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1.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 16: 183-186, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667715

RESUMO

The Eurasian lynx (Lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat species distributed throughout Eurasia. There has been no report on Taenia species (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) infecting this felid in China. In this study, 24 tapeworms were found in two Eurasian lynxes (#1 and #2) in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), northwestern China. Based on the number, measurements and the shape of rostellar hooks, these tapeworms belong to two Taenia species. According to the number (n = 32) and length (185-194 µm) of small hooks, the first Taenia species (n = 1, found in #2 lynx) was identified as Taenia laticollis. Phylogenetically, this species was clustered with T. laticollis genotype C (JX860623) based on its cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and 16S rDNA sequences. The second Taenia species (n = 23, provisionally named as "Taenia sp.") may represent a potentially novel tapeworm species, because of its obvious differences in the shape and lengths (174-182 µm, 98-113 µm) of large and small rostellar hooks in comparison with ten taxonomically related species. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the cox1 gene revealed that "Taenia sp." has the highest rate of sequence identity (92.93%, 368/396 bp) with Taenia hydatigena reported from sheep (Ovis aries) in Slovakia. To sum up, a potentially novel tapeworm species, "Taenia sp.", is found in Eurasian lynx. In addition, T. laticollis was found for the first time in China.

2.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(6): 101817, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560427

RESUMO

Piroplasmosis is an economically important tick-borne disease worldwide. However, little is known about the presence of Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. in ticks in Eastern and Southern Kazakhstan (ESK). During 2016 - 2019, adult ticks (at 26 sampling sites in 16 districts of 5 oblasts in ESK) were collected. Tick species were identified according to morphological and molecular characteristics. Two fragments (487 bp and 438 bp) of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were used to determine piroplasm species in representative 698 ticks. The genotype characteristics of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi were further analyzed by longer 18S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 6107 adult ticks (4558 parasitizing ticks and 1549 off-host ticks), including 4665 hard ticks and 1442 soft ticks, were collected from their natural hosts (cattle, horses, sheep, camels, shepherd dogs and hedgehogs) and the surrounding environment, respectively. Among the hard tick species, Dermacentor marginatus (62.59%, 2920/4665) was the most abundant, followed by Hyalomma asiaticum (19.36%, 903/4665) and Hyalomma detritum (9.95%, 464/4665). All soft ticks were identified as Argas persicus. 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) phylogenic analysis showed that several tick species in Kazakhstan, as exemplified by Haemaphysalis erinacei and D. marginatus, clustered together with conspecific ticks reported from China. Five species of piroplasms, i.e. Babesia occultans, Babesia caballi, Theileria ovis, Theileria annulata and Theileria equi, were detected in 698 representative ticks. Genotype E of T. equi in Almaty, and genotype A of B. caballi in Almaty and South Kazakhstan were identified.

3.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21777, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403519

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and also responsible for serious threat to public health. Koumiss is a fermented mare's milk product, used as traditional drink. Here, we explored the effect of koumiss on gut microbiota and the host immune response against M bovis infection. Therefore, mice were treated with koumiss and fresh mare milk for 14 days before M bovis infection and continue for 5 weeks after infection. The results showed a clear change in the intestinal flora of mice treated with koumiss, and the lungs of mice treated with koumiss showed severe edema, inflammatory infiltration, and pulmonary nodules in M bovis-infected mice. Notably, we found that the content of short-chain fatty acids was significantly lower in the koumiss-treated group compared with the control group. However, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis-related proteins in the lungs of koumiss-treated mice were significantly decreased. Collectively, these findings suggest that koumiss treatment disturb the intestinal flora of, which is associated with disease severity and the possible mechanism that induces lungs pathology. Our current findings can be exploited further to establish the "gut-lung" axis which might be a novel strategy for the control of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Kumis/efeitos adversos , Mycobacterium bovis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Cavalos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo
4.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 5162-5172, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405766

RESUMO

Brucella endocarditis is a fatal complication and the most frequent cause of death for human brucellosis. This study aimed to systematically review the literature on the follow-up outcomes of Brucella endocarditis and analyze the determinants affecting the follow-up outcomes. The databases PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane were searched using keywords and suitable combinations. All studies reporting the follow-up outcomes of Brucella endocarditis were included. Finally, a total of 76 studies (207 patients), including cases or case series, were included. The event rate for patients who underwent short- and long-term follow-up was 12.0% (2 relapsed and 1 died) and 8.1% (6 relapsed and 8 died), respectively. The differences in outcomes between different age groups (18-39, 40-59, and ≥60) were significant (P < 0.05, P = 0.035). The outcomes of the 18-39 age group were worse than those of the 40-59 age group (OR, 0.277; 95% CI, 0.103-0.748; P = 0.011). Accordingly, follow-up (both short- and long-term follow-up) is essential for Brucella endocarditis patients, especially for younger patients (18-39 years) in the first 6 months after treatment. The burden of Brucella endocarditis related complications were immense. Further studies are needed to explore age-based epidemiology of Brucella endocarditis and the exact influencing factors of the follow-up outcomes.

5.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 15: 79-86, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996439

RESUMO

The great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus), widely distributed in Asia, is a natural reservoir for Yersinia pestis, Leishmania donovani and some species of helminths. In this study, 188 great gerbils were sampled in Alataw City and Manas County, northwestern China, and tested for the presence of Theileria, Hepatozoon and Taenia species by molecular methods. Theileria sp., named as "Candidatus Theileria xinjiangensis", was detected in heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney of 6.9% rodents. Six genotypes of "Taenia sp. Rhombomys opimus", which were close to Taenia laticollis (87.3-94.0% identities), were detected in cyst liquid of 5.3% rodents. "Hepatozoon ayorgbor-like" haemogregarines was detected in spleens of 1.6% rodents. To our best knowledge, Candidatus Theileria xinjiangensis, Hepatozoon ayorgbor-like and genotypes of "Taenia sp. Rhombomys opimus" were found for the first time in the great gerbil. These results extend our knowledge on the diversity and pathogenesis of Theileria, Hepatozoon and Taenia species.

6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 460, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This case report describes the clinical process of a shepherd who suffered brucellosis-related endocarditis (BE) and spondylitis (BS) and was infected with Brucella melitensis biovar 3 (B. melitensis biovar 3). CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old male patient was admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital of Shihezi University on October 11, 2018, due to over 3 months of intermittent fever, back pain, and heart trouble. The Rose Bengal Plate test was positive, the standard agglutination test titer for brucellosis was 1/800, and the blood culture was positive for B. melitensis biovar 3. Three instances of transthoracic echocardiography examination at days 1, 25, and 376 after admission to the hospital and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) checks at days 5 and 38 revealed that the size of the vegetation on the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve increased from 0.7 × 1.4 cm to 1.2 × 1.5 cm and that the left atrium and ventricle were enlarged. The MRI and CT results showed hyperplasia of the second and third vertebra, a cold abscess formed on both sides of the psoas major muscles, and the vertebra hyperplasia became aggravated at a later time point. The patient's situation deteriorated, and heart failure was discovered on October 22, 2019. At the moment of submission of this manuscript, the patient remains in bed at home because of severe debility caused by brucellosis. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported case of endocarditis combined with spondylitis caused by B. melitensis biovar 3 in a shepherd. Brucellosis infection can cause work-power losses because of misdiagnosis or a lack of proper treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for a successful outcome.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis , Brucelose/microbiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Espondilite/microbiologia , Testes de Aglutinação , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/patologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/microbiologia , Valva Mitral/patologia , Espondilite/diagnóstico
7.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(4): 101710, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827036

RESUMO

Babesia species (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmorida) are tick-borne protozoan hemoparasites, which pose a significant threat to domestic animals, wildlife and humans. This study aimed to determine and characterize Babesia species in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), Asian badgers (Meles leucurus) and their ticks. Blood, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, large intestine and small intestine were collected from 19 wild carnivores (12 red foxes and 7 Asian badgers). All ticks were removed from these animals and identified according to morphological and molecular characteristics. The samples were tested for the presence of Babesia species using the 18S rRNA gene. Molecular analyses showed that the DNA of Babesia vogeli and Babesia vulpes was present in red fox organs/tissues and blood samples. A total of 54 hard ticks (38 Ixodes canisuga, 6 Haemaphysalis erinacei, 9 Ixodes kaiseri and 1 Dermacentor marginatus) were collected from red foxes and 12 (I. kaiseri) from Asian badgers. All ticks were adults. Among them, one I. kaiseri parasiting a red fox contained the DNA of B. vulpes while one I. canisuga was positive for Babesia sp. belonging to the clade "Babesia sensu stricto". Molecular and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of a novel genotype, Babesia sp. "badger China". Babesia sp. badger type A and type B from Asian badgers were different from those in European badgers. Co-infection with three Babesia genotypes was found in one Asian badger. This study provides the first data on Babesia infection in red foxes, Asian badgers and their ticks in China. Babesia vogeli was detected for the first time in red foxes in Asia. Co-infection and genetic diversity of Babesia genotypes in Asian badgers were also demonstrated.


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Raposas , Ixodidae/parasitologia , Mustelidae , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesiose/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 204, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously, twelve Rickettsia species were identified in ticks, fleas, sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus), bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) and a tick-bitten patient in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) in northwestern China. Here we aimed to molecularly detect rickettsial agents in red fox (Vulpes vulpes), marbled polecat (Vormela peregusna) and their ticks. METHODS: During 2018-2019, 12 red foxes, one marbled polecat and their ticks were sampled in two counties and a city of the XUAR. The heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney of these 13 carnivores were dissected, followed by DNA extraction. Hard ticks were identified both morphologically and molecularly. All samples were examined for the presence of rickettsiae by amplifying four genetic markers (17-kDa, gltA, ompA, sca1). RESULTS: A total of 26 adult ticks and 28 nymphs (38 Ixodes canisuga, nine Ixodes kaiseri, six Haemaphysalis erinacei and one Dermacentor marginatus) were collected from red foxes, and four Ha. erinacei ticks were removed from the marbled polecat. Analysis of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences indicated that 2-32 nucleotides differed between I. canisuga, I. kaiseri and Ha. erinacei from northwestern China and Europe. Rickettsia raoultii was detected in three red foxes, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in a red fox, Rickettsia sibirica in a red fox and a marbled polecat, and R. raoultii in two tick species (I. canisuga and D. marginatus). CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, I. canisuga and I. kaiseri have not been previously reported from red foxes in China. The DNA of R. sibirica and R. raoultii was detected for the first time in the organs of red foxes, and R. sibirica in the organs of a marbled polecat. This is also the first molecular evidence for the presence of R. raoultii in I. canisuga. Our findings expand the range of tick-borne pathogens in wildlife species and associated ticks in China.


Assuntos
Raposas/microbiologia , Mustelidae/microbiologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , China , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Filogenia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Carrapatos/classificação , Carrapatos/fisiologia
9.
Korean J Parasitol ; 59(1): 103-108, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684994

RESUMO

To date, there is no report on the genetic diversity of ticks in these regions. A total of 370 representative ticks from the south and east regions of Kazakhstan (SERK) and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) were selected for molecular comparison. A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene, ranging from 631 bp to 889 bp, was used to analyze genetic diversity among these ticks. Phylogenetic analyses indicated 7 tick species including Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma detritum, Hyalomma anatolicum, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Haemaphysalis erinacei from the SERK clustered together with conspecific ticks from the XUAR. The network diagram of haplotypes showed that i) Hy. asiaticum from Almaty and Kyzylorda Oblasts together with that from Yuli County of XUAR constituted haplogroup H-2, and the lineage from Chimkent City of South Kazakhstan was newly evolved; and ii) the R. turanicus ticks sampled in Israel, Almaty, South Kazakhstan, Usu City, Ulugqat and Baicheng Counties of XUAR were derivated from an old lineage in Alataw City of XUAR. These findings indicate that: i) Hy. asiaticum, R. turanicus and Ha. erinacei shared genetic similarities between the SERK and XUAR; and ii) Hy. marginatum and D. reticulatus show differences in their evolution.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Animais , China , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Evolução Molecular , Cazaquistão , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Filogenia
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 594-598, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496245

RESUMO

We used metagenomic analysis to identify Tacheng tick virus 2 infection in a patient with a history of tick bite in northwestern China. We confirmed the virus with reverse transcription-PCR, virus isolation, and genomic analysis. We detected viral RNA in 9.6% of ticks collected from the same region.


Assuntos
Ixodes , Phlebovirus , Carrapatos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Metagenômica , Filogenia
11.
Arch Virol ; 166(1): 83-90, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068192

RESUMO

Aleutian mink disease (AMD), caused by Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV), is a very important infectious disease of mink. Currently, elimination of antibody- or antigen-positive animals is the most successful strategy for eradicating AMD, but the claw-cutting method of blood sampling is difficult to perform and painful for the animal. In this study, we aimed to establish an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) method for the efficient detection of AMDV antigens using fecal samples. A purified mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used as the capture antibody, and a rabbit polyclonal antibody (pAb) was used as the detection antibody. The assay was optimized by adjusting a series of parameters. Using a cutoff value of 0.205, the limit of detection of the AC-ELISA for strain AMDV-G antigen was 2 µg/mL, and there was no cross-reaction with other mink viruses. The intra- and inter-assay standard deviations were below 0.046, and the correlation of variance (CV) values were 1.24-7.12% when testing fecal samples. Compared with conventional PCR results, the specificity and sensitivity were 91.5% and 90.6%, respectively, and the concordance rate between the two methods was 91.1%.


Assuntos
Vírus da Doença Aleutiana do Vison/imunologia , Doença Aleutiana do Vison/diagnóstico , Antígenos/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Vison/virologia , Doença Aleutiana do Vison/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Vison/imunologia , Coelhos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0232568, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125372

RESUMO

We studied livestock abortion and various associated risk factors in the Ili region of northwest China. Livestock abortion prevalence was estimated and correlated with infections (Brucellosis, Salmonellosis, Mycoplasma and Chlamydia seropositivity) and management (farming type and contact with other herds/flocks) risk factors. A total of 2996 serum samples (1406 cow, 1590 sheep) were identified by RBPT (Rose Bengal Plate Test) and c-ELISA (competitive-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), and they showed the overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in the study area was cow 6.76%, sheep 9.50%. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in X county was cow 7.06%, sheep 9.12%; in H county was cow 11.70%, sheep 10.80%; and in Q county was cow 4.22%, sheep 9.11%. The overall seroprevalence of Mycoplasma in the study area was cow 3.20%, sheep 6.42%. The seroprevalence of Mycoplasma in X county was cow 3.39%, sheep 7.98%; in H county was cow 5.26%, sheep 9.97%; and in Q county was cow 2.11%, sheep 4.33%. The Odds ratio of brucellosis for cow and sheep, respectively, were 45.909 [95% CI 26.912-78.317, P<0.001] and 70.507 [95% CI 43.783-113.544, P<0.001] times higher than other abortion-related factors including mixed farming, contact with other flocks and Mycoplasma infection. A total of 54 samples, including aborted cow (22), sheep (30) fetuses and milk samples (2), were identified as Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) positive. A total of 38 Brucella were isolated from 16 aborted cow, 20 sheep fetuses and 2 milk samples. All of these isolates were identified, and confirmed, as B. melitensis. A phylogenetic tree showed that the Brucella isolates closely matched the B. melitensis biovar 3 isolated in Inner Mongolia, China, and B. melitensis isolated from Norway and India. These results suggest that B. melitensis biovar 3 is the main pathogen responsible for cow and sheep abortion and also pose a human health risk. Additionally, livestock reproduction can also be influenced by Mycoplasma infection and managerial factors (farming type and contact with other herds/flocks), especially in remote areas.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/etiologia , Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Brucella melitensis , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Chlamydia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Carneiro Doméstico
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(20)2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081153

RESUMO

Pedestrian detection is an essential problem of computer vision, which has achieved tremendous success under controllable conditions using visible light imaging sensors in recent years. However, most of them do not consider low-light environments which are very common in real-world applications. In this paper, we propose a novel pedestrian detection algorithm using multi-task learning to address this challenge in low-light environments. Specifically, the proposed multi-task learning method is different from the most commonly used multi-task learning method-the parameter sharing mechanism-in deep learning. We design a novel multi-task learning method with feature-level fusion and a sharing mechanism. The proposed approach contains three parts: an image relighting subnetwork, a pedestrian detection subnetwork, and a feature-level multi-task fusion learning module. The image relighting subnetwork adjusts the low-light image quality for detection, the pedestrian detection subnetwork learns enhanced features for prediction, and the feature-level multi-task fusion learning module fuses and shares features among component networks for boosting image relighting and detection performance simultaneously. Experimental results show that the proposed approach consistently and significantly improves the performance of pedestrian detection on low-light images obtained by visible light imaging sensor.

14.
J BUON ; 25(3): 1643-1649, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862617

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the efficacy and safety of irreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation combined with natural killer (NK) cells in the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). METHODS: A total of 92 LAPC patients treated in our hospital from January 2016 to January 2017 were enrolled, and there were 46 cases of percutaneous IRE as IRE group, and 46 cases of IRE combined NK cell therapy as IRE-NK group. The clinical information of all the patients was collected, and the short-term efficacy, changes in the serum immunological indicators after treatment, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) level, and incidence of adverse reactions were compared between the two groups of patients. Besides, the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of patients were followed up and recorded. RESULTS: On 1 month after treatment, all the patients underwent efficacy assessment, which showed the overall response rate of patients in IRE-NK group was significantly superior to that in IRE group. One and 7 days after operation, the level of CA19-9 was obviously raised in the two groups, with a statistically significant difference, and it declined 30 days postoperatively. Seven and 30 days after operation IRE-NK group had a notably lower level of CA19-9 than IRE group. After treatment, all the patients exhibited considerably higher lymphocyte count and notably enhanced lymphocyte function, and all the indicators in IRE-NK group were higher than those in IRE group. Besides, the levels of serum interleukin (IL)-2, TNF-ß and IFN-γ in IRE-NK group were remarkably higher than those in IRE group, whereas there were no statistically significant differences in the levels of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 between the two groups. All the patients were followed up for 6-29 months, and there were no statistically significant differences in the DFS and OS between IRE group and IRE-NK group. CONCLUSION: IRE ablation combined with NK cells has excellent efficacy in treating LAPC, and they can exert a synergistic treatment effect to enhance the immune function of patients and reduce CA19-9 expression, with tolerable adverse reactions.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Antígeno CA-19-9/imunologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Eletroporação/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Linfotoxina-alfa/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/imunologia , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(4): 804-806, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187504

RESUMO

We isolated Brucella melitensis biovar 3 from the spleen of an Asian badger (Meles leucurus) in Nilka County, northwestern China. Our investigation showed that this isolate had a common multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis 16 genotype, similar to bacterial isolates from local aborted sheep fetuses.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis , Brucelose , Mustelidae , Animais , Brucella melitensis/genética , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , China/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Ovinos
16.
J Wildl Dis ; 56(3): 730-732, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195643

RESUMO

Brucella abortus biovar 1 and atypical rough Brucella were isolated from Himalayan marmot (Marmota himalayana). Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis-16 typing indicated that the isolates both for smooth and atypical rough phenotypes had a common novel multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis-16 type (Panel 1: 3-2-7-5-3-4-12-3; Panel 2A: 6-40-8; Panel 2B: 5-2-3-3-3).


Assuntos
Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/veterinária , Marmota/microbiologia , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia
17.
Can J Microbiol ; 66(5): 351-358, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040345

RESUMO

Iron is a fundamental element required by most organisms, including Brucella. Several researchers have suggested that the iron response regulator (irr) and rhizobial iron regulator (rirA) genes regulate iron acquisition by Brucella abortus, influencing heme synthesis by and virulence of this pathogen. However, little is known about another Brucella species, Brucella melitensis. In this research, we successfully constructed two mutants: M5-90Δirr and M5-90ΔrirA. The adhesion, invasion, and intracellular survivability of these two mutants were evaluated in RAW264.7 cells infected with 1 × 106 CFU of M5-90Δirr, M5-90ΔrirA, or M5-90. We also tested the sensitivity of cells to hydrogen peroxide and their ability to grow. In addition, the virulence of these two mutants was evaluated in BALB/c mice. The results showed that the ability of these two mutants to invade and adhere inside the murine macrophages RAW264.7 was attenuated but their ability to replicate intracellularly was strengthened, enhancing the resistance to hydrogen peroxide. The M5-90Δirr mutant showed stronger growth ability than the parental strain under iron-limiting conditions. No differences were observed in the number of bacteria in spleen between M5-90 and M5-90Δirr at 7 or 15 days postinfection. However, the number of M5-90ΔrirA in spleen reduced significantly at 15 days postinfection. The splenic index of the M5-90Δirr group is evidently lower than that of M5-90. This is the first report that irr and rirA genes of B. melitensis are associated not only with virulence but also with growth ability. Together, our data suggest that M5-90Δirr is a promising Brucella vaccine candidate.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Brucella melitensis/genética , Brucella melitensis/patogenicidade , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/toxicidade , Western Blotting , Vacina contra Brucelose/imunologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Feminino , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Baço/microbiologia , Virulência/genética
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 10, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing molecular evidence supports that bats and/or their ectoparasites may harbor vector-borne bacteria, such as bartonellae and borreliae. However, the simultaneous occurrence of rickettsiae in bats and bat ticks has been poorly studied. METHODS: In this study, 54 bat carcasses and their infesting soft ticks (n = 67) were collected in Shihezi City, northwestern China. The heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, small intestine and large intestine of bats were dissected, followed by DNA extraction. Soft ticks were identified both morphologically and molecularly. All samples were examined for the presence of rickettsiae by amplifying four genetic markers (17-kDa, gltA, ompA and ompB). RESULTS: All bats were identified as Pipistrellus pipistrellus, and their ticks as Argas vespertilionis. Molecular analyses showed that DNA of Rickettsia parkeri, R. lusitaniae, R. slovaca and R. raoultii was present in bat organs/tissues. In addition, nine of the 67 bat soft ticks (13.43%) were positive for R. raoultii (n = 5) and R. rickettsii (n = 4). In the phylogenetic analysis, these bat-associated rickettsiae clustered together with conspecific sequences reported from other host and tick species, confirming the above results. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, DNA of R. parkeri, R. slovaca and R. raoultii was detected for the first time in bat organs/tissues. This is also the first molecular evidence for the presence of R. raoultii and R. rickettsii in bat ticks. To our knowledge, R. parkeri was not known to occur in Asia. Our results highlight the need to assess rickettsial agents in a broader range of bat species and associated tick species.


Assuntos
Argas/genética , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Argas/classificação , Argas/fisiologia , China , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Rim/microbiologia , Rim/parasitologia , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Filogenia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
19.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 11: 12-16, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879590

RESUMO

Flea distribution in northern region of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and fluctuations of the annual fleas index in Alataw Pass were investigated. During a 4-year (2015-2018) study, 5789 fleas were collected directly from 15 mammals at eight counties in northern XUAR of northwestern China. Nineteen flea species, belonging to sixteen genera and seven families, were further confirmed by four genetic markers (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, COI and COII) after morphological observation. Pulex irritans and Paraceras crispum parasitizing Asian badgers (Meles leucurus) were recorded for the first time. In addition, the fluctuations of the annual fleas index in Alataw Pass were surveyed. Xenopsylla gerbilli minax, Xenopsylla conformis conformis and Nosopsyllus laeviceps laeviceps were highly detected in the warm season while Paradoxopsyllus repandus, Ctenophthalmus dolichus dolichus and Coptopsylla lamellifer ardua were only found in the cold season. These findings extend our knowledge of flea species, distribution and annual fluctuations especially in China-Kazakhstan border.

20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(10): 2155-2160, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many novel tick-borne viruses have been discovered by deep-sequencing technology in recent years; however, their medical significance is unknown. METHODS: We obtained clinical data of a patient from Xinjiang, China. Possible pathogens were detected by metagenomic analysis; the causative pathogen Tacheng tick virus 1 (TcTV-1) was found and further confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, viral culture, and sequence analyses. Epidemiological investigation was conducted in the local human population, domestic animals, and ticks by serological/molecular methods. RESULTS: A 62-year-old woman with a history of tick bite in Qinghe, Xinjiang, presented with fever and rashes. These symptoms were relieved after clinical treatment. TcTV-1 (strain QH1) was isolated from the patient's cerebrospinal fluid, throat swabs, and urine on day 47 after illness onset. Although the blood and urine showed viral RNA positive on day 73 after illness onset, the virus was only isolated from urine. Serological detection revealed a virus neutralizing antibody titer of 1:40 and 1:80 on day 47 and 73 after illness onset, respectively. No coinfection with other pathogens was detected, suggesting TcTV-1 may be the potential causative pathogen. We detected anti-TcTV-1 antibodies (immunoglobulin G: 10.1%; immunoglobulin M: 4.8%) in the local human population. The viral RNA was also found in cattle (4.9%), sheep (9.2%), and ticks, including Dermacentor marginatus (14.3%), Dermacentor silvarum (11.8%), Dermacentor nuttalli (6.7%), and Hyalomma asiaticum (4.8%). CONCLUSIONS: TcTV-1 may be associated with a febrile illness syndrome, and epidemiological data of the virus in humans and animals necessitate disease surveillance of TcTV-1 infection in China.


Assuntos
Carrapatos , Vírus , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Ovinos , Vírus/genética
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