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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15960, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685839

RESUMO

We aimed to assess whether hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) could modify the effect of pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity (OWO) on the risk of offspring high body mass index (BMI) in infancy. A total of 3,765 mother-child pairs were recruited from two Chinese birth cohorts. BMI ≥ 85th percentile, based on World Health Organization criteria, was defined as a high BMI for the risk of developing severe obesity in later life. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the combined effects and multiplicative interactions of pre-pregnancy OWO + HDP on offspring high BMI. Relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) or attributable proportion (AP) was used to estimate additive interactions. RERI > 0 or AP > 0 indicates a significant additive interaction. Compared with the non-OWO and normal blood pressure group, the combination of OWO + HDP was positively associated with offspring high BMI at 12 months of age [OR 3.10 (95%CI 1.59, 6.04)], with 51% of the effects attributed to an additive interaction [AP 0.51 (95%CI 0.13, 0.89)]. An interactive effect was found between the pre-pregnancy OWO + HDP and offspring high BMI in infancy. Interventions to control pre-pregnancy OWO and HDP are important to prevent obesity and associated adverse outcomes in offspring.

2.
J Sep Sci ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722132

RESUMO

Three types of molecularly imprinted solid phase microextraction fibers were fabricated through sol-gel method using diazinon, parathion-methyl and isocarbophos as templates, respectively, and assembled together to construct a multifiber for analysis of organophosphorus pesticides in complex matrices. The multifiber provided large extraction capacity and high imprinting factor up to 3.89. In contrast, the imprinting factor of a single fiber was around 1.6, and the multi-template imprinted coating showed no selectivity. The multifiber was applied to analyze pesticides in fruits and vegetables. The limits of detection, ranged from 0.0052 to 0.23, were lower than those obtained by a single molecularly imprinted fiber, and much lower than those reported by other methods. The recoveries of five analytes in spiked apple, cucumber, Chinese cabbage and cherry tomato samples were 75.1%-123.2%. The study shows that the molecularly imprinted multifiber could achieve simultaneous selective extraction and sensitive determination of multiple targets in complex matrices for high-throughput analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
ISA Trans ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587810

RESUMO

Stator/rotor winding faults are the common faults in squirrel-cage induction motor systems, which motivates the study of incipient fault detection and isolation (IFDI) to improve the safety and reliability of CRH (China Railway High-speed) trains. In this paper, a dynamic model for squirrel caged induction motor in d-q coordinate system is established firstly, further, the models and characteristics of incipient broken-rotor-bar fault and turn-to-turn short fault are analyzed. After that, a novel robust diagnosis design is proposed for the possible incipient stator/rotor winding faults. Experimental analyses show that the detection and isolation scheme designed in this paper provides high sensitivity and accurate isolation to incipient winding faults.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11536-11541, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589045

RESUMO

Limited reports on the use of nanobodies (Nbs) in fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) aroused us to explore if the small size of Nbs is a drawback for the development of sensitive FPIA to small molecular compounds, particularly since FPIA is a technology strongly dependent on molecular weight. In the present work, three different molecular weight Nbs against 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), an exposure biomarker of pyrethroid insecticides, including bare Nbs (15 kDa), Nbs-Avidin (Nbs-AV, 60 kDa), and Nbs-Alkaline phosphatase (Nbs-AP, 130 kDa) were specifically generated to cover distinct regions on the polarization and molecular weight relationship curve for a fluorescein tracer. In competitive FPIA, similar half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 3-PBA of 16.4, 12.2, and 14.8 ng mL-1 were obtained for Nbs, Nbs-AV, and Nbs-AP, respectively, indicating that the size of Nbs in the range tested had no significant effect on the sensitivity of the resulting competitive FPIA. An IC50 of 20.2 ng mL-1 for an anti-3-PBA polyconal antibody based FPIA further demonstrated the performance of Nbs, which was comparable to that of traditional antibodies in FPIA. Spike-recovery studies showed good and reproducible recovery of 3-PBA in urine samples, demonstrating the applicability of Nb-based FPIA. Overall, our results show that Nb-based FPIA achieves sensitivity levels of FPIA based on conventional antibodies and further indicate that Nb absolutely meets the sensitivity requirement of FPIA.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/urina , Imunoensaio de Fluorescência por Polarização/métodos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Biomarcadores/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Imunoensaio de Fluorescência por Polarização/instrumentação , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Neuroendocrinology ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) rarely occurs in the mediastinum and the etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed inherited or de novo mutations in familial mediastinal NETs. METHOD: DNA samples from four persons were subjected to the whole-exome sequencing, and Sanger sequencing was used to identify Deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 (DMBT1) mutations in all 45 family members. RESULTS: All patients showed a germline DMBT1 mutation at 4971C. Sanger sequencing data showed that four NETs and two carriers in the first patient family had this DMBT1 mutation, and two NETs and four carriers in the second patient family had this DMBT1 mutation. The in vitro data showed that ectopic expression of DMBT1 reduced tumor cell viability and migration by arresting the G1/S phase of cell cycle. CONCLUSIONS: The data from current study identified a germline missense mutation in DMBT1D1657E as a susceptibility gene for familial mediastinal NETs.

6.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580519

RESUMO

Five novel H5N6 influenza viruses, including four highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and one low pathogenic avian influenza virus, were isolated from migratory birds in Ningxia, China, in November 2017. To understand the genetic origination of the novel H5N6 virus, and the infectivity and pathogenicity of the four highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in mammals, phylogeographic analyses and infection studies in mice were performed. The phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses showed that the H5N6 isolates, which are closely related to the viruses from Korea, Japan and the Netherlands, originated from reassortant virus between H5N8 and HxN6 viruses from western Russia. The animal study revealed that the SBD-87 isolate presented moderate virulence in mice, suggesting a potential public risk to humans and a potential threat to public health.

7.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 3141-3144, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598844

RESUMO

In this study, we report a novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, Beauveria bassiana partitivirus 3 (BbPV-3), derived from the entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana isolate RCEF5853 from China. The genome of BbPV-3, whose sequence was determined by metagenomic sequencing, RT-PCR, and RACE cloning, comprises two dsRNA genome segments that are 1,856 and 1,719 bp long. The first segment contains a single ORF (ORF-1) encoding a 584-amino-acid-long protein (66.05 kDa) with a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) motif. The second segment also has a single ORF (ORF-2) encoding a 500-amino-acid-long coat protein (CP) (55.9 kDa). The CP and RdRp sequences showed highest identity of 43.4% and 60.2%, respectively, to those of Colletotrichum eremochloae partitivirus 1. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp domain of the polyprotein revealed that BbPV-3 grouped together with the members of the genus Epsilonpartitivirus. Hence, we proposed that Beauveria bassiana partitivirus 3 is a novel member of the proposed genus Epsilonpartitivirus.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511971

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of lymph node ratio (LNR, ratio of metastatic to examined nodes) in the staging of multiple human malignancies has been reported. We aim to evaluate its value in salivary gland cancer (SGC). METHODS: Records of SGC patients from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (SEER, training set, N = 4262) and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC, validating set, N = 154) were analyzed for the prognostic value of LNR. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, the Log-rank χ2 test and Cox proportional hazards model were used for univariate and multivariate analysis. Optimal LNR cutoff points were identified by X-tile. RESULTS: Optimal LNR cutoff points classified patients into four risk groups, R0, R1 (≤ 0.17), R2 (0.17-0.56) and R3 (> 0.56), corresponding to 5-year cause-specific survival in SEER patients of 88.6%, 57.2%, 53.1% and 39.7%, disease-free survival in FUSCC patients of 69.2%, 63.3%, 34.6% and 0%, and disease-specific survival in FUSCC patients of 92.3%, 90.0%, 71.4% and 0%, respectively. Compared with TNM staging, TNM + R staging showed smaller AIC values and higher C-index values in the Cox regression model in both patient sets. CONCLUSIONS: LNR classification should be considered as a complementary system to TNM staging and LNR classification based clinical trials deserve further research.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491955

RESUMO

Japonica and indica are two important subspecies in cultivated Asian rice. Irradiation is a classical approach to induce mutations and create novel germplasm. However, little is known about the differential response between japonica and indica rice after γ radiation. Here, we utilized the RNA sequencing and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to compare the transcriptome differences between japonica Nipponbare (NPB) and indica Yangdao6 (YD6) in response to irradiation. Japonica subspecies are more sensitive to irradiation than the indica subspecies. Indica showed a higher seedling survival rate than japonica. Irradiation caused more extensive DNA damage in shoots than in roots, and the severity was higher in NPB than in YD6. GO and KEGG pathway analyses indicate that the core genes related to DNA repair and replication and cell proliferation are similarly regulated between the varieties, however the universal stress responsive genes show contrasting differential response patterns in japonica and indica. WGCNA identifies 37 co-expressing gene modules and ten candidate hub genes for each module. This provides novel evidence indicating that certain peripheral pathways may dominate the molecular networks in irradiation survival and suggests more potential target genes in breeding for universal stress tolerance in rice.

11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 223: 115061, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426963

RESUMO

In this study, chitosan oligosaccharide (COS)-vanillin imine (COS-Vani Imine)-based dual pH responsive nano-micelles (DPRNs) were synthesized. The resultant DPRNs were used for encapsulating genistein and its ultimate release upon pH change. The overall concept of DPRNs for the targeted delivery of hydrophobic anticancer drugs was successfully demonstrated. The DPRNs were spherical in shape, nanoscale in dimension (71.2-163.4 nm), with dual pH response. The encapsulation/loading of genistein into DPRNs was achieved and the resultant genistein-loaded DPRNs were stable under the physiological pH (˜7.4); under the cancer cell extracellular pH (˜6.8), the amino groups in COS is protonated, thus becoming positively charged, facilitating their adsorption onto negatively charged cancer cells. Under the cancer cell intracellular pH (˜5.0), the genistein-loaded DPRNs were destroyed as a result of the cleavage of pH sensitive benzoic imine, thereby releasing the loaded genistein.

12.
Thyroid ; 29(9): 1269-1278, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328653

RESUMO

Background: Expression of the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) has been rarely reported. In this study, we evaluated PD-L1 positivity in MTC and analyzed its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics, structural recurrence (SR), and biochemical recurrence/persistent disease (BcR/BcPD). We also evaluated the prevalence of PD-L1 expression in patients developing distant or unresectable locoregional recurrence. Methods: In total, 201 consecutive MTC patients who underwent initial surgery in our institution from January 2006 to December 2015 were included. PD-L1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and was considered positive in case of a combined positive score ≥1. The association of PD-L1 positivity with clinicopathological characteristics, structural recurrence-free survival (SRFS), and BcR/BcPD was retrospectively investigated. Results: The median follow-up length of the entire cohort was 73 months. We observed positive PD-L1 staining in 29 (14.4%) patients who were more likely to have a larger tumor size (p = 0.002), lymph node metastases (p = 0.036), and advanced TNM staging (p = 0.019). The five-year SRFS of the PD-L1-negative and PD-L1-positive groups was 85.4% and 57.9% (p = 0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that PD-L1 positivity was independently associated with SR (hazard ratio = 2.19 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-4.77], p = 0.047). Furthermore, multivariate logistic analysis showed that PD-L1 positivity was significantly associated with BcR/BcPD (odds ratio = 3.16 [CI 1.16-8.66], p = 0.025). During the study period, 20 patients developed distant or unresectable locoregional recurrence, among whom 8 (40%) were PD-L1 positive, which was much higher than in the entire MTC population. Conclusions: Using a large cohort of MTC patients, we demonstrate that PD-L1 positivity is associated with aggressive clinicopathological features and is independently predictive of SR and BcR/BcPD. Furthermore, a higher rate of PD-L1 expression in patients with incurable recurrence has been observed. Therefore, immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 pathway may be a potential therapeutic strategy to treat advanced MTC.

13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1814-1821, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342707

RESUMO

Commercially available japonica rice and indica rice with different trade names were collected,and then based on the method of rice stir-frying,their many indexes were evaluated,for example the physical and chemical properties such as appearance color,grain type,broken kernel ratio,length-width ratio,1 000-grain weight,specific heat capacity,moisture content,amylose content,and protein content. The discriminant function analysis was used to determine the effective factors affecting the quality of rice as excipients. The results showed that two types of rice could be distinguished by rice color parameter a*,grain parameter circularity,1 000-grain weight and amylose content. These four effective factors can be used as the quality evaluation indexes for fried rice as excipients.Protein is one of the main components of rice,and its content affects the quality of rice. There is a significant difference in the protein content between japonica rice and indica rice. Therefore,protein content should be used as one of the evaluation indexes for rice quality. After comprehensive consideration,it is suggested that the red-green value a*shall not be less than 0. 50; the circularity not less than 53. 0,the 1 000-grain weight not less than 16. 0 g,the amylose content not less than 12. 0% and the protein content not less than4. 0% in the japonica rice; the red-green value a*shall not be lower than-1. 0,the circularity not less than 41. 0,the 1 000-grain weight not less than 13. 0 g,the amylose content not less than 9. 0% and the protein content not less than 3. 5% in the indica rice. In this study,the quality evaluation standards for rice as excipients( japonica rice,indica rice) were supplemented and improved,laying foundation for the development of quality standards for rice as excipients with the rice stir-frying method.


Assuntos
Culinária , Excipientes , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Oryza/química , Amilose , Temperatura Alta
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(13)2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262053

RESUMO

Accurate and dynamic monitoring of crop nitrogen status is the basis of scientific decisions regarding fertilization. In this study, we compared and analyzed three types of spectral variables: Sensitive spectral bands, the position of spectral features, and typical hyperspectral vegetation indices. First, the Savitzky-Golay technique was used to smooth the original spectrum, following which three types of spectral parameters describing crop spectral characteristics were extracted. Next, the successive projections algorithm (SPA) was adopted to screen out the sensitive variable set from each type of parameters. Finally, partial least squares (PLS) regression and random forest (RF) algorithms were used to comprehensively compare and analyze the performance of different types of spectral variables for estimating corn leaf nitrogen content (LNC). The results show that the integrated variable set composed of the optimal ones screened by SPA from three types of variables had the best performance for LNC estimation by the validation data set, with the values of R2, root means square error (RMSE), and normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 0.77, 0.31, and 17.1%, and 0.55, 0.43, and 23.9% from PLS and RF, respectively. It indicates that the PLS model with optimally multitype spectral variables can provide better fits and be a more effective tool for evaluating corn LNC.

15.
Chemphyschem ; 20(20): 2674-2682, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257670

RESUMO

To achieve high open-circuit voltage (Voc ) and low acceptor content, the molecular design of a small-molecule donor with low energy loss (Eloss ) is very important for solution-processable organic solar cells (OSCs). Herein, we designed and synthesized a new coplanar A-D-A structured organic small-molecule semiconductor with non-fused ring structure π-bridge, namely B2TPR, and applied it as donor material in OSCs. Owing to the strong electron-withdrawing effect of the end group and the coplanar π-bridge, B2TPR exhibits a low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital and strong crystallinity. Furthermore, benefiting from the coplanar molecular skeleton, the high hole mobility, balanced charge transport and reduced recombination were achieved, leading to a high fill factor (FF). The OSCs based on B2TPR : PC71 BM blend film (w/w=1 : 0.35) demonstrates a moderate power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.10 % with a remarkable Voc of 0.98 V and FF of 64 %, corresponding to a low fullerene content of 25.9 % and a low Eloss of 0.70 eV. These results demonstrate the great potential of small-molecule with structure of B2TPR for future low-cost organic photovoltaic applications.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9096-9103, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356079

RESUMO

A monoclonal antibody (mAb) was raised against tebuconazole (TEB) using a hapten where the p-chloro substituent of the TEB molecule was replaced with a long-chain carboxylic acid. The resulting mAb showed high sensitivity and specificity against TEB characterized by ELISA with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.19 ng mL-1 and with cross-reactivity (CR) values below 0.01% to several analogues of triazole fungicides. On the basis of the mAb produced, a quantum dot beads-based fluorescence immunochromatographic test strip assay (QBs-FITSA) was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of TEB in agricultural product samples. The QBs-FITSA exhibited a linear detection range from 0.02 to 1.25 ng mL-1 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.02 ng mL-1. Furthermore, using produced mAb, multiple high-throughput rapid immunoassay formats could be achieved as a convenient monitoring tool for evaluation of human and environmental exposure to TEB.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Cucumis sativus/química , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Imunoensaio/métodos , Triazóis/análise , Triticum/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/isolamento & purificação , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Limite de Detecção , Pontos Quânticos/química , Triazóis/isolamento & purificação
17.
Adv Mater ; : e1902037, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304651

RESUMO

Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) have revolutionized photovoltaics since the first prototype in 2009, and up to now the highest efficiency has soared to 24.2%, which is on par with commercial thin film cells and not far from monocrystalline silicon solar cells. Optimizing device performance and improving stability have always been the research highlight of PVSCs. Metal cations are introduced into perovskites to further optimize the quality, and this strategy is showing a vigorous development trend. Here, the progress of research into metal cations for PVSCs is discussed by focusing on the position of the cations in perovskites, the modulation of the film quality, and the influence on the photovoltaic performance. Metal cations are considered in the order of alkali cations, alkaline earth cations, then metal cations in the ds and d regions, and ultimately trivalent cations (p- and f-block metal cations) according to the periodic table of elements. Finally, this work is summarized and some relevant issues are discussed.

18.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 18: 71-73, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterise the whole genome sequence of linezolid-intermediate Enterococcus hirae strain CQP3-9 isolated from a large-scale swine farm in Sichuan Province, China, in August 2018. METHODS: An Illumina MiSeq platform (400-bp paired-end reads with 230-fold average coverage) and PacBio RS II sequencing instrument (100-fold average read depth) were used for genome sequencing. The chromosome and two plasmids were assembled using the software SMRT portal v.3.2.0. Acquired antimicrobial resistance genes were identified using ResFinder 3.1. RESULTS: The genome of E. hirae strain CQP3-9 consists of one 2 695 881-bp chromosome, one 125 915-bp plasmid (pCQP3-9_1) and one 33 132-bp plasmid (pCQP3-9_2). The genome of CQP3-9 contains 2458 coding sequences and 89 RNA genes. The poxtA gene is the only linezolid resistance gene in CQP3-9, located on plasmid pCQP3-9_2 that co-harbours erm(B) (macrolide resistance), fexB (chloramphenicol and florfenicol resistance), and tet(M) and tet(L) (tetracycline resistance). CONCLUSION: Here we report for the first time the phenicol-oxazolidinone-tetracycline resistance gene poxtA in E. hirae, located on a plasmid that co-harbours erm(B), fexB, tet(L) and tet(M). The genome sequence of E. hirae CQP3-9 provides valuable information for the dissemination of poxtA among enterococci.

19.
Diagn Pathol ; 14(1): 52, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is increasing. The impact of HT on PTC prognosis and its possible mechanism remains controversial. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) has been reported to participate in the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune diseases and cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of IL-17A in PTC with coexistent HT and evaluate the changes in tumor antigenicity. METHODS: Expression of IL-17A and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules were compared on PTC tissue samples with or without HT. PTC cell lines K1 and TPC-1 were stimulated with IL-17A and analyzed for MHC class I expression afterwards. Cluster of differentiation (CD) 8+T cell activation, production of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as well as the programmed death-1 (PD-1) expression on lymphocytes were assessed by coculture of donor peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) with IL-17A pretreated PTC cells. RESULTS: Elevated IL-17A and MHC class I expression were observed in PTC tissue samples with coexistent HT. Stimulation of PTC cells with IL-17A effectively increased MHC class I expression in vitro. Coculture of PBLs with IL-17A pretreated PTC cells resulted in enhanced T cell activation (%CD25+ of CD3+T cells) and increased IL-2 production along with decreased IFN-γ secretion and PD-1 expression of the lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Papillary thyroid cancer with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis presents elevated MHC class I expression, which may be the result of IL-17A secretion. T cell activation is enhanced in vitro by IL-17A and may provide future utility in PTC immunotherapy.

20.
Med Dosim ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176536

RESUMO

This study compares dosimetric parameters in these following 3 neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) methods in treating locally advanced esophagus cancer: helical tomotherapy (TOMO), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). It is aimed to ascertain the efficient technique that kept high target coverage and availed the dose sparing of bone marrow (BM). This research collected data on 11 patients from October 2014 to June 2017 who received NCRT for pathologically confirmed esophageal cancer. The prescription doses to the planning target volume (PTV) were all given as 60 Gy (2 Gy per fraction, 5 days a week). Three physicists via Varian Eclipse Treatment Planning System and Accuray planning stations redesigned 5 radiotherapy plans (fixed 5-field IMRT, fixed 7-field IMRT, 2-arc VMAT, 3-arc VMAT, and TOMO) for each of the patients. At the end of the planning, we then appraised the dosimetric quality based on the PTV parameters and the doses to organs at risk (OARs). In the study VMAT reached the highest conformity index (CI; 2 arcs VMAT: 0.74 ± 0.10; 3 arcs VMAT: 0.78 ± 0.07; p< 0.05), and IMRT the lowest homogeneity index (HI; fivefields IMRT: 0.12 ± 0.03; sevenfields IMRT: 0.10 ± 0.02; p< 0.05). Besides, 7 fields IMRT (0.10 ± 0.02) achieved superior HI to that of 5 fields IMRT (0.12 ± 0.03, p< 0.01). TOMO (p< 0.05) and VMAT (p< 0.05) were both significantly superior to IMRT in terms of the dose to lung (V5, V10, V15, V20, and V30). These 5 radiation techniques were similar regarding the dose to heart (V5, V20, and V30), but IMRT (5 fields IMRT: 19.27 ± 5.33; 7 fields IMRT: 20.05 ± 4.19) significantly raised the dose to the V50 of the heart when compared to VMAT (2 arcs VMAT: 16.6 ± 5.68; 3 arcs VMAT: 15.04 ± 5.75; p< 0.05) and TOMO (15.05 ± 4.7, p< 0.05). VMAT reduced the dose to BM (V5, V10, V20, and V30) as compared to TOMO (p< 0.05) and IMRT (p< 0.05). The CI of VMAT was the supreme one in those of the techniques in this study, so was the HI of IMRT. VMAT also provided another advantage that it reduced the dose to the BM. TOMO ameliorated the dose sparing of the lung, but the dose that the BM absorbed from TOMO was of some concern about BM toxicity.

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