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2.
Se Pu ; 37(10): 1048-1052, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642282

RESUMO

A method for the rapid screening of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol, 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol,3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol, and 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol in soy sauce was developed based on dispersive solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). The samples were extracted by ethyl acetate, cleaned up using N-propylethylenediamine and detected by GC-HRMS. The chloropropanols were quantified by the internal standard method. The results demonstrated that the limits of quantitation of the four chloropropanols were in the range of 0.5-10 µg/kg. The recoveries of the four chloropropanols in soy sauce spiked with three levels varied from 78% to 103%, and the relative standard deviations were no more than 8.8%. The proposed method is simple, accurate, sensitive and suitable for the rapid screening of the four chloropropanols in soy sauce.


Assuntos
Propanóis/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Extração em Fase Sólida
3.
Adv Mater ; 31(29): e1901624, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140651

RESUMO

For III-nitride-based devices, such as high-brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the poor heat dissipation of the sapphire substrate is deleterious to the energy efficiency and restricts many of their applications. Herein, the role of vertically oriented graphene (VG) nanowalls as a buffer layer for improving the heat dissipation in AlN films on sapphire substrates is studied. It is found that VG nanowalls can effectively enhance the heat dissipation between an AlN film and a sapphire substrate in the longitudinal direction because of their unique vertical structure and good thermal conductivity. Thus, an LED fabricated on a VG-sapphire substrate shows a 37% improved light output power under a high injection current (350 mA) with an effective 3.8% temperature reduction. Moreover, the introduction of VG nanowalls does not degrade the quality of the AlN film, but instead promotes AlN nucleation and significantly reduces the epilayer strain that is generated during the cooling process. These findings suggest that the VG nanowalls can be a good buffer layer candidate in III-nitride semiconductor devices, especially for improving the heat dissipation in high-brightness LEDs.

4.
Adv Mater ; 31(23): e1807345, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993771

RESUMO

The growth of single-crystal III-nitride films with a low stress and dislocation density is crucial for the semiconductor industry. In particular, AlN-derived deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) have important applications in microelectronic technologies and environmental sciences but are still limited by large lattice and thermal mismatches between the epilayer and substrate. Here, the quasi-van der Waals epitaxial (QvdWE) growth of high-quality AlN films on graphene/sapphire substrates is reported and their application in high-performance DUV-LEDs is demonstrated. Guided by density functional theory calculations, it is found that pyrrolic nitrogen in graphene introduced by a plasma treatment greatly facilitates the AlN nucleation and enables fast growth of a mirror-smooth single-crystal film in a very short time of ≈0.5 h (≈50% decrease compared with the conventional process), thus leading to a largely reduced cost. Additionally, graphene effectively releases the biaxial stress (0.11 GPa) and reduces the dislocation density in the epilayer. The as-fabricated DUV-LED shows a low turn-on voltage, good reliability, and high output power. This study may provide a revolutionary technology for the epitaxial growth of AlN films and provide opportunities for scalable applications of graphene films.

5.
Nanotechnology ; 30(4): 045604, 2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485254

RESUMO

Here, we demonstrate the growth of horizontal GaN nanowires (NWs) on silicon (111) by a surface-directed vapor-liquid-solid growth. The influence of the Au/Ni catalysts migration and coalescence on the growth of the NWs has been systematically studied. 2D root-like branched NWs were gown spontaneously through catalyst migration. Furthermore, a novel phenomenon that a catalyst particle is embedded in a horizontal NW was observed and attributed the destruction of growth steady state due to the catalysts coalescence. The transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence measurement demonstrated that the horizontal NWs exhibit single crystalline structures and good optical properties. Our work sheds light on the horizontal NWs growth and should facilitate the development of highly integrated III-V nanodevices on silicon.

6.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(12)2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518146

RESUMO

Van der Waals epitaxy (vdWE) has drawn continuous attention, as it is unlimited by lattice-mismatch between epitaxial layers and substrates. Previous reports on the vdWE of III-nitride thin film were mainly based on two-dimensional (2D) materials by plasma pretreatment or pre-doping of other hexagonal materials. However, it is still a huge challenge for single-crystalline thin film on 2D materials without any other extra treatment or interlayer. Here, we grew high-quality single-crystalline AlN thin film on sapphire substrate with an intrinsic WS2 overlayer (WS2/sapphire) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, which had surface roughness and defect density similar to that grown on conventional sapphire substrates. Moreover, an AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light emitting diode structure on WS2/sapphire was demonstrated. The electroluminescence (EL) performance exhibited strong emissions with a single peak at 283 nm. The wavelength of the single peak only showed a faint peak-position shift with increasing current to 80 mA, which further indicated the high quality and low stress of the AlN thin film. This work provides a promising solution for further deep-ultraviolet (DUV) light emitting electrodes (LEDs) development on 2D materials, as well as other unconventional substrates.

7.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(12)2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486245

RESUMO

High density of defects and stress owing to the lattice and thermal mismatch between nitride materials and heterogeneous substrates have always been important problems and limit the development of nitride materials. In this paper, AlGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown directly on a single-layer graphene-covered Si (111) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) without a metal catalyst. The nanorods was nucleated by AlGaN nucleation islands with a 35% Al composition, and included n-AlGaN, 6 period of AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs), and p-AlGaN. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) showed that the nanorods were vertically aligned and had an accordant orientation along the [0001] direction. The structure of AlGaN nanorod LEDs was investigated by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Raman measurements of graphene before and after MOCVD growth revealed the graphene could withstand the high temperature and ammonia atmosphere in MOCVD. Photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) characterized an emission at ~325 nm and demonstrated the low defects density in AlGaN nanorod LEDs.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(38): 11935-11941, 2018 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175921

RESUMO

We study the roles of graphene acting as a buffer layer for growth of an AlN film on a sapphire substrate. Graphene can reduce the density of AlN nuclei but increase the growth rate for an individual nucleus at the initial growth stage. This can lead to the reduction of threading dislocations evolved at the coalescence boundaries. The graphene interlayer also weakens the interaction between AlN and sapphire and accommodates their large mismatch in the lattice and thermal expansion coefficients; thus, the compressive strain in AlN and the tensile strain in sapphire are largely relaxed. The effective relaxation of strain further leads to a low density of defects in the AlN films. These findings reveal the roles of graphene in III-nitride growth and offer valuable insights into the efficient applications of graphene in the light-emitting diode industry.

9.
Ecol Evol ; 8(14): 6932-6951, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073057

RESUMO

This study examines the utility of morphology and DNA barcoding in species identification of freshwater fishes from north-central Nigeria. We compared molecular data (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences) of 136 de novo samples from 53 morphologically identified species alongside others in GenBank and BOLD databases. Using DNA sequence similarity-based (≥97% cutoff) identification technique, 50 (94.30%) and 24 (45.30%) species were identified to species level using GenBank and BOLD databases, respectively. Furthermore, we identified cases of taxonomic problems in 26 (49.00%) morphologically identified species. There were also four (7.10%) cases of mismatch in DNA barcoding in which our query sequence in GenBank and BOLD showed a sequence match with different species names. Using DNA barcode reference data, we also identified four unknown fish samples collected from fishermen to species level. Our Neighbor-joining (NJ) tree analysis recovers several intraspecific species clusters with strong bootstrap support (≥95%). Analysis uncovers two well-supported lineages within Schilbe intermedius. The Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of Nigerian S. intermedius with others from GenBank recover four lineages. Evidence of genetic structuring is consistent with geographic regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, cryptic lineage diversity may illustrate species' adaptive responses to local environmental conditions. Finally, our study underscores the importance of incorporating morphology and DNA barcoding in species identification. Although developing a complete DNA barcode reference library for Nigerian ichthyofauna will facilitate species identification and diversity studies, taxonomic revisions of DNA sequences submitted in databases alongside voucher specimens are necessary for a reliable taxonomic and diversity inventory.

10.
Adv Mater ; 30(30): e1801608, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883036

RESUMO

Single-crystalline GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with high efficiency and long lifetime are the most promising solid-state lighting source compared with conventional incandescent and fluorescent lamps. However, the lattice and thermal mismatch between GaN and sapphire substrate always induces high stress and high density of dislocations and thus degrades the performance of LEDs. Here, the growth of high-quality GaN with low stress and a low density of dislocations on graphene (Gr) buffered sapphire substrate is reported for high-brightness blue LEDs. Gr films are directly grown on sapphire substrate to avoid the tedious transfer process and GaN is grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The introduced Gr buffer layer greatly releases biaxial stress and reduces the density of dislocations in GaN film and Inx Ga1-x N/GaN multiple quantum well structures. The as-fabricated LED devices therefore deliver much higher light output power compared to that on a bare sapphire substrate, which even outperforms the mature process derived counterpart. The GaN growth on Gr buffered sapphire only requires one-step growth, which largely shortens the MOCVD growth time. This facile strategy may pave a new way for applications of Gr films and bring several disruptive technologies for epitaxial growth of GaN film and its applications in high-brightness LEDs.

11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 5592, 2017 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28717207

RESUMO

Over the past decade, DNA barcoding has become a staple of low-cost molecular systematic investigations. The availability of universal primers and subsidized sequencing projects (PolarBOL, SharkBOL, SpongeBOL) have driven this popularity, often without appropriate investigation into the utility of barcoding data for the taxonomic group of interest. Here, our primary aim is to determine the phylogenetic value of DNA barcoding (mitochondrial locus COI) within the gecko genus Cyrtodactylus. With >40 new species described since last systematic investigation, Cyrtodactylus represents one of the most diverse extant squamate genera, and their contemporary distribution spans the Indian subcontinent, eastward through Indochina, and into AustraloPapua. The complex biogeographic history of this group, and morphology-only designation of many species have complicated our phylogenetic understanding of Cyrtodactylus. To highlight the need for continued inclusive molecular assessment, we use Vietnamese Cyrtodactylus as a case study showing the geopolitically paraphyletic nature of their history. We compare COI to the legacy marker ND2, and discuss the value of COI as an interspecific marker, as well as its shortcomings at deeper evolutionary scales. We draw attention back to the Cold Code as a subsidized method for incorporating molecular methods into species descriptions in the effort to maintain accurate phylogenies.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Evolução Molecular , Lagartos/classificação , Lagartos/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Animais , Ecossistema , Geografia , Filogenia
12.
Appl Phys Lett ; 110(22): 223109, 2017 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28652641

RESUMO

Precession electron diffraction has been used to systematically measure the deformation in Si/SiGe blanket films and patterned finFET test structures grown on silicon-on-insulator type wafers. Deformation maps have been obtained with a spatial resolution of 2.0 nm and a precision of ±0.025%. The measured deformation by precession diffraction for the blanket films has been validated by comparison to energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, X-Ray diffraction, and finite element simulations. We show that although the blanket films remain biaxially strained, the patterned fin structures are fully relaxed in the crystallographic planes that have been investigated. We demonstrate that precession diffraction is a viable deformation mapping technique that can be used to provide useful studies of state-of-the-art electronic devices.

13.
Genome ; 59(10): 827-839, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27327818

RESUMO

Urbanization requires the conversion of natural land cover to cover with human-constructed elements and is considered a major threat to biodiversity. Bee populations, globally, are under threat; however, the effect of rapid urban expansion in Southeast Asia on bee diversity has not been investigated. Given the pressing issues of bee conservation and urbanization in Southeast Asia, coupled with complex factors surrounding human-bee coexistence, we investigated bee diversity and human perceptions of bees in four megacities. We sampled bees and conducted questionnaires at three different site types in each megacity: a botanical garden, central business district, and peripheral suburban areas. Overall, the mean species richness and abundance of bees were significantly higher in peripheral suburban areas than central business districts; however, there were no significant differences in the mean species richness and abundance between botanical gardens and peripheral suburban areas or botanical gardens and central business districts. Urban residents were unlikely to have seen bees but agreed that bees have a right to exist in their natural environment. Residents who did notice and interact with bees, even though being stung, were more likely to have positive opinions towards the presence of bees in cities.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Biodiversidade , Cidades , Percepção , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Abelhas/classificação , Abelhas/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Geografia , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , Opinião Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e103899, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25093586

RESUMO

Anthropogenic global climate changes are one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Distribution modeling can predict the effects of climate changes and potentially their effects on genetic diversity. DNA barcoding quickly identifies patterns of genetic diversity. As a case study, we use DNA barcodes and distribution models to predict threats under climate changes in the frog Nanorana parkeri, which is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Barcoding identifies major lineages W and E. Lineage W has a single origin in a refugium and Lineage E derives from three refugia. All refugia locate in river valleys and each greatly contributes to the current level of intraspecific genetic diversity. Species distribution models suggest that global climate changes will greatly influence N. parkeri, especially in the level of genetic diversity, because two former refugia will fail to provide suitable habitat. Our pipeline provides a novel application of DNA barcoding and has important implications for the conservation of biodiversity in southern areas of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.


Assuntos
Anuros/genética , Mudança Climática , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Variação Genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Demografia , Especiação Genética , Geografia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Mol Ecol ; 22(4): 1120-33, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23216961

RESUMO

Paleoclimatic and paleogeological events have been identified as being the two main drivers of genetic structuring in extant organisms. We used a montane stream-dwelling frog, Quasipaa boulengeri, to explore the relative roles played by these drivers on species in southern China, a region needing thorough studies. We detected four major matrilines, and no broadly distributed haplotypes occurred. The complex orogenesis of south-western China drove matrilineal divergence in Q. boulengeri into highly structured geographical units. These matrilines subsequently persisted in situ with stable populations rather than undergoing expansions during glacial cycling. The unification of the upper and middle Yangtze River in the Three Gorges mountain region mediated downstream colonization of this frog. Analyses identified geological events as playing a larger role than climatic fluctuations in driving the population history of Q. boulengeri. Nuclear allele analyses indicated gene flow; this maintained genetic cohesion of the species. South-eastern Sichuan Basin was identified as the area of secondary contact for several matrilines, and this area deserves further study and special protection.


Assuntos
Anuros/genética , Evolução Molecular , Fluxo Gênico , Genética Populacional , Alelos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Núcleo Celular/genética , China , Clima , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Geologia , Haplótipos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Toxicol Lett ; 155(3): 377-84, 2005 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15649621

RESUMO

Carbon nanotubes have widespread applications in multiple engineering disciplines. However, little is known about the toxicity or interaction of these particles with cells. Carbon nanotube films were grown using a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. Human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) were exposed to 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/ml of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h. HEK were examined by transmission electron microscopy for the presence of MWCNT. Here we report that chemically unmodified MWCNT were present within cytoplasmic vacuoles of the HEK at all time points. The MWCNT also induced the release of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 from HEKs in a time dependent manner. These data clearly show that MWCNT, not derivatized nor optimized for biological applications, are capable of both localizing within and initiating an irritation response in a target epithelial cell that composes a primary route of occupational exposure for manufactured nanotubes.


Assuntos
Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanotubos de Carbono , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citoplasma/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Interleucina-8/biossíntese , Queratinócitos/imunologia , Queratinócitos/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanotubos de Carbono/análise , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/ultraestrutura
19.
Nanomedicine ; 1(4): 293-9, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17292102

RESUMO

Interactions of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) were studied with respect to the effect of surfactant on dispersion of MWCNT aggregates and cytotoxicity. Our earlier studies had shown that the unmodified MWCNTs were localized within the cytoplasmic vacuoles of HEKs and elicited an inflammatory response. However, MWCNTs in solution tend to aggregate and, therefore, cells are exposed to large MWCNT aggregates. The purpose of this study was to find a surfactant that prevents the formation of large aggregates of MWCNTs without being toxic to the HEKs. HEKs were exposed to serial dilutions (10% to 0.1%) of L61, L92, and F127 Pluronic and 20 or 60 Tween for 24 hours. HEK viability, proportional to surfactant concentration, ranged from 27.1% to 98.5% with Pluronic F127; viability with the other surfactants was less than 10%. Surfactants dispersed and reduced MWCNT aggregation in medium. MWCNTs at 0.4 mg/mL in 5% or 1% Pluronic F127 were incubated with HEKs and assayed for interleukin 8 (IL-8). MWCNTs were cytotoxic to HEKs independent of surfactant exposure. In contrast, MWCNT-induced IL-8 release was reduced when exposed to 1% or 5% Pluronic F127 (P < .05). However, both MWCNTs and surfactant, alone or in combination, increased IL-8 release compared with control exposures at 12 and 24 hours. These results suggest that the surfactant-MWCNT interaction is more complex than simple dispersion alone and should be investigated to determine the mode of interaction.


Assuntos
Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/fisiologia , Nanotubos de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Tensoativos/administração & dosagem , Tensoativos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Coloides/administração & dosagem , Coloides/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia
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