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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The IM-UNITI study and long-term extension (LTE) evaluated the long-term efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of subcutaneous ustekinumab maintenance therapy in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Here we report final results of IM-UNITI LTE through 5 years. METHODS: Patients completing safety and efficacy evaluations at Week 44 of the maintenance study were eligible to participate in the LTE and continue the treatment they were receiving. Unblinding occurred after completion of maintenance study analyses (August 2015), and patients receiving placebo were discontinued. No dose adjustment occurred in the LTE. Efficacy assessments were conducted every 12 weeks until unblinding and at dosing visits thereafter through Week 252. Serum ustekinumab concentrations and anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) were evaluated through Weeks 252 and 272, respectively. RESULTS: Using an intent-to-treat analysis of all patients randomized to ustekinumab at maintenance baseline, 34.4% of patients in the q8w group and 28.7% in the q12w group were in clinical remission at Week 252. Corresponding remission rates among patients who entered the LTE were 54.9% and 45.2%. Overall, adverse event rates (per 100 patient-years) from maintenance Week 0 through the final visit were generally similar in the placebo and combined ustekinumab groups for all adverse events (440.3 vs. 327.6), serious adverse events (19.3 vs. 17.5), infections (99.8 vs. 93.8), and serious infections (3.9 vs. 3.4). Serum ustekinumab concentrations were maintained throughout the LTE. ADAs occurred in 5.8% of patients who received ustekinumab during induction and maintenance and continued in the LTE. CONCLUSION: Patients receiving subcutaneous ustekinumab maintained clinical remission through 5 years. No new safety signals were observed. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01369355.

2.
Dalton Trans ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599632

RESUMO

Two new types of inexpensive mixed phosphors, Al2O3:Cr3+/YAG:Ce3+ and Al2O3:Cr3+/(Ba,Sr)2SiO4:Eu2+, were designed and synthesized using a high-temperature solid-state method. The emission intensity under blue excitation was reported to be of the order of Al2O3:Cr3+/YAG:Ce3+ > Al2O3:Cr3+/(Ba,Sr)2SiO4:Eu2+ > Al2O3:Cr3+. By adding YAG:Ce3+ to Al2O3:Cr3+, the excitation spectrum of the new phosphor was changed; blue excitation corresponding to 4f → 5d transition appeared because of the good overlap between the yellow emission of YAG:Ce3+ and the yellow excitation of Al2O3:Cr3+. The emission intensity of deep red (696 nm) under excitation at 460 nm demonstrates a significant enhancement and the quantum yield increases to 1.45 times that of Al2O3:Cr3+. Moreover, the new phosphor can be excited by light in a range between 325 and 650 nm, which could be considered as the widest excitation in the visible light region of the known deep red oxide phosphors. The temperature dependency of the emission under blue excitation is unique (I150 °C/I25 °C = 84%), which is much better than that of yellow excitation and that at 400 nm. The reflection-emission spectrum recorded under white light from a Xe lamp resembling sunlight demonstrated that the new phosphor has provided a strong deep-red light. The above results indicated that the new phosphor provides a comprehensive assistance in promoting plant growth both under a combination with a blue LED chip and under the Sun.

3.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595575

RESUMO

High stability and water solubility of fluorescent nanomaterials are considered key factors to evaluate their feasibility for fundamental applications. Herein, water-soluble and thermally stable, green-emitting carbon nanodots (CNDs) have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method with an average size of 1.9 nm. CNDs showed green emission centered at 544 nm with the photo-luminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of up to 10.1% under the excitation of 400 nm. The obtained CNDs demonstrated high resistance towards photo-bleaching and an ionic (KCl) environment. Moreover, the aqueous solution of CNDs exhibited excellent stability under harsh thermal conditions from 10 °C to 80 °C. The as-prepared CNDs showed stable performance at high temperatures, even after keeping them at 80 °C for 30 min. Furthermore, the green emissive CNDs were incubated in T-ca cancer cells for bio-imaging applications. The results indicated that CNDs can served as an effective thermally-stable bio-imaging agent in T-ca cells at the physiological temperature range of 25 °C-45 °C. Green emission and excellent thermal stability make these CNDs promising fluorescent materials for potential applications in the medical field, which requires long-wavelength fluorescence and high-temperature imaging.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 958-965, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443432

RESUMO

Defects play non-negligible roles in many luminescent processes, where the significant and remarkable influence in the phosphor performance in various ways is observed. A full and clear perception of defects would be beneficial for the further development of the luminescence mechanism and design of phosphors. In this study, the defect-related luminescence in a chlorosilicate phosphor Ca2SiO3Cl2: Eu2+ was deeply studied. Except for the green emission originating from the d-f transition of the Eu2+ ion, a blue emission band with unique sensitivity to temperature and excitation energy was confirmed to be induced by the defects. The defects related to anion vacancies in the material acted as electron traps and luminescence centers simultaneously, which were well-identified by luminescence spectra and theory calculation analysis. This study uncovered the peculiar behavior and action mechanism of defects in the luminescence process and demonstrates a new path to understanding the origin of the luminescence center.

5.
Food Funct ; 12(2): 852-861, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404578

RESUMO

Generally, ginsenosides have the physiological effect of an anti-inflammatory immunity. After fermentation, the types of ginsenosides in ginseng change, and their physiological activity becomes a concern. L. plantarum KP-4 screened from Korean kimchi were used to ferment ginseng, and the changes of ginsenosides were observed. C57BL/6N mice were treated using fermented ginseng (390 mg kg-1 day-1), which was mixed with normal food, and an inflammatory mice model was established by the intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (2.5 mg per kg body weight) four weeks later. The liver index, pathological index, biochemical index, and inflammatory signaling pathway were determined. The results demonstrated that L. plantarum KP-4 fermentation increased the content of minor ginsenosides in ginseng and decreased the content of major ginsenosides. Fermented ginseng significantly reduced LPS-induced increases in ALT, AST, and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß in mice. Supplementation with fermented ginseng significantly ameliorated LPS-induced overexpression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), caspase3, phosphorylation p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), and phosphorylation extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) compared with the control group. Moreover, fermented ginseng significantly increased the expression of claudin 1, the intestinal tight junction protein, caused by LPS. In conclusion, fermented ginseng alleviates LPS-induced inflammation through the TLR4/MAPK signaling pathway and increased intestinal barrier function in mice.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 1087-1092, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471534

RESUMO

Traditional white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) are limited by the energy loss due to reabsorption. Integrating binary complementary color phosphors with near-ultraviolet (n-UV) LED chips can be a good solution, and the core of it is to develop yellow-emitting phosphors. In this work, we have designed Rb2Sr1-yCayP2O7:xEu2+ solid solutions with yellow-orange color-tunable luminescence. The crystal structure, luminescence properties, and potential applications for WLEDs were explored systematically. Under n-UV light excitation, the phosphors efficiently emit broadband yellow-orange emission. The reasons and mechanisms of the variation of the PL/PLE spectra have been investigated. The optimal Rb2SrP2O7:0.5% Eu2+ sample exhibits a high quantum efficiency of 72.96% with a good color purity of 87.1%. Upon combination of the BAM:Eu2+ and Rb2SrP2O7:0.5% Eu2+ phosphors with a 380 nm n-UV chip, a WLED device is fabricated and can emit white light with good performance.

7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(2): 659-665, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whey protein concentrate (WPC)/pullulan (PUL) hydrogel is applied as a microencapsulation wall material to protect probiotics. However, the interactions between WPC and PUL during gelation have not been clarified. In the present study, the effects of PUL concentration and pH on the interactions between WPC and PUL during gelation were evaluated with respect to appearance, zeta-potential, sulfhydryl group amount, surface hydrophobicity and infrared spectroscopy measurements. The rheological properties of WPC/PUL gels were also determined. RESULTS: The results obtained showed that a proper concentration (0.40 g mL-1 ) of PUL could improve the gel by enhancing the strength of hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interactions and exposure of hydrophobic groups, whereas too much PUL inhibited the formation of disulfide bonds. Furthermore, hydrophobic interactions, disulfide bonds and hydrogen bonds were destroyed in varying degrees under an alkaline environment. The rheological results also demonstrated a similar effect of PUL concentration and pH on the storage modulus (G') of WPC/PUL gels. CONCLUSION: When the WPC/PUL gel was formed at PUL concentration of 0.40 g mL-1 and pH 7.0, the interaction between WPC and PUL could be enhanced, which is beneficial for the future application of WPC/PUL gels in the food industry. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(1): 165991, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080346

RESUMO

Our previous study demonstrated that IL-10 secreting B (B10) cells alleviate inflammation and bone loss in experimental periodontitis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether antigen-specificity is required for the local infiltration of B10 cells. Experimental periodontitis was induced in the recipient mice by placement of silk ligature with or without the presence of live Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). Donor mice were pre-immunized by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of formalin-fixed P. gingivalis, or PBS as non-immunized control. Spleen B cells were purified and treated with LPS and CpG for 48 h to expand the B10 population in vitro. Fluorescence-labelled B10 cells were transferred into the recipient mice by tail vein injection and were tracked on day 0, 3, 5 and 10 using IVIS Spectrum in vivo imaging system. The number of B10 cells and P. gingivalis-binding B cells were significantly increased after in vitro treatment of LPS and CpG. On day 5, the fluorescence intensity in gingival tissues was the highest in mice transferred with B10 cells from pre-immunized donor mice. Gingival expression of IL-6, TNF-α, RANKL/OPG ratio and periodontal bone loss in recipient mice were significantly reduced, and the expression of IL-10 and the number of CD19+ B cells were significantly increased after pre-immunized B10 cell transfer in the presence of antigen, compared to those with non-immunized B10 cell transfer or no antigen presence. This study suggests that antigen specificity dictate the local infiltration of B10 cells into periodontal tissue and these antigen-specific B10 cells promote anti-inflammatory responses.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6212, 2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277495

RESUMO

Histone 3 Lys 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3)-mediated epigenetic silencing plays a critical role in multiple biological processes. However, the H3K27me3 recognition and transcriptional repression mechanisms are only partially understood. Here, we report a mechanism for H3K27me3 recognition and transcriptional repression. Our structural and biochemical data showed that the BAH domain protein AIPP3 and the PHD proteins AIPP2 and PAIPP2 cooperate to read H3K27me3 and unmodified H3K4 histone marks, respectively, in Arabidopsis. The BAH-PHD bivalent histone reader complex silences a substantial subset of H3K27me3-enriched loci, including a number of development and stress response-related genes such as the RNA silencing effector gene ARGONAUTE 5 (AGO5). We found that the BAH-PHD module associates with CPL2, a plant-specific Pol II carboxyl terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase, to form the BAH-PHD-CPL2 complex (BPC) for transcriptional repression. The BPC complex represses transcription through CPL2-mediated CTD dephosphorylation, thereby causing inhibition of Pol II release from the transcriptional start site. Our work reveals a mechanism coupling H3K27me3 recognition with transcriptional repression through the alteration of Pol II phosphorylation states, thereby contributing to our understanding of the mechanism of H3K27me3-dependent silencing.

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300795

RESUMO

In this study, Pediococcus pentococcus PP04 isolated from the Northeast pickled cabbage had good gastrointestinal tolerance and can colonize in the intestine stably. C57BL/6N mice were fed a high-fat diet to build animal models and treated with Pediococcus pentosaceus PP04 to evaluate the antihyperlipidemia effect. After 8 weeks, the indicators of hyperlipidemia, liver injury, and inflammation were measured. The treatment of P. pentosaceus PP04 reduced the gain of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), free fatty acids (FFAs), leptin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) significantly. The western blotting results suggested P. pentosaceus PP04 ameliorated high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia by the AMPK signaling pathway, which stimulated lipolysis via upregulation of PPARα and inhibited lipogenesis by downregulation of SREBP-1c, fatty acid synthase (FAS), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) mainly. Furthermore, P. pentosaceus PP04 improved high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress effectively by triggering the Nrf2/CYP2E1 signaling pathway that enhanced the antioxidant activity including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px).

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(51): e23661, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371102

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This analysis of clinical data from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with chylothorax and/or chylous ascites was conducted to guide further clinical work.From June 2008 to June 2019, 15 SLE patients (14 females and 1 male) with chylothorax and/or chylous ascites were hospitalized at the Beijing Shijitan Hospital. Sixty SLE patients without chylothorax and chylous ascites were randomly selected as controls. Patients', clinical data was investigated.The mean age of onset of chylothorax and/or chylous ascites in patients with SLE was 35.7 ±â€Š3.7 years (range, 15-69 years). The mean disease duration of chylothorax and/or chylous ascites in patients with SLE was 13.7 ±â€Š3.4 months (range, 1-48 months). Patients with chylothorax and/or chylous ascites were always diagnosed at later stages of SLE compared with the controls. Among cases, glomerulonephritis and hematologic system involvement were the most common complications. Anti-Sjogren's syndrome antigen A antibody was positive in 7 cases (46.7%). Among cases, direct lymphangiography was performed in 13 patients, indicating thoracic duct outlet obstruction or a poor backflow at the terminal of the thoracic duct. Subsequently, 13 patients were treated with corticosteroids, combined with immunosuppressants in 11 patients and thoracic duct surgery in 6 patients. Eleven patients were followed up for 0.5 to 7.0 years. One patient died of infection. Eight patients (53.3%) achieved remission.Chylothorax and/or chylous ascites are rare complications of SLE. An early diagnosis and timely initiation of glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, and surgery are critical to relieve symptoms and to improve prognosis.


Assuntos
Quilotórax/etiologia , Ascite Quilosa/etiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Quilotórax/epidemiologia , Quilotórax/terapia , Ascite Quilosa/epidemiologia , Ascite Quilosa/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224435

RESUMO

A growing body of studies has demonstrated that acute transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) therapy for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) has achieved significant antidepressant effects and can alleviate other related symptoms. However, MDD has a high relapse rate, and patients with depressive symptoms can relapse weeks or months after acute TMS treatment. The lack of necessary TMS maintenance protocols after completing acute TMS treatment with full remission might be one of the reasons for the high relapse rates in MDD patients. Thus, investigating post-TMS treatment maintenance guidelines is important for decreasing relapse in treatment-resistant depression patients who had initially responded to acute TMS therapy. Therefore, we recommend a scientific approach to decrease relapse in treatment-resistant depression patients who had initially responded to acute TMS treatment.

13.
Exp Ther Med ; 20(6): 269, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199994

RESUMO

Lower back pain is a common problem in middle-aged and elderly people, and intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is often the main cause. The present study aimed to explore the effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) on inflammation and oxidative stress in the intervertebral disc. C57/BL6 mice were used to construct an IVDD model by tail suspension and daily intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg/kg DMF were administered to analyze the effects of DMF on IVDD. In addition, human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were cultured and stimulated cells with recombinant human IL-1ß and DMF to examine the effects of DMF on inflammation and oxidative stress in NP cells. DMF significantly increased the intervertebral disc height index of mice and inhibited the degradation of the extracellular matrix of mouse NP tissue. In addition, DMF also decreased the expression of inflammatory factors [including IL-6, IL-8, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)3 and MMP13] in NP cells. In terms of oxidative stress, DMF significantly increased the antioxidative stress response in NP cells and reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress. DMF also increased the activity of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf) 2/heme oxygenase (HO)-1 signaling pathway in NP cells and increased the phosphorylation of Akt. DMF also increased the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative ability of NP cells by promoting the activity of the Nrf2/HO-1 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, thus delaying IVDD.

14.
Arch Virol ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141334

RESUMO

The complete genome sequence of a novel mycovirus, Phoma matteucciicola RNA virus 1 (PmRV1), derived from Phoma matteucciicola strain LG-01, was sequenced and analyzed. The complete cDNA sequence of PmRV1 is 3432 bp in length with a GC content of 57.17%. The genome of PmRV1 contains two putative open reading frames (ORFs): ORF1 and ORF2. ORF1 encodes a hypothetical protein with significant similarity to a protein encoded by Periconia macrospinosa ambiguivirus 1 (PmAV1). ORF2 encodes a protein of 491 amino acids with a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain. Additionally, the triad within domain III has an asparagine (GDN) instead of the nearly universally conserved aspartic acid (GDD). RdRp phylogeny showed that PmRV1 grouped together with PmAV1 as a sister branch of a new member of the recently proposed family of mycotombus-like viruses. This is first report of the complete sequence of a novel mycovirus, PmRV1, infecting Phoma matteucciicola strain LG-01, the causal agent of leaf blight of Curcuma wenyujin.

15.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(11)2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126442

RESUMO

Dendrobium catenatum is a member of epiphytic orchids with extensive range of pharmacological properties and ornamental values. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), a key member of antioxidant system, plays a vital role in protecting plants against oxidative damage caused by various biotic and abiotic stresses. So far, little is known about the SOD gene family in D. catenatum. In this study, eight SOD genes, including four Cu/ZnSODs, three FeSODs and one MnSOD, were identified in D. catenatum genome. Phylogenetic analyses of SOD proteins in D. catenatum and several other species revealed that these SOD proteins can be assigned to three subfamilies based on their metal co-factors. Moreover, the similarities in conserved motifs and gene structures in the same subfamily corroborated their classification and inferred evolutionary relationships. There were many hormone and stress response elements in DcaSODs, of which light responsiveness elements was the largest group. All DcaSODs displayed tissue-specific expression patterns and exhibited abundant expression levels in flower and leaf. According to public RNA-seq data and qRT-PCR analysis showed that the almost DcaSODs, except for DcaFSD2, were highly expressed under cold and drought treatments. Under heat, light, and salt stresses, DcaCSD1, DcaCSD2, DcaCSD3 were always significantly up-regulated, which may play a vital role in coping with various stresses. The expression levels of DcaFSD1 and DcaFSD2 were promoted by high light, suggesting their important roles in light response. These findings provided valuable information for further research on DcaSODs in D. catenatum.

16.
Food Funct ; 11(11): 9801-9809, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079125

RESUMO

Panax ginseng was fermented using Lactobacillus fermentum KP-3, and the levels of the minor ginsenosides were measured. Then, the effect of fermented ginseng on alcohol-induced liver injury was investigated. C57BL/6N mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups: pair fed (PF), alcohol fed (AF), alcohol with non-fermented ginseng (AF + NFG) and alcohol with fermented ginseng (AF + FG) groups. After treatment for 8 weeks, fermented ginseng intervention significantly reduced the levels of serum ALT, AST, LPS, TG and TC compared with the AF group. The western-blotting results showed that fermented ginseng activated the adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway to inhibit de novo lipogenesis in the liver and inhibited phosphorylation of p38 through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway to alleviate hepatic inflammation, and these effects were superior than those of non-fermented ginseng. Furthermore, fermented ginseng reduced alcohol-induced liver oxidative damage by upregulating the levels of antioxidant enzymes. These findings suggested that the L. fermentum KP-3-fermented ginseng product may be used as a potential dietary nutraceutical for alleviating alcoholic liver injury.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 559729, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101081

RESUMO

Objective: Decreased homotopic connectivity of brain networks such as the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits may contribute to the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, little is known about interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC) at rest in OCD. In this study, the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method was applied to explore interhemispheric coordination at rest in OCD. Methods: Forty medication-free patients with OCD and 38 sex-, age-, and education level-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The VMHC and support vector machine (SVM) methods were used to analyze the data. Results: Patients with OCD had remarkably decreased VMHC values in the orbitofrontal cortex, thalamus, middle occipital gyrus, and precentral and postcentral gyri compared with HCs. A combination of the VMHC values in the thalamus and postcentral gyrus could optimally distinguish patients with OCD from HCs. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the contribution of decreased interhemispheric FC within and outside the CSTC circuits in OCD and provide evidence to the pathophysiology of OCD.

18.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 16(1): 50, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Home garden is identified as a kind of small-scale land-use system which is used to manage and cultivate useful plants by local people, and home gardens can provide various plant products and services. Investigating home gardens was regarded as an effective way to understand the biodiversity-related local knowledge and culture of native people in Ethnobiology and Ethnoecology. Home garden is important in less developed and remote areas. The grand canyon of Yarlung Tsangpo is designed as one of the biodiversity hotspots of China, and it is one of the most remote regions of China, because of the rough traffic conditions. The aim of the present study is to collect, record, and document the plants and their local knowledge and functions in the local home gardens, then attempt to answer the question: "why local people selected these plants?" MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study area was in Beibeng Township of Motuo County in the grand canyon of Yarlung Tsangpo. Observation and semi-structure interviews with informed consent were used to collect data in field study. All information was collected and organized, then documented based on "ethno-species" as a fundamental unit. All of the information of local use and knowledge were organized as the list of "use-report" for quantitative analysis, and the local uses of plants were merged into 14 use categories. Frequency of citation (FC), relative frequency of citation (RFC), cultural importance index (CI), and cultural value index (CV) were used in quantitative analysis. Besides, the Jaccard Index was used to compare the similarity in plant species selection among different communities. RESULTS: A total of 78 home gardens in the 9 communities of Beibeng Township were visited, and 196 ethno-species were collected. These ethno-species were identified into 188 Botanical taxa. A total of 87 home garden owners as informants were interviewed in the present study, and they provided 625 use-reports to us. The top 5 important plants were Su-lan-tsao (Dendrobium nobile), Sa-ga (Zingiber officinale), Soe-lu (Capsicum annuum), Snying-pa (Citrus medica), and Kham-pu (Prunus persica), according to the quantitative analysis. The most citied use-category was "vegetable," followed by "ornamental plant," "medicine," and "fruit." The altitude might be the most important impact factor of the plant diversity and composition of home gardens, and the traffic conditions, local terrain, also impact the plant diversity and composition of home gardens. CONCLUSION: In remote areas such as the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon, the plants in home gardens are important sources of plant products such as foods, herbal medicines, and fibers to support daily lives. The local home gardens in Tsang-la communities had high diversity of plants, and these plants provided many functions and services to support daily lives of local people. Local plant knowledge, including the features, life forms, habits, habitats, and use values of plants, were the summary of the understanding of local people to their surrounding plant worlds. Local people selected appropriate plants to cultivate and manage in their home gardens under the guidance of the local plant knowledge. That is the answer to the question "why local people selected these plants?"

19.
Plant J ; 104(4): 864-879, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981147

RESUMO

Natural plant dyes have been developed and used across many traditional societies worldwide. The blue pigment indigo has seen widespread usage across South America, Egypt, Europe, India and China for thousands of years, mainly extracted from indigo-rich plants. The utilization and genetic engineering of indigo in industries and ethnobotanical studies on the effects of cultural selection on plant domestication are limited due to lack of relevant genetic and genomic information of dye plants. Strobilanthes cusia (Acanthaceae) is a typical indigo-rich plant important to diverse ethnic cultures in many regions of Asia. Here we present a chromosome-scale genome for S. cusia with a genome size of approximately 865 Mb. About 79% of the sequences were identified as repetitive sequences and 32 148 protein-coding genes were annotated. Metabolic analysis showed that the main indigoid pigments (indican, indigo and indirubin) were mainly synthesized in the leaves and stems of S. cusia. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression level of genes encoding metabolic enzymes such as monooxygenase, uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase and ß-glucosidase were significantly changed in leaves and stems compared with root tissues, implying their participation in indigo biosynthesis. We found that several gene families involved in indigo biosynthesis had undergone an expansion in number, with functional differentiation likely facilitating indigo biosynthesis in S. cusia. This study provides insight into the physiological and molecular bases of indigo biosynthesis, as well as providing genomic data that provide the basis for further study of S. cusia cultivation by Asia's traditional textile producers.

20.
Dalton Trans ; 49(32): 11226-11237, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756631

RESUMO

There are still some key problems in the process of the flame retardant treatment of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA): poor compatibility, deteriorating mechanical properties and potential toxicity to human health and environment. To solve these issues, a green and eco-friendly bio-based polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) formed by chitosan and phytic acid was designed to enhance the flame retardant and mechanical properties of PVA by a facile ultrasonic-assisted solution blending method. Moreover, the mechanical and flame retardant properties could be regulated by varying the ratio of each component in the PEC. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that after the introduction of PEC, PVA/PEC composites maintained better thermal stability and char formation ability. Besides, when the addition of PEC reached 20 wt%, the limited oxygen index (LOI) value of cured PVA increased from 18% to 25.9%, 30.8% and 35.6% for PVA/20(2 : 1) PEC, PVA/20(1 : 2) PEC and PVA/20(1 : 8) PEC, respectively. Moreover, UL-94 V-0 rating was achieved except for the PVA/20(2 : 1) PEC. Compared with pure PVA, the peak heat release rate (pHRR) and the total heat release (THR) of PVA/20(1 : 8) PEC demonstrated a sharp decrease by 69.9% and 45.5%, respectively, in the microscale combustion calorimeter measurements (MCC). These results indicate that PEC can endow PVA with excellent flame retardancy. Furthermore, the microscopic investigations on char residues of all samples by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra and Raman spectroscopy revealed the possible flame retardant mechanisms in condensed and gaseous phases. In addition, PVA/PEC composites have better mechanical properties owing to their harder backbones of chitosan, formation of phosphonate bonds and the PVA molecular chain movement blocked by PEC. As a result, the facile processing technology and eco-friendly flame retardants are expected to be applied in practice.

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