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1.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 895-905, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425110

RESUMO

Fact sheets with vivid graphical design and intriguing statistical insights are prevalent for presenting raw data. They help audiences understand data-related facts effectively and make a deep impression. However, designing a fact sheet requires both data and design expertise and is a laborious and time-consuming process. One needs to not only understand the data in depth but also produce intricate graphical representations. To assist in the design process, we present DataShot which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first automated system that creates fact sheets automatically from tabular data. First, we conduct a qualitative analysis of 245 infographic examples to explore general infographic design space at both the sheet and element levels. We identify common infographic structures, sheet layouts, fact types, and visualization styles during the study. Based on these findings, we propose a fact sheet generation pipeline, consisting of fact extraction, fact composition, and presentation synthesis, for the auto-generation workflow. To validate our system, we present use cases with three real-world datasets. We conduct an in-lab user study to understand the usage of our system. Our evaluation results show that DataShot can efficiently generate satisfactory fact sheets to support further customization and data presentation.

2.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 1107-1117, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442994

RESUMO

Detecting and analyzing potential anomalous performances in cloud computing systems is essential for avoiding losses to customers and ensuring the efficient operation of the systems. To this end, a variety of automated techniques have been developed to identify anomalies in cloud computing. These techniques are usually adopted to track the performance metrics of the system (e.g., CPU, memory, and disk I/O), represented by a multivariate time series. However, given the complex characteristics of cloud computing data, the effectiveness of these automated methods is affected. Thus, substantial human judgment on the automated analysis results is required for anomaly interpretation. In this paper, we present a unified visual analytics system named CloudDet to interactively detect, inspect, and diagnose anomalies in cloud computing systems. A novel unsupervised anomaly detection algorithm is developed to identify anomalies based on the specific temporal patterns of the given metrics data (e.g., the periodic pattern). Rich visualization and interaction designs are used to help understand the anomalies in the spatial and temporal context. We demonstrate the effectiveness of CloudDet through a quantitative evaluation, two case studies with real-world data, and interviews with domain experts.

3.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 917-926, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443028

RESUMO

Designers need to consider not only perceptual effectiveness but also visual styles when creating an infographic. This process can be difficult and time consuming for professional designers, not to mention non-expert users, leading to the demand for automated infographics design. As a first step, we focus on timeline infographics, which have been widely used for centuries. We contribute an end-to-end approach that automatically extracts an extensible timeline template from a bitmap image. Our approach adopts a deconstruction and reconstruction paradigm. At the deconstruction stage, we propose a multi-task deep neural network that simultaneously parses two kinds of information from a bitmap timeline: 1) the global information, i.e., the representation, scale, layout, and orientation of the timeline, and 2) the local information, i.e., the location, category, and pixels of each visual element on the timeline. At the reconstruction stage, we propose a pipeline with three techniques, i.e., Non-Maximum Merging, Redundancy Recover, and DL GrabCut, to extract an extensible template from the infographic, by utilizing the deconstruction results. To evaluate the effectiveness of our approach, we synthesize a timeline dataset (4296 images) and collect a real-world timeline dataset (393 images) from the Internet. We first report quantitative evaluation results of our approach over the two datasets. Then, we present examples of automatically extracted templates and timelines automatically generated based on these templates to qualitatively demonstrate the performance. The results confirm that our approach can effectively extract extensible templates from real-world timeline infographics.

4.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 906-916, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478860

RESUMO

Combining data content with visual embellishments, infographics can effectively deliver messages in an engaging and memorable manner. Various authoring tools have been proposed to facilitate the creation of infographics. However, creating a professional infographic with these authoring tools is still not an easy task, requiring much time and design expertise. Therefore, these tools are generally not attractive to casual users, who are either unwilling to take time to learn the tools or lacking in proper design expertise to create a professional infographic. In this paper, we explore an alternative approach: to automatically generate infographics from natural language statements. We first conducted a preliminary study to explore the design space of infographics. Based on the preliminary study, we built a proof-of-concept system that automatically converts statements about simple proportion-related statistics to a set of infographics with pre-designed styles. Finally, we demonstrated the usability and usefulness of the system through sample results, exhibits, and expert reviews.

5.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 62: 104668, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629073

RESUMO

Methamphetamine (MA) has a high uptake in lung, but the precise mechanism of MA-induced lung toxicity remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of MA abuse in remodeling of pulmonary arteries and to explore the possible correlation of the association of the remodeling with the redox imbalance in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group and MA group for the experimental study. We employed H&E staining, western blot, immunofluorescence, knockdown, flow in our experimental approach. Our studies shows that chronic exposure to MA led to weight loss, increased pulmonary arterial pressure, hypertrophy of right ventricle and remodeling of pulmonary arterial wall of rats. Our cell culture study with PASMCs indicates that MA significantly induced the imbalance between proliferation and apoptosis by upregulating the level of PCNA, Bcl-2 and reduction in the expression of BAX and Caspase 3. MA markedly prevented the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 to inhibit antioxidation. The knockdown of Nrf2 expression using siRNA significantly elevated the expression of SOD2/GCS and the production of ROS in PASMCs and even scaled up the amount of PASMCs induced by MA. Linear regression analysis showed that knockdown of Nrf2 promoted the positive correlation of relative ROS level with proliferation of PASMCs. Therefore, chronic exposure to MA induces pulmonary arterial remodeling by Nrf2-mediated imbalance of redox system to aggravate oxidative stress, and Nrf2 is a possible target for the treatment of MA-lung toxicity.

6.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121130, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518815

RESUMO

Enhancing the catalytic activity and stability of enzymes is of great importance in the development of green chemical and cost-effective application, with removal of bisphenol A (BPA) as a prominent example. Engineering immobilization carriers and immobilization methods of enzymes endows great potential to achieve above goal. Until now, these reports have focused on employing the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to increase the stability and reusability of enzymes, an enhancement in its catalytic activity has yet to be addressed. This work introduced a biomimetic mineralization process for facile synthesis of laccase@HKUST-1 biocomposite under mild condition. By exploiting the activity of laccase@HKUST-1, we demonstrated, for the first time, that the integration of laccase and HKUST-1 containing cofactor Cu2+ ions leaded to 1.5-fold enhancement in the catalytic activity compared with free laccase, which was due to the synergistic enhancement of substrate oxidation. Indeed, the laccase@HKUST-1 biocomposite could function as active biocatalysts under biologically challenging conditions, such as acidic condition, high temperature, organic solvent, and continuous operation. The oxidation of phenols, such as BPA, with laccase@HKUST-1 reached higher catalytic performance than free laccase, and gave 100% degradation efficiency within 4 h. This study provides a feasible method to improve the activity and stability of laccase, which enable completely remove of BPA from the environment.

7.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 25: 283-298, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585890

RESUMO

Nlrp3 inflammasomes were shown to play a critical role in triggering obesity-associated early onsets of cardiovascular complications such as endothelial barrier dysfunction with endothelial hyperpermeability. Statins prevent endothelial dysfunction and decrease cardiovascular risk in patients with obesity and diabetes. However, it remains unclear whether statin treatment for obesity-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction is in part due to the blockade of Nlrp3 inflammasome signaling axis. The results showed that simvastatin, a clinically and widely used statin, prevented free fatty acid-induced endothelial hyperpermeability and disruption of ZO-1 and VE-cadherin junctions in mouse microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs). This protective effect of simvastatin was largely due to improved lysosome function that attenuated lysosome injury-mediated Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and subsequent release of high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1). Mechanistically, simvastatin induces autophagy that promotes removal of damaged lysosomes and also promotes lysosome regeneration that preserves lysosome function. Collectively, simvastatin treatment improves lysosome function via enhancing lysosome biogenesis and its autophagic turnover, which may be an important mechanism to suppress Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and prevents endothelial hyperpermeability in obesity.

8.
Opt Lett ; 44(21): 5185, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674962

RESUMO

This erratum corrects the mistyped pump repetition rate in Opt. Lett.42, 4671 (2017)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.42.004671.

9.
J Anat ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670395

RESUMO

Since embryonic heart development is a complex process and acquisition of human embryonic specimens is challenging, the mechanism by which the embryonic conduction system develops remains unclear. Herein, we attempt to gain insights into this developmental process through immunohistochemical staining and 3D reconstructions. Expression analysis of T-box transcription factor 3, cytoskeleton desmin, and nucleoskeleton lamin A protein in human embryos in Carnegie stages 11-20 showed that desmin is preferentially expressed in the myocardium of the central conduction system compared with the peripheral conduction system, and is co-expressed with T-box transcription factor 3 in the central conduction system. Further, lamin A was first expressed in the embryonic ventricular trabeculations, where the terminal ramifications of the peripheral conduction system develop, and extended progressively to all parts of the central conduction system. The uncoupled spatiotemporal distribution pattern of lamin A and desmin indicated that the association of cytoskeleton desmin and nucleoskeleton lamin A may be a late event in human embryonic heart development. Compared with model animals, our data provide a direct morphological basis for understanding the arrhythmogenesis caused by mutations in human DES and LMNA genes.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770729

RESUMO

The discovery of strong materials is essential in materials science and engineering. It becomes more significant to the practical applications of two-dimensional (2D) materials. In this study, the mechanical properties of all known 2D titanium carbide-based MXene monolayers have been systematically investigated by means of the density functional theory computations. Both the impacts of the thickness of the MXenes and the surface functionalization have been considered. Our results reveal that the in-plane planar elastic constants, Young's moduli and Shear moduli increase over the thickness. Moreover, they are enhanced by the terminal groups of surface functionalization. And the oxygen terminal group has the largest influence. As a result, the 2D Ti4C3O2 is the strongest one among all 2D titanium carbide-based MXene, which is even stronger than the graphene. Our prediction provides the theoretical foundation for the specific application of MXenes that demands superior mechanical properties.

11.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774572

RESUMO

Desflurane is one of the commonly used general anaesthetics. Recently, it was reported that desflurane caused neurotoxicity, raising concerns in clinical use. In this study, we found desflurane could affect viability and maturation in motor neurons. Dexmedetomidine, a α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, could attenuate the effect of desflurane on motor neurons. This process was mediated by NF-KappaB signalling. Interestingly, we also found that dexmedetomidine could recover the lesion in motor function and memory impaired by desflurane. Collectively, our results showed the neurotoxic effect of desflurane in motor neurons. More importantly, this process was alleviated by dexmedetomidine, potentially showing its application in protecting motor neuron from neurotoxic agents. Significance of the study: This work provides the evidence to support the protective role of dexmedetomidine in desflurane-induced motor neuron death. Since desflurane is a widely used anaesthetic in surgery and leads to neuron death, the neuroprotective effect of dexmedetomidine holds promising clinical application.

12.
BMJ ; 367: l6258, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess risks and costs of hospital admission associated with short term exposure to fine particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) for 214 mutually exclusive disease groups. DESIGN: Time stratified, case crossover analyses with conditional logistic regressions adjusted for non-linear confounding effects of meteorological variables. SETTING: Medicare inpatient hospital claims in the United States, 2000-12 (n=95 277 169). PARTICIPANTS: All Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 or older admitted to hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of hospital admission, number of admissions, days in hospital, inpatient and post-acute care costs, and value of statistical life (that is, the economic value used to measure the cost of avoiding a death) due to the lives lost at discharge for 214 disease groups. RESULTS: Positive associations between short term exposure to PM2.5 and risk of hospital admission were found for several prevalent but rarely studied diseases, such as septicemia, fluid and electrolyte disorders, and acute and unspecified renal failure. Positive associations were also found between risk of hospital admission and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, and thromboembolism, confirming previously published results. These associations remained consistent when restricted to days with a daily PM2.5 concentration below the WHO air quality guideline for the 24 hour average exposure to PM2.5. For the rarely studied diseases, each 1 µg/m3 increase in short term PM2.5 was associated with an annual increase of 2050 hospital admissions (95% confidence interval 1914 to 2187 admissions), 12 216 days in hospital (11 358 to 13 075), US$31m (£24m, €28m; $29m to $34m) in inpatient and post-acute care costs, and $2.5bn ($2.0bn to $2.9bn) in value of statistical life. For diseases with a previously known association, each 1 µg/m3 increase in short term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an annual increase of 3642 hospital admissions (3434 to 3851), 20 098 days in hospital (18 950 to 21 247), $69m ($65m to $73m) in inpatient and post-acute care costs, and $4.1bn ($3.5bn to $4.7bn) in value of statistical life. CONCLUSIONS: New causes and previously identified causes of hospital admission associated with short term exposure to PM2.5 were found. These associations remained even at a daily PM2.5 concentration below the WHO 24 hour guideline. Substantial economic costs were linked to a small increase in short term PM2.5.

13.
Mol Cancer ; 18(1): 159, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular tumor. Hepatic metastasis is the major and direct death-related reason in UM patients. Given that cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are roots of metastasis, targeting CSCs may be a promising strategy to overcome hepatic metastasis in UM. Salinomycin, which has been identified as a selective inhibitor of CSCs in multiple types of cancer, may be an attractive agent against CSCs thereby restrain hepatic metastasis in UM. The objective of the study is to explore the antitumor activity of salinomycin against UM and clarify its underlying mechanism. METHODS: UM cells were treated with salinomycin, and its effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, CSCs population, and the related signal transduction pathways were determined. The in vivo antitumor activity of salinomycin was evaluated in the NOD/SCID UM xenograft model and intrasplenic transplantation liver metastasis mouse model. RESULTS: We found that salinomycin remarkably obviated growth and survival in UM cell lines and in a UM xenograft mouse model. Meanwhile, salinomycin significantly eliminated CSCs and efficiently hampered hepatic metastasis in UM liver metastasis mouse model. Mechanistically, Twist1 was fundamental for the salinomycin-enabled CSCs elimination and migration/invasion blockage in UM cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that targeting UM CSCs by salinomycin is a promising therapeutic strategy to hamper hepatic metastasis in UM. These results provide the first pre-clinical evidence for further testing of salinomycin for its antitumor efficacy in UM patients with hepatic metastasis.

14.
Mil Med Res ; 6(1): 34, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both periodontal disease and benign prostatic hyperplasia are age-related diseases that affect millions of people worldwide. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the association between periodontal disease and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia. METHODS: A total of 4930 participants were selected from an available health examination that was carried out in 2017, only males were considered for further analysis. All eligible males were divided into benign prostatic hyperplasia and normal groups, the benign prostatic hyperplasia group was then divided into prostate volume ≤ 60 g and > 60 g subgroups; all their periodontal status was extracted and then into normal (CPI score of 0), periodontal disease (CPI score between 1 and 4), and periodontitis (CPI score between 3 and 4) groups. The correlation between periodontal disease and benign prostatic hyperplasia was investigated using logistic regression analyses and greedy matching case-control analysis. Subgroup analysis based on prostate volume was also performed. All analyses were conducted with SAS 9.4 software. RESULTS: A total of 2171 males were selected for this analysis. The presence of periodontal disease significantly increased the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia by 1.68 times (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.26-2.24), and individuals with periodontitis showed a higher risk (OR = 4.18, 95% CI: 2.75-6.35). In addition, among matched cases and controls, this association remained robust (periodontal disease: OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.30-2.64; periodontitis: OR = 4.83, 95% CI: 2.57-9.07). Subgroup analysis revealed that periodontal disease significantly increased benign prostate hyperplasia risk as well (for prostate volume ≤ 60 g: OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.22-2.20; for volume > 60 g: OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.04-4.53), and there was a higher risk in the group with a prostate volume greater than 60 g. CONCLUSION: Periodontal disease is significantly and positively associated with an increased risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Further validation studies should be performed to explore the relationship between periodontal treatment and benign prostate hyperplasia.

16.
Nature ; 575(7781): 195-202, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666704

RESUMO

The mammalian cortex is a laminar structure containing many areas and cell types that are densely interconnected in complex ways, and for which generalizable principles of organization remain mostly unknown. Here we describe a major expansion of the Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas resource1, involving around a thousand new tracer experiments in the cortex and its main satellite structure, the thalamus. We used Cre driver lines (mice expressing Cre recombinase) to comprehensively and selectively label brain-wide connections by layer and class of projection neuron. Through observations of axon termination patterns, we have derived a set of generalized anatomical rules to describe corticocortical, thalamocortical and corticothalamic projections. We have built a model to assign connection patterns between areas as either feedforward or feedback, and generated testable predictions of hierarchical positions for individual cortical and thalamic areas and for cortical network modules. Our results show that cell-class-specific connections are organized in a shallow hierarchy within the mouse corticothalamic network.

17.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740854

RESUMO

Amino acid availability in Gram-positive bacteria is monitored by T-box riboswitches. T-boxes directly bind tRNAs, assess their aminoacylation state, and regulate the transcription or translation of downstream genes to maintain nutritional homeostasis. Here, we report cocrystal and cryo-EM structures of Geobacillus kaustophilus and Bacillus subtilis T-box-tRNA complexes, detailing their multivalent, exquisitely selective interactions. The T-box forms a U-shaped molecular vise that clamps the tRNA, captures its 3' end using an elaborate 'discriminator' structure, and interrogates its aminoacylation state using a steric filter fashioned from a wobble base pair. In the absence of aminoacylation, T-boxes clutch tRNAs and form a continuously stacked central spine, permitting transcriptional readthrough or translation initiation. A modeled aminoacyl disrupts tRNA-T-box stacking, severing the central spine and blocking gene expression. Our data establish a universal mechanism of amino acid sensing on tRNAs and gene regulation by T-box riboswitches and exemplify how higher-order RNA-RNA interactions achieve multivalency and specificity.

18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745237

RESUMO

The link between depression and anxiety status and cancer outcomes has been well-documented but remains unclear. We comprehensively quantified the association between depression and anxiety defined by symptom scales or clinical diagnosis and the risk of cancer incidence, cancer-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality in cancer patients. Pooled estimates of the relative risks (RRs) for cancer incidence and mortality were performed in a meta-analysis by random effects or fixed effects models as appropriate. Associations were tested in subgroups stratified by different study and participant characteristics. Fifty-one eligible cohort studies involving 2,611,907 participants with a mean follow-up period of 10.3 years were identified. Overall, depression and anxiety were associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer incidence (adjusted RR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06-1.19), cancer-specific mortality (1.21, 1.16-1.26), and all-cause mortality in cancer patients (1.24, 1.13-1.35). The estimated absolute risk increases (ARIs) associated with depression and anxiety were 34.3 events/100,000 person years (15.8-50.2) for cancer incidence and 28.2 events/100,000 person years (21.5-34.9) for cancer-specific mortality. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that clinically diagnosed depression and anxiety were related to higher cancer incidence, poorer cancer survival, and higher cancer-specific mortality. Psychological distress (symptoms of depression and anxiety) was related to higher cancer-specific mortality and poorer cancer survival but not to increased cancer incidence. Site-specific analyses indicated that overall, depression and anxiety were associated with an increased incidence risks for cancers of the lung, oral cavity, prostate and skin, a higher cancer-specific mortality risk for cancers of the lung, bladder, breast, colorectum, hematopoietic system, kidney and prostate, and an increased all-cause mortality risk in lung cancer patients. These analyses suggest that depression and anxiety may have an etiologic role and prognostic impact on cancer, although there is potential reverse causality; Furthermore, there was substantial heterogeneity among the included studies, and the results should be interpreted with caution. Early detection and effective intervention of depression and anxiety in cancer patients and the general population have public health and clinical importance.

19.
Cancer Sci ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746531

RESUMO

The effect of hepatitis C virus p7 trans-regulated protein 3 (P7TP3) in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of P7TP3 in HCC. P7TP3 was significantly decreased in HCC tissues when compared with corresponding liver tissues just around the tumor (LAT) from 7 HCC patients. Fewer and smaller colonies were originated from HepG2-P7TP3 cells when compared to HepG2-NC cells. Overexpression of P7TP3 in HepG2 cells has significantly repressed the growth of HCC xenografts in nude mice. Furthermore, wound-healing tests, transwell assays, matrigel transwell assays, adhesion assays, CCK-8 assays, flow cytometry and western blotting analysis revealed that P7TP3 protein expression inhibited migration, invasion, adhesion, proliferation and cell cycle progression in HCC cell lines. Moreover, P7TP3 suppressed the activity of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, and was restored by Wnt3a, which is an activator of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Consistently, ß-catenin was highly expressed by P7TP3 silencing, and restored by XAV939, an inhibitor of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Finally, miR-182-5p suppressed the expression of target gene P7TP3 by directly interacting with 3'-UTR region. Taken together, P7TP3, the direct target gene of miR-182-5p, inhibited HCC by regulating migration, invasion, adhesion, proliferation and cell cycle progression of liver cancer cell via Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. These findings provide strong evidence that P7TP3 acts as a new promising tumor suppressor in HCC.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679050

RESUMO

This study introduces an effective method to deposit polypyrrole (PPy) on graphite felt (GF) as anode to improve the start-up performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electrochemical testing reveal that polypyrrole is able to improve the electrical conductivity and surface roughness, which is beneficial to the microorganism attachment and growth. It shows that microorganisms grow faster on polypyrrole-modified anode than on unmodified anode. It takes ca. 5 days for polypyrrole-modified anode to reach a reproducible voltage platform, while it takes 11 days for unmodified anode. Moreover, the maximum power density of microbial fuel cells with polypyrrole-modified anode was 919 mW m-2, which were 2.3 times of that with unmodified anode. This research revealed that polypyrrole modification can improve the start-up performance of microbial fuel cells. It is considered as a feasible, economical and sustainable anode.

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