residues causes a nuclear retention of p17. In this work, we uncovered that the N-terminal 21 amino acids (aa 19 to 40) of p17 that comprise the NES can modulate both p17 and hnRNP A1 interaction and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of p17. In this work, the interaction site of p17 with lamin A/C was mapped within the amino terminus (aa 41 to 60) of p17 and p17 colocalized with lamin A/C at the nuclear envelope. Knockdown of hnRNP A1 or lamin A/C led to inhibition of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of p17 and reduced virus yield. Collectively, the results of this study provide mechanistic insights into hnRNP A1 and lamin A/C-modulated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the ARV p17 protein.IMPORTANCE Avian reoviruses (ARVs) cause considerable economic losses in the poultry industry. The ARV p17 protein continuously shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm to regulate several cellular signaling pathways and interacts with several cellular proteins to cause translation shutoff, cell cycle arrest, and autophagosome formation, all of which enhance virus replication. To date the mechanisms underlying nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of p17 remain largely unknown. Here we report that hnRNP A1 and lamin A/C serve as carrier and mediator proteins to modulate nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of p17. The formation of p17-hnRNP A1-transportin 1 carrier-cargo complex is required to modulate p17 nuclear import. Furthermore, we have identified an NES-containing nucleocytoplasmic shuttling domain (aa 19 to 40) of p17 that is critical for binding to hnRNP A1 and for nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of p17. This study provides novel insights into how hnRNP A1 and lamin A/C modulate nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the ARV p17 protein.

2.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 25(9): 1030-1041, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218845

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: L-glutamine is an antioxidant that plays a role in a variety of biochemical processes. Given that oxidative stress is a key component of stroke pathology, the potential of L-glutamine in the treatment of ischemic stroke is worth exploring. AIMS: In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanisms of action of L-glutamine after cerebral ischemic injury. RESULTS: L-glutamine reduced brain infarct volume and promoted neurobehavioral recovery in mice. L-glutamine administration increased the expression of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) in astrocytes and endothelial cells. Such effects were abolished by the coadministration of Apoptozole, an inhibitor of the ATPase activity of HSP70. L-glutamine also reduced oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis, and increased the level of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Cotreatment with Apoptozole abolished these effects. Cell culture study further revealed that the conditioned medium from astrocytes cultured with L-glutamine reduced the apoptosis of neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation. CONCLUSION: L-glutamine attenuated ischemic brain injury and promoted functional recovery via HSP70, suggesting its potential in ischemic stroke therapy.

3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 6126808, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854398

RESUMO

Background: Acne is not only a skin condition but also a cardinal component of many systemic diseases or syndromes. This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of acne in reproductive-age women in Sichuan province, China, and to evaluate acne as a skin problem alone or a symptom of gynecological/endocrinological disease. Methods: From October 2008 to September 2009, 1043 reproductive-age women from 19 to 45 years of age from seven communities of three districts in Sichuan province completed a standardized questionnaire and a physical examination. Acne was classified using the Pillsbury scale, and hirsutism was assessed using a modified Ferriman-Gallwey method. Diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was based on the 2003 Rotterdam criteria. Some endocrine and metabolic markers were detected for the women diagnosed with PCOS related to acne and the control group. Results: The prevalence of acne was 32.5%, and the highest prevalence (9.6%) was seen in the 19-24-year-old age group. Prevalence among women eating dessert frequently, exercising seldom, or among sedentary workers was significantly higher in the acne group (14.1%, 55.6%, and 51.3%, respectively) than in the nonacne group (10.8%, 45.7%, and 35.5%; all P<0.05). The prevalence of oligomenorrhea and hirsutism in the acne group (17.6%, 24.7%) was significantly higher than in the nonacne group (8.6%, 15.1%; both P<0.05). Among the participants with acne, 64.3% had acne alone, 18.3% were diagnosed with hyperandrogenism, and 17.4% were diagnosed with PCOS. The level of serum androstendione in the group of PCOS (10.98±3.12 nmol/L) was significantly higher than that in the control group (8.85±3.09nmol/L) (P<0.05). Conclusion: When reproductive-age women with acne are encountered in gynecology-endocrinology or dermatology clinics, physicians should consider evaluating them from PCOS, hyperandrogenism, or acne alone.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/diagnóstico , Hirsutismo/diagnóstico , Hiperandrogenismo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Acne Vulgar/complicações , Acne Vulgar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Hirsutismo/complicações , Hirsutismo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hiperandrogenismo/complicações , Hiperandrogenismo/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligomenorreia/complicações , Oligomenorreia/diagnóstico , Oligomenorreia/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Anormalidades da Pele/complicações , Anormalidades da Pele/diagnóstico , Anormalidades da Pele/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 25(6): 748-758, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784219

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dl-3-N-butylphthalide (NBP), a small molecule drug used clinically in the acute phase of ischemic stroke, has been shown to improve functional recovery and promote angiogenesis and collateral vessel circulation after experimental cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. AIMS: To explore the potential molecular mechanism of angiogenesis induced by NBP after cerebral ischemia. RESULTS: NBP treatment attenuated body weight loss, reduced brain infarct volume, and improved neurobehavioral outcomes during focal ischemia compared to the control rats (P < 0.05). NBP increased the number of CD31+ microvessels, the number of CD31+ /BrdU+ proliferating endothelial cells, and the functional vascular density (P < 0.05). Further study demonstrated that NBP also promoted the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 (P < 0.05), which was accompanied by upregulated sonic hedgehog expression in astrocytes in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSION: NBP treatment promoted the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1, induced angiogenesis, and improved neurobehavioral recovery. These effects were associated with increased sonic hedgehog expression after NBP treatment. Our results broadened the clinical application of NBP to include the later phase of ischemia.

5.
Neural Regen Res ; 14(3): 462-469, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539814

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia activates an endogenous repair program that induces plastic changes in neurons. In this study, we investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on spatial learning and memory as well as on synaptic remodeling in a mouse model of chronic cerebral ischemia, produced by subjecting adult male C57BL/6 mice to permanent left middle cerebral artery occlusion. Three days postoperatively, mice were randomly assigned to the environmental enrichment and standard housing groups. Mice in the standard housing group were housed and fed a standard diet. Mice in the environmental enrichment group were housed in a cage with various toys and fed a standard diet. Then, 28 days postoperatively, spatial learning and memory were tested using the Morris water maze. The expression levels of growth-associated protein 43, synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 in the hippocampus were analyzed by western blot assay. The number of synapses was evaluated by electron microscopy. In the water maze test, mice in the environmental enrichment group had a shorter escape latency, traveled markedly longer distances, spent more time in the correct quadrant (northeast zone), and had a higher frequency of crossings compared with the standard housing group. The expression levels of growth-associated protein 43, synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 were substantially upregulated in the hippocampus in the environmental enrichment group compared with the standard housing group. Furthermore, electron microscopy revealed that environmental enrichment increased the number of synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region. Collectively, these findings suggest that environmental enrichment ameliorates the spatial learning and memory impairment induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Environmental enrichment in mice with cerebral ischemia likely promotes cognitive recovery by inducing plastic changes in synapses.

6.
Proteomics ; 17(9)2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28230319

RESUMO

Macroporous cryogels were prepared and used to deplete abundant proteins. It was accomplished based on the sample heterogeneity rather than any exogenous assistance. Human serum was added in monomer solutions to synthesize molecularly imprinted polymers; therein some abundant proteins were imprinted in the polyacrylamide cryogels. Meanwhile the rare components remained aqueous. Chromatography and electrophoresis showed that albumin, serotransferrin, and most globulins were depleted by columns packed with the molecularly imprinted polymers. After the depletion, lower abundance proteins were revealed by SDS-PAGE, peptide fingerprint analysis, and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. This is an example that a "per se imprint" protocol enables to gradually dimidiate proteomes, simplify sample complexities, and facilitate further proteome profiling or biomarker discovery.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/química , Proteínas Sanguíneas/isolamento & purificação , Criogéis/química , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Polímeros/química , Soro/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular
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