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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18726, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822749

RESUMO

Depressed individuals are biased to perceive, interpret, and judge ambiguous cues in a negative/pessimistic manner. Depressed mood can induce and exacerbate these biases, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We theorize that depressed mood can bias ambiguity processing by altering one's subjective emotional feelings (e.g. pleasantness/unpleasantness) of the cues. This is because when there is limited objective information, individuals often rely on subjective feelings as a source of information for cognitive processing. To test this theory, three groups (induced depression vs. spontaneous depression vs. neutral) were tested in the Judgement Bias Task (JBT), a behavioral assay of ambiguity processing bias. Subjective pleasantness/unpleasantness of cues was measured by facial electromyography (EMG) from the zygomaticus major (ZM, "smiling") and from the corrugator supercilii (CS, "frowning") muscles. As predicted, induced sad mood (vs. neutral mood) yielded a negative bias with a magnitude comparable to that in a spontaneous depressed mood. The facial EMG data indicates that the negative judgement bias induced by depressed mood was associated with a decrease in ZM reactivity (i.e., diminished perceived pleasantness of cues). Our results suggest that depressed mood may bias ambiguity processing by affecting the reward system.

2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(9): 3973-3981, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854859

RESUMO

Nitrous acid (HONO) is easily photolyzed with the production of·OH, which plays an important role in the formation of regional secondary pollution. In China, research of HONO observation is concentrated mainly in urban areas and is rarely reported in rural areas. In our study, a one-month HONO field observation was conducted at the Station of Rural Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Dongbaituo Village, Wangdu County, Hebei Province) in November 2017 using the long path absorption photo meter (LOPAP). The concentration, variety characteristics, and budget of HONO was studied. During the observation period, HONO exhibited pronounced diurnal variation with low concentrations in the day and high concentration in the evening. The highest concentration at night was about 3.70×10-9, and the lowest concentration at noon was about 0.10×10-9, indicating the presence of a strong source of HONO in rural areas. The CO concentration increased significantly before and after heating, whereas the HONO concentration did not change significantly, indicating that heating combustion contributed less to HONO, Direct emission of motor vehicles at night contributed 23.20% and 31.20% to HONO in polluted and clean weather conditions, respectively, indicating the presence of strong sources of HONO in polluted weather conditions. The average formation rate of HONO at night from homogeneous reaction of·OH and NO could reach 0.40×10-9 h-1, which is 0.67 times higher than that of heterogeneous reaction of NO2 (0.24×10-9 h-1), indicating that the homogeneous reaction of·OH and NO is the main source of HONO at night. HONO has a strong unknown source in the daytime with an intensity reaching 1.37×10-9 h-1, which contributes about 50% to HONO.

3.
Sci Rep ; 5: 16988, 2015 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26647740

RESUMO

Facial mimicry has been suggested to be a behavioral index for emotional empathy. The present study is the first to investigate the link between facial muscle activity and empathy for pain by facial electromyographic (EMG) recording while observers watched videos depicting real-life painful events. Three types of visual stimulus were used: an intact painful scene and arm-only (needle injection) and face only (painful expression) scenes. Enhanced EMG activity of the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles was found when observers viewed others in pain, supporting a unique pain expression that is distinct from the expression of basic emotions. In the intact video stimulus condition, CS activity was correlated positively with the empathic concern score and ZM activity, suggesting facial mimicry mediated empathy for pain. Cluster analysis of facial EMG responses revealed markedly different patterns among stimulus types, including response category, ratio, and temporal dynamics, indicating greater ecological validity of the intact scene in eliciting pain empathy as compared with partial scenes. This study is the first to quantitatively describe pain empathy in terms of facial EMG data. It may provide important evidence for facial mimicry as a behavioral indicator of pain empathy.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Emoções , Empatia , Expressão Facial , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Dor/psicologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Diabetes ; 4(2): 140-6, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22078109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to examine abnormalities in the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and related risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Between September 2003 and June 2010, the ABI was determined in 3924 outpatients attending the Diabetes Center of the People's Liberation Army 306th Hospital. In addition, demographic and laboratory data were collected. The risk factors for an abnormal ABI were determined using univariate and stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The ABI was normal (0.91-1.3) in 93.1% of patients, low (<0.9) in 5.2%, and high (>1.3) in 1.7%. The prevalence of abnormal lower ABI was greater in elderly (≥ 65 years) patients (12.2%) than in younger (< 65 years) patients (3.6%). Using normal ABI as the reference, low ABI in younger patients was found to be independently associated with HbA1c, the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and cerebrovascular disease. A low ABI in elderly patients was found to be independently associated with age, smoking, HbA1c, uric acid, total cholesterol, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy and cerebrovascular disease. A high ABI in younger patients was associated with being male. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of an abnormal ABI was high in patients with type 2 diabetes, especially elderly patients. Early identification and intensive treatment are needed to improve the quality of life and overall prognosis of patients with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 33(6): 676-80, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18590199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Astragalus mongholicus on renal gene expression profile in mice with diabetic nephropathy by cDNA microarray. METHOD: The mice with diabetic nephropathy were fed A. mongholicus and normal saline respectively. cDNA microarray was used to measure gene expression profile in renal tissue after 12 weeks, and the data were analyzed by bioinformatics. RT-PCR was performed to detect the relative levels of some genes which were randomly selected. RESULT: Eighty eight genes were found differently expressed in two chips. Among these genes, 81 genes were found differently expressed in reverse direction change, 7 genes were found differently expressed in same direction change. The genes altered were mainly related to material metabolism, immunity and inflammatory reaction, signal transduction, translation, transcription, et al. The expressions of genes tested by RT-PCR were in accordance with those detected by cDNA microarray. CONCLUSION: A. mongholicus may play protective roles in diabetic nephropathy through multiple pathways at gene level. The effect of A. mongholicus in genes related to material metabolism is more significant.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/imunologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao ; 22(8): 758-9, 2002 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12376274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of intravenous dexamethasone injections in preventing nausea and vomiting resulted from epidural morphine for post-operation pain relief. METHODS: Eighty-four adult patients (ASA class I to II ) requiring epidural anesthesia for low abdominal surgical procedures were randomly divided into 2 groups, of which Group 1 (n=42) received intravenous dexamethasone injections at 10 mg and Group 2 (n=42) intravenous injection of 2 ml normal saline before administration of 2 mg epidural morphine for post-operation pain relief. The incidence of nausea and vomiting were recorded within 24 h after surgery. RESULTS: The incidence of nausea and vomiting were 12% and 7% in Group 1, while 31% and 21% in Group 2 respectively, showing significant difference between the 2 groups (P<0.05). The total incidence of nausea and vomiting were also significantly different (19% vs 52%, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Intravenous dexamethasone injections at 10 mg can significantly decrease the incidence of epidural morphine-related nausea and vomiting.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Náusea/tratamento farmacológico , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Analgesia Epidural , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Injeções Epidurais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
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