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1.
Front Nutr ; 9: 898279, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071939

RESUMO

Background: The association between coffee and caffeine consumption and the risk of renal cell carcinoma was inconsistent among observational studies, and whether these observed associations were causal remained unclear. Therefore, we performed two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study to assess the causal nature of the association. Materials and methods: In this study, 12 and two independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to coffee and caffeine consumption at a genome-wide significance level of p < 5 × 10-8 were used as instrumental variables (IVs), respectively. Summary-level data for renal cell carcinoma were taken from the FinnGen consortium with up to 174,977 individuals, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) with 13,230 individuals. We used inverse-variance weighted (IVW) as the main method, followed by the weighted median method, the MR-Egger regression method, and the MR robust adjusted profile score method. Outlier and pleiotropic variants were assessed by the MR Pleiotropy RESidual Sum and Outlier test and MR-Egger regression. We used meta-analysis methods in fixed-effects to combine the estimates from the two sources. Results: The genetically predicted coffee consumption was not associated with the risk of renal cell carcinoma in the FinnGen consortium, and the relationship was consistent in the IARC consortium. The pooled odds ratio (OR) per 50% increase of coffee consumption was 0.752 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.512-1.105; p = 0.147]. In addition, complementary analyses that separated the coffee-related SNPs according to their relationship with blood levels of caffeine metabolites (higher, lower, or unrelated) found no relationship with renal cell carcinoma. The results were consistent after excluding eight SNPs due to potential risk factors at genome-wide significance (p < 5 × 10-8). Moreover, genetically predicted per 80-mg increase in caffeine consumption was not associated with the risk of renal cell carcinoma (pooled OR = 0.872, 95% CI: 0.676-1.125, p = 0.292). Conclusion: Our MR study provided no convincing evidence for a causal effect between coffee and caffeine consumption and the risk of renal cell carcinoma. The associations for renal cell carcinoma need to be verified in well-powered studies.

2.
JSLS ; 26(3)2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071996

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has become one of the most popular bariatric surgeries in the United States with a low rate of morbidity and effective weight loss. However, staple line leak remains a feared complication requiring a lengthy and difficult treatment course until resolution. This study outlines the various treatment methods used within a high-volume bariatric practice for successful leak resolution without necessitating a conversion procedure. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on all patients with staple line leak after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in a three-surgeon bariatric practice from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2019. Results: A total of 10 staple line leaks were identified with a leak rate of 0.9%. Patients presented on average 29.3 days postoperatively and were all diagnosed on computed tomography. Three patients were initially managed operatively with washout and drainage procedure. Six patients were managed endoscopically initially with either stent or over-the-scope clip placement. Most patients required multiple interventions with an average of 2.4 interventions per patient. Average time to leak resolution was 48.2 days (15-95 days). Conclusion: Management of staple line leaks after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy requires a multimodal approach usually requiring multiple interventions before leak resolution. We demonstrate effective utilization of varying interventions that lead to effective leak resolution and avoid conversion operations.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Laparoscopia , Fístula Anastomótica/cirurgia , Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Gastrectomia/métodos , Humanos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Grampeamento Cirúrgico/efeitos adversos
3.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 44(4): 614-620, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065694

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate the effect of a deep learning reconstruction (DLR) method on the visibility of contrast-enhanced CT images of the biliary system by comparing it with different iterative reconstruction algorithms including the adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D (AIDR 3D) algorithm,forward projected model based iterative reconstruction solution (FIRST),and filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. Methods A total of 30 patients subjected to abdominal contrast-enhanced CT and diagnosed with dilatation of common bile duct or extrahepatic bile duct were retrospectively included in this study.The images of the portal phase were reconstructed via four different algorithms (FBP,AIDR 3D,FIRST,and DLR).Signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of the dilated bile duct,liver parenchyma,measurable bile duct lesions,and image noise were compared between the four datasets.In subjective analyses,two radiologists independently scored the image quality (best:4 points,second:3 points;third:2 points;fourth:1 point) of the four datasets based on the noise and image visual quality of the biliary system.The Friedman and the Bonferroni-Dunn post-hoc tests were performed for comparison. Results The DLR images (bile duct:4.42±0.87;liver parenchyma:3.78±1.47) yielded higher CNR than the FBP (bile duct:2.21±1.02,P<0.001;liver parenchyma:1.43±1.29,P<0.001),AIDR 3D (bile duct:2.81±0.91,P=0.024;liver parenchyma:2.39±1.94,P=0.278),and FIRST (bile duct:2.51±1.24,P<0.001;liver parenchyma:2.45±1.81,P=0.003) images.Furthermore,the DLR images had higher SNR (bile duct:1.39±0.85,liver parenchyma:9.75±1.90) than the FBP (bile duct:0.86±0.63,P<0.001;liver parenchyma:3.31±1.12,P<0.001) and FIRST (bile duct:1.01±0.61,P=0.013;liver parenchyma:5.73±1.37,P<0.001) images,and showed lower noise (10.51±3.53) than the FBP(4.10±3.92,P<0.001),AIDR 3D (15.72±2.41,P=0.032),and FIRST (17.20±3.82,P<0.001) images.SNR and CNR showed no significant differences between FIRST and AIDR 3D images (all P>0.05).DLR images [4(4,4)] obtained higher score than FPB [1(1,1),P<0.001],AIDR3D[3 (2,3),P=0.029],and FIRST[2 (2,3),P<0.001] images. Conclusion DLR algorithm improved the subjective and objective quality of the contrast-enhanced CT image of the biliary system.


Assuntos
Sistema Biliar , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
4.
Front Mol Biosci ; 9: 964595, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052167

RESUMO

Crystallographic observation of structural changes in real time requires that those changes be uniform both spatially and temporally. A primary challenge with time-resolved ligand-mixing diffraction experiments is asynchrony caused by variable factors, such as efficiency of mixing, rate of diffusion, crystal size, and subsequently, conformational heterogeneity. One method of minimizing such variability is use of a photolabile caged ligand, which can fully saturate the crystal environment (spatially), and whose photoactivation can rapidly (temporally) trigger the reaction in a controlled manner. Our recently published results on a ligand-mixing experiment using time-resolved X-ray crystallography (TRX) with an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) demonstrated that large conformational changes upon ligand binding resulted in a solid-to-solid phase transition (SSPT), while maintaining Bragg diffraction. Here we investigate this SSPT by polarized video microscopy (PVM) after light-triggered release of a photo-caged adenine (pcADE). In general, the mean transition times and transition widths of the SSPT were less dependent on crystal size than what was observed in previous PVM studies with direct ADE mixing. Instead, the photo-induced transition appears to be heavily influenced by the equilibrium between caged and uncaged ADE due to relatively low sample exposure and uncaging efficiency. Nevertheless, we successfully demonstrate a method for the characterization of phase transitions in RNA crystals that are inducible with a photocaged ligand. The transition data for three crystals of different sizes were then applied to kinetic analysis by fitting to the known four-state model associated with ligand-induced conformational changes, revealing an apparent concentration of uncaged ADE in crystal of 0.43-0.46 mM. These results provide further insight into approaches to study time-resolved ligand-induced conformational changes in crystals, and in particular, highlight the feasibility of triggering phase transitions using a light-inducible system. Developing such approaches may be paramount for the rapidly emerging field of time-resolved crystallography.

5.
Front Oncol ; 12: 966743, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052224

RESUMO

Purpose: This study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of radiomics models based on the enhanced CT images in differentiating the malignant risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in comparison with the clinical indicators model and traditional CT diagnostic criteria. Materials and methods: A total of 342 patients with GISTs confirmed histopathologically were enrolled from five medical centers. Data of patients wrom two centers comprised the training group (n=196), and data from the remaining three centers constituted the validation group (n=146). After CT image segmentation and feature extraction and selection, the arterial phase model and venous phase model were established. The maximum diameter of the tumor and internal necrosis were used to establish a clinical indicators model. The traditional CT diagnostic criteria were established for the classification of malignant potential of tumor. The performance of the four models was assessed using the receiver operating characteristics curve. Reuslts: In the training group, the area under the curves(AUCs) of the arterial phase model, venous phase model, clinical indicators model, and traditional CT diagnostic criteria were 0.930 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.895-0.965), 0.933 (95%CI 0.898-0.967), 0.917 (95%CI 0.872-0.961) and 0.782 (95%CI 0.717-0.848), respectively. In the validation group, the AUCs of the models were 0.960 (95%CI 0.930-0.990), 0.961 (95% CI 0.930-0.992), 0.922 (95%CI 0.884-0.960) and 0.768 (95%CI 0.692-0.844), respectively. No significant difference was detected in the AUC between the arterial phase model, venous phase model, and clinical indicators model by the DeLong test, whereas a significant difference was observed between the traditional CT diagnostic criteria and the other three models. Conclusion: The radiomics model using the morphological features of GISTs play a significant role in tumor risk stratification and can provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment plan.

7.
Asian J Surg ; 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify preoperative and postoperative risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after gastrectomy in gastric cancer (GC) patients. METHODS: 757 GC patients underwent gastrectomy at our institution and 246 patients with elevated postoperative D-dimer levels who received Doppler ultrasonography of lower/upper extremity veins were enrolled. Clinicopathological factors data were collected, and the differences in clinicopathological factors between postoperative VTE (+) and VTE (-) groups were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent risk factors of postgastrectomy VTE. RESULTS: Of 246 patients with elevated postgastrectomy D-dimer concentrations, 74 patients showed thrombosis in lower/upper extremity veins. Among preoperative factors, age, WBC level, D-dimer concentration, and blood glucose level were significantly higher in the postoperative VTE (+) group. Among the postoperative factors, hemoglobin level was significantly lower in the postoperative VTE (+) group. Among the pathological factors, tumor stage, depth of invasion and TNM classification indicated higher malignancy in the postoperative VTE (+) group. Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated age, preoperative blood glucose level, postoperative hemoglobin level, tumor stage, depth of invasion, and TNM classification as the independent risk factors for postgastrectomy VTE, whereas multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed age and tumor stage as independent risk factors for postgastrectomy VTE. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that age, preoperative blood glucose level, postoperative anemia, and tumor malignancy were independent risk factors for GC patients exhibiting postgastrectomy VTE. Therefore, the perioperative monitoring, assessment and management of risk factors are important in achieving better outcomes after gastrectomy.

8.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in schoolchildren. ADHD diagnoses are generally made based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. The diagnosis is made clinically based on observation and information provided by parents and teachers, which is highly subjective and can lead to disparate results. Considering that hyperactivity is one of the main symptoms of ADHD, the inaccuracy of ADHD diagnosis based on subjective criteria necessitates the identification of a method to objectively diagnose ADHD. METHODS: In this study, a medical chair containing a piezoelectric material was applied to objectively analyze movements of patients with ADHD, which were compared with those of patients without ADHD. This study enrolled 62 patients-31 patients with ADHD and 31 patients without ADHD. During the clinical evaluation, participants' movements were recorded by the piezoelectric material for analysis. The variance, zero-crossing rate, and high energy rate of movements were subsequently analyzed. RESULTS: The results revealed that the variance, zero-crossing rate, and high energy rate were significantly higher in patients with ADHD than in those without ADHD. Classification performance was excellent in both groups, with the area under the curve as high as 98.00%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the use of a smart chair equipped with piezoelectric material is an objective and potentially useful method for supporting the diagnosis of ADHD.

9.
Psychol Assess ; 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074611

RESUMO

The Negative Physical Self Scale (NPSS) is a measure of body dissatisfaction that was developed for administration within an Asian sample and has recently been translated to English and validated for use in North American female samples. The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure and measurement invariance of the English-translated version of the NPSS across three ethnic groups (i.e., Caucasian, Asian, and other) using a sample of men residing in North America. Additionally, the internal consistency, convergent validity, and incremental validity of the NPSS were examined. A sample of 534 young (aged between 18 and 25) North American men completed self-report measures of the NPSS, the Body Shape Questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, and the Male Body Attitudes Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on two hypothesized models. The results supported the second-order factor structure (four factors with three subdimensions). Overall, we found that the factor structure and factor loadings of the NPSS were equal in participants across three broad ethnic categories (i.e., Caucasian, Asian, and other). Likewise, the NPSS displayed first-order scalar invariance. Further, the NPSS test scores demonstrated high internal consistency, strong convergent validity, and incremental validity over and above the existing measures of body dissatisfaction, body attitudes, and disordered eating. In sum, the English version of the NPSS is a valid and appropriate measure to assess body dissatisfaction in men residing in North America. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 391, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115833

RESUMO

The prediction of antidepressant response is critical for psychiatrists to select the initial antidepressant drug for patients with major depressive disorders (MDD). The implicated brain networks supporting emotion regulation (ER) are critical in the pathophysiology of MDD and the prediction of antidepressant response. Therefore, the primary aim of the current study was to identify the neuroimaging biomarkers for the prediction of remission in patients with MDD based on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the ER networks. A total of 81 unmedicated adult MDD patients were investigated and they underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) scans. The patients were treated with escitalopram for 12 weeks. The 17-item Hamilton depression rating scale was used for assessing remission. The 36 seed regions from predefined ER networks were selected and the rsFC matrix was caculated for each participant. The support vector machine algorithm was employed to construct prediction model, which separated the patients with remission from those with non-remission. And leave-one-out cross-validation and the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic were used for evaluating the performance of the model. The accuracy of the prediction model was 82.08% (sensitivity = 71.43%, specificity = 89.74%, AUC = 0.86). The rsFC between the left medial superior frontal gyrus and the right inferior frontal gyrus as well as the precuneus were the features with the highest discrimination ability in predicting remission from escitalopram among the MDD patients. Results from our study demonstrated that rsFC of the ER brain networks are potential predictors for the response of antidepressant drugs. The trial name: appropriate technology study of MDD diagnosis and treatment based on objective indicators and measurement. URL: http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=21377 . Registration number: ChiCTR-OOC-17012566.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Regulação Emocional , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067019

RESUMO

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder featuring recurrent, unprovoked seizures, which affect more than 65 million people worldwide. Here we discover that the PKHD1L1, which is encoded by polycystic kidney and hepatic disease1-like 1 (Pkhd1l1), wildly distributes in neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Disruption of PKHD1L1 in the dentate gyrus (DG) region of the hippocampus leads to increased susceptibility to pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice. The disturbance of PKHD1L1 leads to the overactivation of the MAPK/ERK-Calpain pathway, which is accompanied by remarkable degradation of cytoplasmic potassium chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) level together with the impaired expression and function of membrane KCC2. While the reduction of membrane KCC2 is associated with the damaged inhibitory ability of the vital GABA receptors which ultimately leads to the significantly increased susceptibility to epileptic seizures. Our data, thus, indicate for the first time that Pkhd1l1, a newly discovered polycystic kidney disease (PKD) association gene, is required in neurons to maintain neuronal excitability by regulation of KCC2 expression in CNS. A new mechanism of the clinical association between genetic PKD and seizures has been built, which could be a potential therapeutic target for treating PKD-related seizures.

12.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 958984, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36061760

RESUMO

The long-distance transport of iron (Fe) in the xylem is critical for maintaining systemic Fe homeostasis in plants. The loading form of Fe(II) into the xylem and the long-distance translocation form of Fe(III)-citrate have been identified, but how Fe(II) is oxidized to Fe(III) in the xylem remains unknown. Here, we showed that the cell wall-resided ferroxidases LPR1 and LPR2 (LPRs) were both specifically expressed in the vascular tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana, while disruption of both of them increased Fe(II) in the xylem sap and caused excessive Fe deposition in the xylem vessel wall under Fe-sufficient conditions. As a result, a large amount of Fe accumulated in both roots and shoots, hindering plant growth. Moreover, under low-Fe conditions, LPRs were preferentially induced in old leaves, but the loss of LPRs increased Fe deposition in the vasculature of older leaves and impeded Fe allocation to younger leaves. Therefore, disruption of both LPRs resulted in severer chlorosis in young leaves under Fe-deficient conditions. Taken together, the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) by LPRs in the cell wall of vasculature plays an important role in xylem Fe allocation, ensuring healthy Fe homeostasis for normal plant growth.

13.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-8, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067510

RESUMO

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematopoietic malignancy characterized by poor prognosis even following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We retrospectively analyzed 15 patients diagnosed with BPDCN who underwent an allo-HSCT with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) at our center. The male to female ratio was 11:4. The median age of 36 (range: 6-70) years, all patients initially presented with extramedullary lesions (13 with cutaneous lesions, 1 in the breast and 1 in the lymph nodes) and involved the bone marrow, two cases were diagnosed as central nervous system leukemia (CNSL). Nine patients were in CR1 and six patients were in CR2 status prior to HSCT. All patients received the MAC regimen and an unmanipulated graft. All patients successfully engraftment and achieved full donor chimerism. One patient developed poor graft function, three patients developed aGVHD (Grade I, II, and IV), and seven patients developed cGVHD (mild in 6; moderate in 1). The median follow-up time for survival was 34 (range: 6-64) months. The primary endpoint, overall leukemia-free survival (LFS) rate and overall survival rate was 73.3 ± 10.5%. Allo-HSCT with MAC is a valid option for BPDCN patients in complete remission.

14.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 9914716, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052159

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the role played by electrode insertion angle in cochlear implantation (CI) outcomes in adult and children patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Methods: Adults (n = 10) and children (n = 19) with SNHL undergoing CI in a tertiary specialized hospital were retrospectively enrolled. The measurements were evaluated before and after CI surgery using sound field audiometry and speech recognition tests. Questionnaires were used to assess subjective benefits. Electrode insertion angles were determined using postoperative X-rays. Results: Both adult and children patients showed significant improvements in hearing, speech performance, and audiology and speech-related quality of life after CI. The angular insertion depths of adult and children group were 323.70 ± 43.57° and 341.53 ± 57.07°, respectively, showing no significant difference. In the adult group, deeper insertion depths were found to be strongly linked to lower postoperative pure tone thresholds at 12 months and higher postoperative disyllabic Word Recognition and Sentence Recognition Scores at 6 months (all P < 0.05). In the children group, deeper insertion depth had a positive correlation with postoperative monosyllabic Word Recognition Scores 6 and 12 months after CI surgery (both P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression models were constructed to predict disyllabic Word Recognition Scores at 6 and 12 months postoperatively in the children group, in which insertion angle, duration of hearing loss, and preoperative questionnaire result were identified as dependent variables. Conclusions: Greater angular insertion depths resulted in improved hearing and speech performances after CI. The benefits of greater angular insertion depths can be found in both adult and children patients and last for at least 12 months. Clinicians are expected to determine the optimal implantation direction during CI and ensure the insertion depth to improve the speech rehabilitation of patients.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Criança , Implante Coclear/métodos , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/cirurgia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 930638, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091838

RESUMO

Background: Modified Zengye Decoction (MZD), a traditional Chinese medicine, is an effective treatment for patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of MZD and investigate its effect on plasma exosomal proteins. Methods: Eighteen pSS patients were treated with MZD for 2 weeks. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by observing the changes in clinical symptoms, laboratory parameters, and plasma cytokines before and after treatment. Then, the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the plasma exosomes before and after treatment were identified via label-free proteomics, while Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment were used to analyze the possible biological functions and signaling pathways involved in the exosomal DEPs. Results: MZD can effectively relieve the clinical symptoms of pSS patients, downregulate the plasma IgG and IgM levels, and inhibit plasma cytokine production. Thirteen DEPs were identified via label-free proteomics in the plasma exosomes before and after MZD treatment, of which 12 were downregulated proteins. GO analysis showed that these downregulated proteins were mainly related to the insulin response involved in dryness symptoms and the Gram-negative bacterial defense response and proteoglycan binding involved in infection. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that these downregulated proteins were primarily associated with the porphyrin metabolism involved in oteoarthrosis and the NF-κB and TLR4 pathways involved in infection. Conclusion: MZD can effectively alleviate SS symptoms, while its mechanism may be associated with the reduced protein expression in insulin response, porphyrin metabolism, and the TLR4/NF-κB pathway.

16.
J Cross Cult Psychol ; 53(9): 1054-1096, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092970

RESUMO

This meta-analytic review examines the relationship between various dispositional characteristics and expatriate adjustment, including the Big Five constructs and other characteristics that have garnered more recent empirical attention (i.e., cultural empathy/flexibility, cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence). Using 62 primary studies (n = 13,060), we found that the Big Five traits play an important role in expatriate adjustment; however, when assessing the relative influence of these predictors, characteristics such as cultural empathy, cultural intelligence (e.g., motivational CQ), and emotional intelligence appear to exert a stronger influence on adjustment outcomes. Various cultural variables (cultural distance, cultural tightness, gender inequality in the host country) and year of publication were found to moderate some relationships, indicating that sociocultural factors may temper some of these effects.

17.
Cell Death Discov ; 8(1): 394, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127318

RESUMO

The mechanism of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is complex and threatens human health. Cardiomyocyte death is an important participant in the pathophysiological basis of CVDs. Ferroptosis is a new type of iron-dependent programmed cell death caused by excessive accumulation of iron-dependent lipid peroxides and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and abnormal iron metabolism. Ferroptosis differs from other known cell death pathways, such as apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, autophagy and pyroptosis. Several compounds have been shown to induce or inhibit ferroptosis by regulating related key factors or signalling pathways. Recent studies have confirmed that ferroptosis is associated with the development of diverse CVDs and may be a potential therapeutic drug target for CVDs. In this review, we summarize the characteristics and related mechanisms of ferroptosis and focus on its role in CVDs, with the goal of inspiring novel treatment strategies.

18.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by extensive fibrosis and vascular damage. Vasculopathy, activation of the immune system, and diffuse fibrosis are all involved in the fatal pathogenesis of SSc. However, little metabolomic research has been conducted in SSc. METHODS: This study included 30 SSc patients and 30 healthy individuals. The metabolite differences in serum samples were analyzed using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, serum metabolites were analyzed in patients with systemic involvement (lung or skin fibrosis). RESULTS: A total of 2360 ion peaks were detected, all of which were attributable to 38 metabolites. These metabolites primarily consisted of fatty acids, amino acids, and glycerophospholipids, which were the major metabolic pathways altered in SSc patients. Glutamine metabolism was the main pathway altered in SSc patients with lung involvement, whereas amino acid metabolism and steroid hormone biosynthesis were the main pathways altered in SSc patients with skin involvement. CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that metabolic profiles and pathways differed between SSc patients and healthy people, potentially providing new targets for SSc-directed therapeutics and diagnostics. Key Points • Metabolic profiles and pathways differed between SSc patients and healthy people. • The levels of trans-dehydroandrosterone are substantially lower in lcSSc than in dcSSc, potentially providing new targets for SSc patients with skin involvement. • L-glutamine could be used as a serum metabolic marker and a therapeutic target for SSc patients with lung involvement.

19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120893

RESUMO

Dietary saponins have the potential to ameliorate atherosclerosis (AS). Gypenosides of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GPs) have been used as functional foods to exhibit antiatherosclerotic activity. The present study aimed to explore the protective effect, underlying mechanism and active substances of GPs on AS in vivo and in vitro. Results demonstrated GPs administration reduced the serum concentrations of TC and LDL-C, upregulated the plasma HDL-C content, inhibited the secretion of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MCP-1, and alleviated vascular lesions in VitD3 plus high cholesterol diet-induced AS rats as well as reduced adhesion factors levels in ox-LDL-stimulated HUVECs, which was potentially associated with suppressing PCSK9/LOX-1 pathway. Further activity-guided phytochemical investigation of GPs led to the identification of five new dammarane-type glycosides (1-5) and ten known analogs (6-15). Bioassay evaluation showed compounds 1, 6, 7, 12, 13, and 14 observably reduced the expressions of PCSK9 and LOX-1, as well as the secretion of adhesion factors in injured HUVECs. Molecular docking experiments suggested that the active saponins of GPs might bind to the allosteric pocket of PCSK9 located at the catalytic and C-terminal domains, and 2α-OH-protopanaxadiol-type gypenosides might exert a higher affinity for an allosteric binding site on PCSK9 by hydrogen-bond interaction with ARG-458. These findings provide new insights into the potential nutraceutical application of GPs and their bioactive compounds in the prevention and discovery of novel therapeutic strategies for AS.

20.
Nephrol Ther ; 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123282

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus for treating incipient minimal change disease in adults. The clinical data of 52 adult patients with minimal change disease of nephrotic syndrome diagnosed by renal biopsy in the First affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou University between August 2013 and August 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the treatment plan, the patients were divided into a tacrolimus group and a glucocorticoid group. The efficacy and safety of tacrolimus in the treatment of minimal change disease in adult patients was analyzed and compared with that of glucocorticoids. The results revealed that the baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar (P>0.05). At 24 weeks, there was a significant difference in serum albumin between the two groups (P<0.01). The serum albumin levels of tacrolimus group was higher compared with the glucocorticoid group. In addition, the complete remission rates in the tacrolimus and glucocorticoid groups were 93.75 and 77.8%, respectively (P=0.095), and the mean complete remission time was 6.33±4.21 and 5.14±2.45 weeks, respectively (P=0.175). The relapse rate was 12.5 and 22.2% in the tacrolimus and glucocorticoid groups, respectively (P=0.368). During the follow-up, in tacrolimus group, the incidence of new onset diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, osteoporosis, infection, abnormal liver function, Cushing's syndrome, acne and gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly less than those of glucocorticoids (P<0.05). In conclusion, tacrolimus treatment after short-time intravenous methylprednisolone is an effective treatment option with fewer adverse effects in adult onset minimal change disease.

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