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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 774: 145749, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610981

RESUMO

The study on high-throughput determination covering various kinds of elements and pesticides in surface water is rarely reported. The surface water samples were collected from the Yangtze River, the Qinhuai River and the Xuanwu Lake in Nanjing which is a large and populous city in eastern China, and elementome (47 elements) and pesticide exposome (60 pesticides) were profiled, which were characterized by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis, literature comparison, and risk assessment. A total of 47 elements and 47 pesticides were detectable. By combining the results of univariate and multivariate statistical analysis, we consistently found that the levels of elements in the Qinhuai River were relatively higher than those in the Yangtze River and the Xuanwu Lake, mainly including rare earth elements and macroelements. The concentrations of isoprocarb, profenofos and simazine in the Yangtze River were relatively higher than those in the Qinhuai River and the Xuanwu Lake. Based on literature search and our data, the results about global element and pesticide concentrations in surface water were summarized. The surface water in Nanjing showed notably higher aluminum level when compared to the level around the world. The risk assessment suggested that arsenic posed a considerable carcinogenic risk. This study provided a large volume of first-hand information about the profiles of elements and pesticides in surface water, which can be used for warning of surface water pollution and preventing potential hazardous effect on public health.

2.
Neurol Res ; : 1-10, 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616025

RESUMO

Objectives: The extracellular matrix glycoprotein Reelin plays an important role in the development of the central nervous system and is involved in neurogenesis, neuronal polarization and migration. Although it has been reported that Reelin and its receptor are expressed in oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs), the main functions and possible mechanism of Reelin in OPCs remain unclear. Methods: In this study, immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expressions of A2B5, PDGFRα, Reelin, VLDLR and Dab1 in OPCs. The expression of p-Dab1 in OPCs which was treated with Reelin at different concentrations was assayed by western blot. Effects of Reelin on the proliferation of OPCs was measured by EdU and CCK-8. Annexin V-FITC/PI assayed the effect of Reelin on the apoptosis of OPCs. Effects of Reelin on the migration ability of OPCs were detected by the scratch test and transwell experiments. Immunoblotting was used to measure the activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling with Reelin, while transwell experiments were performed to verify the migration of OPCs under the activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Results: Results showed that the receptor of Reelin, very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), and its adaptor protein, Dab1, are highly expressed in A2B5/PDGFRα double-positive OPCs. Recombinant Reelin protein promoted OPCs migration in vitro but had no obvious effects on proliferation or apoptosis. Reelin also promoted the phosphorylation of Dab1 and increased the expression of ß-catenin in OPCs. WIKI4, an inhibitor of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, suppressed the migration of OPCs induced by Reelin. Conclusion: The present study indicated that Reelin promotes OPCs migration via the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway.

3.
J Biophotonics ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389817

RESUMO

Due to the disruption of intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT), diurnal variation in normal young human corneal elasticity is not clear. Using the custom-built air-puff optical coherence elastography, one eye of twenty-one normal subjects is enrolled randomly to measure the central corneal elasticity, IOP, and CCT in different time points within a day. Based on the multi-level model, the corneal elastic modulus is found to have a linear positive relation with IOP (P<0.01) but not CCT (P=0.175) and time point (P=0.174-0.686). A new indicator, corneal elasticity change rate, is proposed to present the magnitude of corneal elasticity change caused by 1 mmHg IOP, which can correct the interference effect of IOP. The results show that the corneal elasticity in the normal young human doesn't have the characteristics of diurnal variation under IOP control. Furthermore, IOP plays an important role in the corneal elasticity, and corneal elasticity change rate can increase the comparability of results between individuals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245002, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) due to osteoarthritis associated with obesity defined by body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) and whether there is discordance between these measures in assessing this risk. METHODS: 36,784 participants from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study with BMI and WC measured at 1990-1994 were included. Obesity was defined by BMI (≥30 kg/m2) or WC (men ≥102cm, women ≥88cm). The incidence of TKA between January 2001 and December 2018 was determined by linking participant records to the National Joint Replacement Registry. RESULTS: Over 15.4±4.8 years, 2,683 participants underwent TKA. There were 20.4% participants with BMI-defined obesity, 20.8% with WC-defined obesity, and 73.6% without obesity defined by either BMI or WC. Obesity was classified as non-obese (misclassified obesity) in 11.7% of participants if BMI or WC alone was used to define obesity. BMI-defined obesity (HR 2.69, 95%CI 2.48-2.92), WC-defined obesity (HR 2.28, 95%CI 2.10-2.48), and obesity defined by either BMI or WC (HR 2.53, 95%CI 2.33-2.74) were associated with an increased risk of TKA. Compared with those without obesity, participants with misclassified obesity had an increased risk of TKA (HR 2.06, 95%CI 1.85-2.30). 22.7% of TKA in the community can be attributable to BMI-defined obesity, and a further 3.3% of TKA can be identified if WC was also used to define obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Both BMI and WC should be used to identify obese individuals who are at risk of TKA for osteoarthritis and should be targeted for prevention and treatment.

5.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 15, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular Parkinsonism(VaP) is defined as parkinsonism resulting from cerebral vascular disease(CVD), with presence of variable motor and non-motor signs that are corroborated by clinical, anatomic or imaging findings of cerebrovascular disease. Overlapping syndromes with mixed pathologies make VaP difficult to distinguish from primary neurodegenerative parkinsonism.To understand the clinical and pathological features of VaP,we report a case of autopsy confirmed vascular Parkinsonism that was clinical misdiagnosed as idiopathic Parkinson's disease.Clinical features include early mixed symptoms of dementia,behavioral disturbance and parkinsonism that were similar to Dementia with lewy Body(DLB) and Parkinson disease Dementia(PDD). CASE PRESENTATION: A 84-year-old man presented progressive parkinsonism with prominent postural instability, gait impairment, pseudobulbar, early cognitive impairment, irritability, hallucination, urinary symptoms and poor responsiveness to dopaminergic drugs. He was clinically diagnosed as Parkinson disease(PD). In the post-mortem study, we examined Aß and phospho-tau as pathological biomarker for Alzheimer's disease(AD), α-synucleing in medulla, pons and midbrain for PD and DLB. Hematoxylin and eosin staining in cerebral cortex, cerebellum and brainstem examines vascular pathological changes and microvascular lesion.Neither Lewy bodies in the substantia nigra ,locus ceruleus and cerebrumnor accumulation of Aß, neurofibrillary tangles were noted. Instead, there were many cerebral infarctions and widespread arteriosclerosis in the brain. The final brain autopsy supported a diagnosis of VaP not PD. CONCLUSIONS: This case of pathologically confirmed VaP misdiagnosed as idiopathic PD suggested that we must be vigilant about the possibility of VaP for patients with parkinsonisms, cognitive impairments, early behavioral and psychological symptoms,imaging performances of cerebral small vessel disease and other vascular damages.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: College students may have risk of fat-soluble vitamins deficiencies due to unhealthy dietary habits, especially for vitamin A and E. They are important members in the human antioxidant network, deficiencies of these vitamins may increase risk of many critical diseases. OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to determine the status of vitamin A and E in college students. METHODS: Healthy college students were recruited, and fasting blood samples of them were collected and used for determining serum levels of retinol and α-tocopherol by the HPLC method. RESULTS: We found that there was no vitamin A deficiency in college students. However, vitamin E deficiency existed in 34.5% of college students, especially in males. All the students had no vitamin E adequacy. In addition, our findings showed that BMI was inversely associated with serum α-tocopherol, but not serum retinol. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that vitamin E deficiency in college students should be given more attention, and it is necessary to consider using vitamin E supplements.

7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 11, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with counselling and psychotherapy service use among Chinese sexual minority populations. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional study was performed using snowball sampling method, which led to the inclusion of 18,193 participants. Participants' sociodemographic background, clinical, and psychological data were gathered. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to explore any associated factors. RESULTS: There were 2007 participants who had used counselling and psychotherapy service out of the total population. Among those who had used psychotherapy services, 80.2% participants perceived discrimination, 1.1% reported that they had been refused treatment by a counsellor and/or psychotherapist, 1.6% had experienced verbal harassment, and 8.4% reported that their counsellor and/or psychotherapist lacked knowledge and experience in treating sexual minorities. In addition, regression analyses indicated that those who were divorced/widowed, had religious beliefs, and those who had experienced discrimination, verbal harassment, and rejection for treatment by health professionals all had an increased likelihood of utilising counselling and psychotherapy service. CONCLUSIONS: Service providers and policy makers in China should improve the quality and availability of counselling and psychotherapy services to address the mental health needs of sexual minority populations.

8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(2)2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429947

RESUMO

The plane wave compounding (PWC) is a promising modality to improve the imaging quality and maintain the high frame rate for ultrafast ultrasound imaging. In this paper, a novel beamforming method is proposed to achieve higher resolution and contrast with low complexity. A minimum variance (MV) weight calculated by the partial generalized sidelobe canceler is adopted to beamform the receiving array signals. The dimension reduction technique is introduced to project the data into lower dimensional space, which also contributes to a large subarray length. Estimation of multi-wave receiving covariance matrix is performed and then utilized to determine only one weight. Afterwards, a fast second-order reformulation of the delay multiply and sum (DMAS) is developed as nonlinear compounding to composite the beamforming output of multiple transmissions. Simulations, phantom, in vivo, and robustness experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Compared with the delay and sum (DAS) beamformer, the proposed method achieved 86.3% narrower main lobe width and 112% higher contrast ratio in simulations. The robustness to the channel noise of the proposed method is effectively enhanced at the same time. Furthermore, it maintains a linear computational complexity, which means that it has the potential to be implemented for real-time response.

9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 168: 143-151, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309664

RESUMO

The creation of multi-functional bio-hydrogels with tunable properties that meet in vivo demands is significant but remains challenging. Inspired by host-guest chemistry, a novel multi-functional gelatin-based bio-hydrogel with tunable antibacterial and hemorheological properties (TAH-GEL) is synthesized via an in situ one-pot strategy. TAH-GEL not only exhibits excellent mechanical properties but also shows promising self-healing and bio-compatibility features. For the first time, this biomaterial presents controllable antibacterial and hemorheological properties by controlling the TAH-GEL polypseudorotaxane motif. The resulting bio-hydrogel is easy to prepare and delivers superior performance, making it a powerful tool for bio-applications, such as hemostatic materials.

10.
Med Image Anal ; 67: 101832, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166776

RESUMO

Segmentation of medical images, particularly late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI) used for visualizing diseased atrial structures, is a crucial first step for ablation treatment of atrial fibrillation. However, direct segmentation of LGE-MRIs is challenging due to the varying intensities caused by contrast agents. Since most clinical studies have relied on manual, labor-intensive approaches, automatic methods are of high interest, particularly optimized machine learning approaches. To address this, we organized the 2018 Left Atrium Segmentation Challenge using 154 3D LGE-MRIs, currently the world's largest atrial LGE-MRI dataset, and associated labels of the left atrium segmented by three medical experts, ultimately attracting the participation of 27 international teams. In this paper, extensive analysis of the submitted algorithms using technical and biological metrics was performed by undergoing subgroup analysis and conducting hyper-parameter analysis, offering an overall picture of the major design choices of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and practical considerations for achieving state-of-the-art left atrium segmentation. Results show that the top method achieved a Dice score of 93.2% and a mean surface to surface distance of 0.7 mm, significantly outperforming prior state-of-the-art. Particularly, our analysis demonstrated that double sequentially used CNNs, in which a first CNN is used for automatic region-of-interest localization and a subsequent CNN is used for refined regional segmentation, achieved superior results than traditional methods and machine learning approaches containing single CNNs. This large-scale benchmarking study makes a significant step towards much-improved segmentation methods for atrial LGE-MRIs, and will serve as an important benchmark for evaluating and comparing the future works in the field. Furthermore, the findings from this study can potentially be extended to other imaging datasets and modalities, having an impact on the wider medical imaging community.

11.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 119: 111642, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321680

RESUMO

Owing to the superior photoluminescence property, low toxicity and good biocompatibility, nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) have been regarded as promising nanomaterials for biological applications such as bioimaging. However, many of the preparation methods are complicated, high cost, eco-unfriendly, and with a low product yield. Here, we demonstrate a novel top-down approach for NGQDs preparation, in which the low cost graphite was used as a precursor, ammonium persulfate as an oxidative molecule and nitrogen source, and H2O2 as an oxidative agent, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as a solvent and potential functionalizer. Meanwhile, the solvent extraction was applied for the first time to purify NGQDs. The separated NGQDs display green and blue fluorescence, deriving from the difference sizes and nitrogen doped types. The total product yield of NGQDs is calculated to be about 52%, containing 88% of green-emissive NGQDs and 12% of blue-emissive NGQDs. Meanwhile, our NGQDs own low cytotoxicity, and display a good bioimaging performance in the in vitro and in vivo investigation. The synthesis idea in our work might be also applicable to obtain other kinds of quantum dots from the readily obtainable bulk materials.

12.
Food Chem ; 340: 127944, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889217

RESUMO

Glycoproteins play extraordinary roles in biology and clinic. The specifically sensitive detection of glycoproteins by electrochemical methods is still a challenging task due to their poor electro-activity and sensitive nature to environment. In this work, ovalbumin (OVA), a model glycoprotein, was sensitively detected by a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based electrochemical sensor, which was prepared by electropolymerizing 3-thiophene boric acid in the presence of OVA. Due to boronate affinity, the rebound OVA interacted with ferrocene boric acid (Fc-BA) to construct a sandwich structural sensing platform. Dual-recognition elements, imprinted effect and the boronate affinity, enabled the sensor to recognize OVA from other proteins. The rebinding of OVA caused the current changes of thionine and Fc-BA, which were combined as a dual-signal for OVA sensitive detection with a low limit of detection of 0.82 pg/mL (S/N = 3). The good performances of sensor indicated its potential applications in clinical diagnosis and other related fields.


Assuntos
Eletroquímica/instrumentação , Glicoproteínas/análise , Limite de Detecção , Ácidos Bóricos/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Impressão Molecular , Ovalbumina/análise , Polímeros/síntese química , Polímeros/química , Tiofenos/química
13.
Lancet ; 396(10267): 1994-2005, 2021 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phase 3 clinical studies showed non-inferiority of long-acting intramuscular cabotegravir and rilpivirine dosed every 4 weeks to oral antiretroviral therapy. Important phase 2 results of every 8 weeks dosing, and supportive modelling, underpin further evaluation of every 8 weeks dosing in this trial, which has the potential to offer greater convenience. Our objective was to compare the week 48 antiviral efficacy of cabotegravir plus rilpivirine long-acting dosed every 8 weeks with that of every 4 weeks dosing. METHODS: ATLAS-2M is an ongoing, randomised, multicentre (13 countries; Australia, Argentina, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, and the USA), open-label, phase 3b, non-inferiority study of cabotegravir plus rilpivirine long-acting maintenance therapy administered intramuscularly every 8 weeks (cabotegravir 600 mg plus rilpivirine 900 mg) or every 4 weeks (cabotegravir 400 mg plus rilpivirine 600 mg) to treatment-experienced adults living with HIV-1. Eligible newly recruited individuals must have received an uninterrupted first or second oral standard-of-care regimen for at least 6 months without virological failure and be aged 18 years or older. Eligible participants from the ATLAS trial, from both the oral standard-of-care and long-acting groups, must have completed the 52-week comparative phase with an ATLAS-2M screening plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive cabotegravir plus rilpivirine long-acting every 8 weeks or every 4 weeks. The randomisation schedule was generated by means of the GlaxoSmithKline validated randomisation software RANDALL NG. The primary endpoint at week 48 was HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies per mL (Snapshot, intention-to-treat exposed), with a non-inferiority margin of 4%. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03299049 and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Screening occurred between Oct 27, 2017, and May 31, 2018. Of 1149 individuals screened, 1045 participants were randomised to the every 8 weeks (n=522) or every 4 weeks (n=523) groups; 37% (n=391) transitioned from every 4 weeks cabotegravir plus rilpivirine long-acting in ATLAS. Median participant age was 42 years (IQR 34-50); 27% (n=280) female at birth; 73% (n=763) white race. Cabotegravir plus rilpivirine long-acting every 8 weeks was non-inferior to dosing every 4 weeks (HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies per mL; 2% vs 1%) with an adjusted treatment difference of 0·8 (95% CI -0·6-2·2). There were eight (2%, every 8 weeks group) and two (<1%, every 4 weeks group) confirmed virological failures (two sequential measures ≥200 copies per mL). For the every 8 weeks group, five (63%) of eight had archived non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance-associated mutations to rilpivirine at baseline. The safety profile was similar between dosing groups, with 844 (81%) of 1045 participants having adverse events (excluding injection site reactions); no treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: The efficacy and safety profiles of dosing every 8 weeks and dosing every 4 weeks were similar. These results support the use of cabotegravir plus rilpivirine long-acting administered every 2 months as a therapeutic option for people living with HIV-1. FUNDING: ViiV Healthcare and Janssen.

14.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 568-576, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines) is the most devastating and yield-limiting pest in soybean worldwide. With the increasing awareness of environmental protection, biological control becomes more and more urgent. The Bacillus megaterium Sneb207 has previously shown the ability to inhibit the movement of SCN, but little is known about its effect on nematode control in agricultural settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Sneb207 against SCN and investigate the ability of Sneb207 to induce systemic resistance to H. glycines in soybean. RESULTS: The stability and efficiency of SCN control by Sneb207 was assessed in two field experiments. Compared to non-treated control, Sneb207 significantly reduced the number of cysts, SCN juveniles, and eggs, while it promoted soybean growth. Furthermore, results of two pot experiments showed that the number of initial infections of second-stage juveniles were 231.75 and 131.3 after Sneb207 treatment, respectively, lower than control (274.75 and 215.33). Sneb207 reduced the total number of juveniles and females, and lengthened SCN development time. Moreover, through the split-root system and real-time quantitative PCR experiments, we found that Sneb207 induced systemic resistance and enhanced the gene expression of GmACS9b, GmEDS1, GmPAD4, GmSAMT1, and GmNPR1-1 involved in the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways at different levels. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that B. megaterium Sneb207 inhibits the invasion, the development, and reproduction of SCN by inducing systemic resistance. The overall outcomes of the present study support B. megaterium Sneb207 as a potential biocontrol agent for H. glycines.


Assuntos
Bacillus megaterium , Cistos , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Doenças das Plantas , Soja
15.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 300: 113617, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950578

RESUMO

The mitosis-associated protein aurora kinase A (AURKA) regulates the maturation of germ cells. We have previously reported using transcriptome analysis that AURKA is expressed in yak testes. Although Tibetan sheep possess an immense economic value, their reproductive rate is low. Herein, the expression and functions of AURKA in the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis in Tibetan sheep from Tianzhu were investigated. The cDNA sequence of sheep AURKA was cloned and bioinformatics techniques were used to predict its structure. Tissue expression of AURKA was determined by qPCR, immunoblotting, immunostaining, and immunohistochemistry. The AURKA coding sequence was found to be 1218 bp in length, encoding a 405-amino acid polypeptide chain. Furthermore, the highest sequence similarity of AURKA with the corresponding sequence in other species was seen in goat and cattle; the least degree of similarity was seen in the domestic cat. In addition, AURKA expression was elevated in the testes compared to that in the hypothalamus and pituitary (p < 0.01). Moreover, AURKA was mainly localized in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (magnocellular), chromophobe cells of the pituitary, and spermatogenic cells of the testis. These results indicated that AURKA might participate in sheep reproductive regulation, thus providing a reference for the study of AURKA function in the reproductive process of Tibetan sheep from Tianzhu.

16.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 245: 118942, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977105

RESUMO

In this study, we report a rapid statistical approach used in determining the caprolactam (CPL) content in curdlan packaging films, which is based on the spectral data observed in the near-infrared (NIR) and Mid-infrared (MIR) regions. At the first stage of the study, the CPL content was added into the curdlan films prepared by controlling the concentration, and then the effect of the CPL concentration on the measured mechanical properties of the produced films were evaluated. At the next stage, the NIR and MIR spectra of the curdlan films with different CPL concentrations were recorded by using the FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy technique, and the spectral data to be used in the regression models in our quantitative analyses were carefully selected. It was observed that the curdlan film with 5% CPL exhibited the best mechanical properties. The obtained best correlation parameters which are used in evaluation of CPL content through the observed NIR and MIR spectral data are Rp = 0.9552, RMSEP = 1.2506 (NIR); Rp = 0.9092 and RMSEP = 1.9136 (MIR), respectively. These optimal values support the expectation that our statistical approach based on NIR and MIR data can provide a rapid, accurate and nondestructive way of determining CPL content in curdlan packaging films.

17.
Plant Sci ; 302: 110668, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288032

RESUMO

MYB transcription factors are important in abiotic stress responses; however, the detailed mechanisms are unclear. Tamarix hispida contains multiple MYB genes. The present study characterized T. hispida MYB8 (ThMYB8) during salt stress using transgenic T. hispida and Arabidopsis assays. ThMYB8 overexpression and ThMYB8 RNAi analysis demonstrated that ThMYB8 enhanced the salt stress tolerance. Transgenic Arabidopsis ectopic expression of ThMYB8 significantly increased root growth, fresh weight, and seed germination rate compared with that of the wild-type under salt stress. Physiological parameters analysis in T. hispida and Arabidopsis showed that ThMYB8 overexpressing plants had the lowest levels of O2, H2O2, cell death, malondialdehyde, and electrolyte leakage. Overexpression of ThMYB8 regulated Na+ and K+ concentrations in plant tissues while maintaining K+/Na+ homeostasis. Analysis using qRT-PCR and ChIP-PCR identified possible downstream ThMYB8-regulated genes. ThMYB8 regulated the expression of ThCYP450-2 (cytochrome p450-2), Thltk (leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein kinase), and ThTIP (aquaporin TIP) by binding to the MBSI motif ('CAACTG') in their promoters. The results indicated that ThMYB8 enhanced salt stress tolerance in T. hispida by regulating gene expression related to the activation of stress-associated physiological changes, such as enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging capability, maintaining K+/Na+ homeostasis, and decreasing the malondialdehyde content and lipid peroxidation cell membranes.

18.
Ultrason Imaging ; 43(1): 3-18, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355519

RESUMO

Minimum-variance (MV) beamforming, as a typical adaptive beamforming method, has been widely studied in medical ultrasound imaging. This method achieves higher spatial resolution than traditional delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming by minimizing the total output power while maintaining the desired signals. However, it suffers from high computational complexity due to the heavy calculation load when determining the inverse of the high-dimensional matrix. Low-complexity MV algorithms have been studied recently. In this study, we propose a novel MV beamformer based on orthogonal decomposition of the compounded subspace (CS) of the covariance matrix in synthetic aperture (SA) imaging, which aims to reduce the dimensions of the covariance matrix and therefore reduce the computational complexity. Multiwave spatial smoothing is applied to the echo signals for the accurate estimation of the covariance matrix, and adaptive weight vectors are calculated from the low-dimensional subspace of the original covariance matrix. We conducted simulation, experimental and in vivo studies to verify the performance of the proposed method. The results indicate that the proposed method performs well in maintaining the advantage of high spatial resolution and effectively reduces the computational complexity compared with the standard MV beamformer. In addition, the proposed method shows good robustness against sound velocity errors.

19.
FASEB J ; 35(1): e21239, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368642

RESUMO

Etoposide-induced 2.4 (EI24) exerts tumor suppressor activity through participating in cell apoptosis, autophagy, and inflammation. However, its role in renal diseases has not been elucidated. This study showed that the EI24 level decreased gradually in the kidneys of mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and in another fibrosis model induced by diabetic kidney disease. The overexpression of EI24 was used to investigate the possible role both in vivo and in vitro. The overexpression 1 day after UUO through tail vein injection alleviated the progression of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). EI24 inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition, excessive deposition of the extracellular matrix, and activation of fibroblasts. Furthermore, administration of EI24-overexpressing plasmids restrained the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun kinase (JNK) through regulating the proteasome-dependent degradation of TRAF2, and then, inhibited the expression of downstream inflammation-associated cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils in mouse kidney after UUO. In conclusion, the data indicated that EI24, a novel anti-fibrosis regulator, was important in the progression of RIF.

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