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1.
J Sex Med ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although abnormal sympathetic nerve system (SNS) activity has been demonstrated in the pathogenesis of ejaculation disorders, few data are available on its underlying mechanism. AIM: To investigate whether differences in ejaculatory behavior of rats were associated with the state of SNS activity and gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) receptor expressions in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and the effects of GABA receptors in the PVN on ejaculatory behavior. METHODS: Based on ejaculatory performance, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into "sluggish," "normal," and "rapid" ejaculators. PVN microinjection was performed to evaluate the role of GABA receptors on sexual behavior. OUTCOMES: The outcomes include differences in expression and distribution of GABA receptors and norepinephrine level among the 3 groups and changes in copulation behavior parameters after PVN microinjection. RESULTS: Compared with "normal" rats, the "rapid" group ejaculated more times with shorter latency (P < .001, P < .001) and had lower expression and distribution of both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors, while the opposed results appeared in the "sluggish" group. The norepinephrine level was successively increased among "sluggish," "normal," and "rapid" rats (P < .001) and correlated with ejaculation frequency (r = 0.896, P < .001) and ejaculation latency (r = -0.835, P < .001). In addition, bilateral microinjection of the GABA-A and GABA-B receptor agonist (isoguvacine and baclofen) into the PVN both significantly prolonged the intromission latency and inhibited ejaculation, which could be blocked by antagonist gabazine and CGP-35348, respectively. Vigabatrin, the GABA-transaminase inhibitor, caused a significantly reduced ejaculation frequency and extended ejaculation latency in rats, which could be offset by simultaneous injections of gabazine and CGP-35348. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Our findings provide new understanding about GABA receptors in the PVN on sexual behavior and enhance the comprehension of neurobiological mechanisms involved in premature ejaculation. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: Our results have indicated that GABA receptors in the PVN may inhibit ejaculation through restraining the activity of SNS. However, our study did not analyze the changes of GABA receptors in other brain areas, which needs further study. CONCLUSION: Ejaculation behaviors in male rats are associated with SNS activity and could be regulated by GABA receptors in the PVN, which may be of assistance in the treatment of ejaculation disorders in the future. Zhang QJ, Yang BB, Yang J, et al. Inhibitory Role of Gamma-Aminobutyric Receptors in Paraventricular Nucleus on Ejaculatory Responses in Rats. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX-XXX.

2.
Vaccine ; 38(8): 1989-1997, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948818

RESUMO

Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important and devastating avian diseases with considerable threat to the global poultry industry. Hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS), caused by virulent fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4), is another highly infectious disease in chickens with severe economic impact. The effective way to combat ND and HHS is by vaccinating the poultry. In the present study, a recombinant NDV LaSota vaccine strain expressing full length fiber-2 gene of FAdV-4 (rLaSota-fiber2) was generated using reverse genetics. The FAdV-4 fiber-2 protein was expressed as a soluble form rather than NDV membrane-anchored form. The rLaSota-fiber2 was genetically stable, and it showed growth patterns in embryonated eggs comparable to that of parental rLaSota virus. Since our unpublished data demonstrated that delivery of live rLaSota-fiber2 in drinking water or ocular delivery of the vaccine didn't produce protection against hypervirulent FAdV-4 challenge, even though the vaccine provide full protection against NDV challenge, the efficacy of the rLaSota-fiber2 was evaluated by delivering the vaccine intramuscularly in this study. Single-dose intramuscular vaccination of 2-week-old SPF White Leghorn chicks with the live or inactivated rLaSota-fiber2 provided complete protection against virulent NDV challenge. However, single-dose intramuscular vaccination with the live rLaSota-fiber2 vaccine provided better protection against virulent FAdV-4 challenge and significantly reduced faecal viral shedding comparing to the inactivated vaccine. These results indicate that the NDV-vectored FAdV-4 vaccine is a promising bivalent vaccine candidate to control both HHS and ND.

3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943814

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), an ongoing emergence enveloped virus with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome, belongs to the Gammacoronavirus genus in the Coronaviridae family. IBV-associated tracheitis, nephritis, salpingitis, proventriculitis and egg drop have caused devastating economic losses to poultry industry worldwide. Since the end of 2018, a remarkably increasing number of commercial broilers and layers, vaccinated or not, were infected with IBV in China. Here, we described two IB outbreaks with severe respiratory system or kidney injury in IBV-vaccinated commercial poultry farms in central China. Other possible causative viral pathogens, including avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and Kedah fatal kidney syndrome virus (KFKSV), were excluded by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and three virulent IBV strains, HeN-1/China/2019, HeN-2/China/2019 and HeN-101/China/2019, were identified. Although the gross pathologic appearance of these two IB outbreaks was different, the newly identified IBV strains were all closely related to the ck/China/I0529/17 strain and grouped into GI-19 genotype clade based on the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the complete S1 genes. Moreover, there are still some evolutionary distance between the newly identified IBV strains, HeN-101/China/2019 in particular, and other GI-19 strains, suggesting that Chinese IBV strains constantly emerge and evolve towards different directions. In conclusion, this study provided an insight of the recently emerging IBV outbreaks in IBV-vaccinated commercial poultry farms and identified the genetic characteristics of three virulent GI-19 IBV strains, which shows the need to carry out proper preventive measures and control strategies.

4.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(2): 57, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912318

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of alanine-proline-arginine-proline-glycine (APRPG) peptide-conjugated PEGylated cationic liposomes-encapsulated zoledronic acid (ZOL) (APRPG-PEG-ZOL-CLPs) in achieving vascular normalization. Cisplatin (diamminedichloroplatinum, DDP) was used to improve anticancer efficacy. The present study showed that APRPG-PEG-ZOL-CLPs increased anticancer efficacy, which was regarded as vascular normalization. Our results demonstrated that the viability, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were evidently repressed by APRPG-PEG-ZOL-CLPs. Moreover, APRPG-PEG-ZOL-CLPs could decrease vessel density, as well as hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and increase thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) expression of tumors. Therefore, the anticancer efficacy of APRPG-PEG-ZOL-CLPs combined with DDP was superior to that of PEG-ZOL-CLP or ZOL treatment combined with DDP schemes, as demonstrated by the obviously evident reduction in tumor volume. These results indicated that APRPG-PEG-ZOL-CLPs were most effective in normalizing tumor vasculature to elevate the therapeutic effect of antitumor drugs.

5.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 10(1): 93-107, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418132

RESUMO

The metronomic administration of a low-dose cytotoxic agent with no prolonged drug-free breaks is an anti-angiogenic cancer treatment method. The use of nano-formulations in this manner enhances anti-tumor efficacy and reduces toxicity by inhibiting angiogenic activity, reduces adverse effects, and changes the biodistribution of TP in the body, steering TP away from potentially endangering healthy tissues. The present study uses liposomes and Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) peptide conjugated aminopeptidase N(APN)-targeted liposomes for triptolide (TP), as a model for the investigation of targeted metronomic administration and subsequent effects on the toxicity profile and efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agent. Metronomic NGR-PEG-TP-LPs have been found to have enhanced anti-tumor activity, a phenomenon that is attributed to an increase in angiogenic inhibition properties. In vitro experiments demonstrate that the viability, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are obviously suppressed in comparison with that of other treatment groups. In vivo experiments also demonstrate that the anti-tumor efficacy of targeted metronomic administration is superior to that of liposome-administered treatments given at maximum tolerated dose (MTD) schemes, as is evidenced by markedly decreased tumor volume, vessel density, and the volume of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPCs) in serum. Moreover, we observed that the metronomic administration of NGR-PEG-TP-LPs could elevate thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) expression in tumors, a finding that is consistent with the promotion of TSP-1 secretion specifically from HUVECs. Additionally, metronomic NGR-PEG-TP-LPs have minimal drug-associated toxicity (weight loss, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice). Our research demonstrates the significance of targeted metronomic administration using liposomes for anti-angiogenic cancer therapy.

7.
Brain Res Bull ; 155: 145-154, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846697

RESUMO

Deep hypothermia with circulatory arrest (DHCA) in cardiac surgery may exert a significant burden on the neuroinflammation which can cause brain injury. Resveratrol is a natural product and acts as a neuroprotective agent to suppress inflammatory response in brain. Even so, the specific mechanism regarding brain protective effect of resveratrol in DHCA is still unclear. In the current research, we tested brain protective function of resveratrol on neuroinflammation and cognition in rat DHCA model or hypothermic oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model. The activation of microglial, cell apoptosis, inflammation in brain and circulation, NF-κB pathway were evaluated. We found that resveratrol treatment improved neurocognitive function and attenuated the neuroinflammation, cell apoptosis, microglial activation and NF-κB pathway after DHCA. The in vitro studies showed that resveratrol had similar neuroprotective effect in hypothermic OGD model. Importantly, we also found that the modulation of TRAF6 and RIP1 ubiquitination by A20 was playing a pivotal role in relation to the mechanism of resveratrol inhibiting NF-κB pathway. Thus, resveratrol expands the horizons for exploring treatment tactics to avert or restrict brain injury and related neurocognitive obstacles after DHCA.

8.
Org Lett ; 21(23): 9742-9746, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725305

RESUMO

An enantioselective conjugate addition of ethylene sulfonyl fluorides to 3-amido-2-oxindoles has been developed. Quinine-derived squaramides were identified as efficient catalysts. A series of spirocyclic oxindole sultams were prepared with excellent yields and enantioselectivities. A reaction mechanism via bifunctional activation was proposed.

9.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 137: 107-118, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668970

RESUMO

Cardiac fibrosis is a common feature of various cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies showed that acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) deficiency exacerbated pressure overload-induced heart failure. However, the role and mechanisms of cardiac fibrosis in this process remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ALDH2 deficiency on cardiac fibrosis in transverse aortic constriction (TAC) induced pressure overload model in mice. Echocardiography and histological analysis revealed cardiac dysfunction and enhanced cardiac fibrosis in TAC-operated animals; ALDH2 deficiency further aggravated these changes. ALDH2 chimeric mice were generated by bone marrow (BM) transplantation of WT mice into the lethally irradiated ALDH2KO mice. The proportion of circulating fibroblast progenitor cells (FPCs) and ROS level in BM after TAC were significantly higher in ALDH2KO mice than in ALDH2 chimeric mice. Furthermore, FPCs were isolated and cultured for in vitro mechanistic studies. The results showed that the stem cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis played a major role in the recruitment of FPCs. In conclusion, our research reveals that increased bone marrow FPCs mobilization and myocardial homing contribute to the enhanced cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction induced by TAC in ALDH2 KO mice via exacerbating accumulation of ROS in BM and myocardial SDF-1 expression.

10.
J Org Chem ; 84(22): 14926-14935, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638392

RESUMO

A double nucleophilic addition-cyclization-elimination cascade is developed, that allows various 2,6-diaryl-4-perfluoroalkylpyridines to be synthesized in one step from easily available enamides and perfluorocarboxylic anhydrides. The procedure is also operationally simple and scalable and provides access to the facial construction of 4-fluoroalkylpyridines, which are of great interest in medicinal chemistry.

11.
FASEB J ; 33(12): 14410-14422, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665609

RESUMO

Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML), the major member of advanced glycation end products, was widely studied in diabetic complications and aging-associated diseases. However, the impact of CML on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MI/RI) was rarely reported. In the present study, CML was increased in both patients with acute myocardial infarction (53.4 ± 7.8 vs. 28.1 ± 4.4 ng; P = 0.017), and mice underwent MI/RI (16.4 ± 1.4 vs. 10.8 ± 0.9 ng; P = 0.006). Depletion of neutrophils reduced CML (17.8 ± 1.0 vs. 9.9 ± 0.3 ng; P < 0.001), indicating neutrophils were the major cells contributing to CML formation during MI/RI. CML treatment exacerbated MI/RI by elevating myocardial injury marker (274.3 ± 18.0 vs. 477.2 ± 34.3 pg; P < 0.001), enlarging myocardial infarct size (32.9 ± 3.6 vs. 45.2 ± 3.8%; P = 0.03), increasing myocardial fibrosis (17.5 ± 1.6 vs. 29.7 ± 2.2%; P < 0.001) and impairing cardiac function (59.4 ± 2.4% vs. 46.0 ± 1.3%; P = 0.001). Further study revealed that CML increased the phosphorylation of receptor interacting protein (RIP) 3, an important initiator of necroptosis, and its downstream proteins. Receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) deficiency effectively blocked RIP3 phosphorylation induced by CML and rescued CML-mediated MI/RI, indicating CML promoted RIP3-mediated necroptosis through RAGE. In addition, glyoxalase-1 overexpression could effectively attenuate MI/RI by reducing CML formation, providing a potential therapeutic target for MI/RI.-Yang, J., Zhang, F., Shi, H., Gao, Y., Dong, Z., Ma, L., Sun, X., Li, X., Chang, S., Wang, Z., Qu, Y., Li, H., Hu, K., Sun, A., Ge, J. Neutrophil-derived advanced glycation end products-Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine promotes RIP3-mediated myocardial necroptosis via RAGE and exacerbates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

12.
J Virol ; 94(1)2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597771

RESUMO

Efficient human-to-human transmission is a prerequisite for a novel influenza virus to cause an influenza pandemic; however, the genetic determinants of influenza virus transmission are still not fully understood. In this study, we compared the respiratory droplet transmissibilities of four H7N9 viruses that are genetic closely related and found that these viruses have dissimilar transmissibilities in guinea pigs: A/Anhui/1/2013 (AH/1) transmitted efficiently, whereas the other three viruses did not transmit. The three nontransmissible viruses have one to eight amino acid differences compared with the AH/1 virus. To investigate which of these amino acids is important for transmission, we used reverse genetics to generate a series of reassortants and mutants in the AH/1 background and tested their transmissibility in guinea pigs. We found that the neuraminidase (NA) of the nontransmissible virus A/chicken/Shanghai/S1053/2013 had low enzymatic activity that impaired the transmission of AH/1 virus, and three amino acid mutations-V292I and K627E in PB2 and D156E in M1-independently abolished the transmission of the AH/1 virus. We further found that an NA reassortant and three single-amino-acid mutants replicated less efficiently than the AH/1 virus in A549 cells and that the amino acid at position 156 of M1 affected the morphology of H7N9 viruses. Our study identifies key amino acids in PB2 and M1 that play important roles in H7N9 influenza virus transmission and provides new insights into the transmissibility of influenza virus.IMPORTANCE Efficient transmission is a prerequisite for a novel influenza virus to cause an influenza pandemic; however, the genetic determinants of influenza virus transmission remain poorly understood. H7N9 influenza viruses, which emerged in 2013 in China, have caused over 1,560 human infection cases, showing clear pandemic potential. Previous studies have shown that the H7N9 viruses differ in their transmissibility in animal models. In this study, we found two amino acids in PB2 (292V and 627K) and one in M1 (156D) that are extremely important for H7N9 virus transmission. Of note, PB2 292V and M1 156D appear in most H7N9 viruses, and the PB2 627K mutation could easily occur when the H7N9 virus replicates in humans. Our study thus identifies new amino acids that are important for influenza virus transmission and suggests that just a few key amino acid changes can render the H7N9 virus transmissible in mammals.

13.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 162, 2019 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have focused on the relationship between MMP-8 variants and cancer risk, but they have been unsuccessful in drawing reliable conclusions. METHODS: We employed odds ratio (OR) together with 95% confidence interval (CI) to assess the correlation between MMP-8 C-799 T, Lys460Thr, and Lys87Glu polymorphisms and cancer risk. We further employed in silico tools to evaluate the effect of MMP-8 expression on cancer susceptibility and overall survival time. RESULTS: A total of 8140 patients with malignant carcinoma and 10,529 healthy individuals (control) were enrolled. Overall, the analysis showed that the relationship between three MMP-8 variants and cancer susceptibility was not significant (allelic contrast, C-799 T: OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.92-1.04, Pheterogeneity = 0.068; Lys460Thr: OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.67-1.32, Pheterogeneity = 0.905; Lys87Glu: OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.93-1.18, Pheterogeneity = 0.968). Similar results were observed in subgroup analysis by ethnicity, cancer type, and source of control. In silico analysis indicated that MMP-8 expression was elevated in bladder cancer tissue compared to that in the control. However, both the higher and lower MMP-8 expression groups did not show an impact on the overall survival time of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: MMP-8 C-799 T, Lys460Thr, and Lys87Glu variants are not participant with the susceptibility of cancer.

14.
Research (Wash D C) ; 2019: 7109535, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549082

RESUMO

The content of the rectified motor evoked potential (MEP) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has ambiguously been assessed without the precision that energy calculation deserves. This fact has misled data interpretation and misguided biomedical interventions. To definitively fill the gap that exits in the neurophysics processing of these signals, we computed, in Walls ( W ^ ), the bioenergy within the rectified MEP recorded from the human first digitorum index (FDI) muscle at rest and under isometric contraction. We also gauged the biowork exerted by this muscle. Here we show that bioenergy and biowork can accurately and successfully be assessed, validated, and determined in W ^ from MEP signals induced by TMS, regardless of knowing the mathematical expression of the function of the signal. Our novel neurophysics approach represents a dramatic paradigm shift in analysis and interpretation of the content of the MEP and will give a true meaning to the content of rectified signals. Importantly, this innovative approach allowed unveiling that women exerted more bioenergy than men at the magnetic stimulations used in this study. Revisitation of conclusions drawn from studies published elsewhere assessing rectified EMG signals that have used ambiguous units is strongly recommended.

15.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1024, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475021

RESUMO

WUSCHEL (WUS) is thought to be required for the establishment of the shoot stem cell niche in Arabidopsis thaliana. HEADLESS (HDL), a gene that encodes a WUS-related homeobox family transcription factor, is thought to be the Medicago truncatula ortholog of the WUS gene. HDL plays conserved roles in shoot apical meristem (SAM) and axillary meristem (AM) maintenance. HDL is also involved in compound leaf morphogenesis in M. truncatula; however, its regulatory mechanism has not yet been explored. Here, the significance of HDL in leaf development was investigated. Unlike WUS in A. thaliana, HDL was transcribed not only in the SAM and AM but also in the leaf. Both the patterning of the compound leaves and the shape of the leaf margin in hdl mutant were abnormal. The transcriptional profile of the gene SLM1, which encodes an auxin efflux carrier, was impaired and the plants' auxin response was compromised. Further investigations revealed that HDL positively regulated auxin response likely through the recruitment of MtTPL/MtTPRs into the HDL repressor complex. Its participation in auxin-dependent compound leaf morphogenesis is of interest in the context of the functional conservation and neo-functionalization of the products of WUS orthologs.

16.
J Hand Surg Eur Vol ; 44(10): 1019-1025, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403872

RESUMO

Traditionally free vascularized flap transfers to the fingers connect to the proper digital artery and dorsal veins. We report our experience using the volar digital veins as recipient veins for free vascularized flap transfers in 14 fingers of 12 patients. One or two veins (three flaps with two veins, 11 flaps with one vein) of the flap were anastomosed to volar digital veins in the recipient site. The arteries of these flaps were connected to the proper digital arteries. All the transferred flaps survived. No vessel crisis occurred. Our patients demonstrated that volar veins can be the recipient veins for free flap transfers in the fingers without increased risk of venous crisis and flap loss. Level of evidence: IV.

17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 349, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: AFP is a negative regulator of ABA signaling that promotes ABI5 protein degradation and weakens regulation of ABA signaling by targeting upstream genes of ABI5, and TaABI5 gene was seed-specific, and accumulated during wheat grain maturation and dormancy acquisition, which played an important role in seed dormancy; TaAFP has a conserved domain with AFP, so TaAFP may also play an important role in seed dormancy in wheat. RESULTS: Two allelic variants of TaAFP were identified on chromosome 2BS in common wheat, and designated as TaAFP-B1a and TaAFP-B1b. Sequence analysis showed a 4-bp deletion in the 5'UTR region of TaAFP-B1b compared with TaAFP-B1a. Based on the 4-bp deletion, a co-dominant functional marker of TaAFP-B was developed and designated as AFPB. The genotype generating a 203-bp fragment (TaAFP-B1b) was more resistant to pre-harvest sprouting than the genotype producing a 207-bp fragment (TaAFP-B1a) in a test of 91 white-grained Chinese wheat cultivars and advanced lines. The average germination index(GI) values of TaAFP-B1a and that of TaAFP-B1b were 45.18 and 30.72%, respectively, indicating a significant difference (P < 0.001). Moreover, the 4-bp deletion located in the 5'UTR not only affected the transcription level of TaAFP-B but also affected the mRNA decay, reduced the translation level of GUS and tdTomatoER and GUS activity in wheat leaves of transient expression. The transcript expression and the mRNA half-life value of TaAFP-B1a in developing seeds and mature seeds were much higher than those of TaAFP-B1b. CONCLUSION: We identified a 4-bp InDel in the 5'UTR of TaAFP-B, which affected the mRNA transcription level, mRNA decay, translation levels of GUS and tdTomatoER, GUS activity, and was significantly associated with seed dormancy in common wheat. A functional marker was developed and validated based on this InDel.


Assuntos
Dormência de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Viruses ; 11(8)2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408986

RESUMO

Since 2015, severe outbreaks of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS), caused by hypervirulent fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4), have emerged in several provinces in China, posing a great threat to poultry industry. So far, factors contributing to the pathogenesis of hypervirulent FAdV-4 have not been fully uncovered. Elucidation of the pathogenesis of FAdV-4 will facilitate the development of effective FAdV-4 vaccine candidates for the control of HHS and vaccine vector. The interaction between pathogen and host defense system determines the pathogenicity of the pathogen. Therefore, the present review highlights the knowledge of both viral and host factors contributing to the pathogenesis of hypervirulent FAdV-4 strains to facilitate the related further studies.

19.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 352(8): e1800313, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330092

RESUMO

A novel series of benzoxazole derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazolone (5a-m) was designed. These compounds were synthesized in order to screen their anticonvulsant activities by the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) model and the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (sc-PTZ) seizure model in mice. The rotarod test was used to evaluate their neurotoxicities. Most of the compounds showed anti-MES activities at 100 and 300 mg/kg. Compound 5f, which showed potential anticonvulsant activity in the MES model with ED50 values of 22.0 mg/kg, was considered as the most promising one in this study. It exhibited greater safety than that of carbamazepine and valproate regarding neurotoxicity. The efficacy of compound 5f in inhibiting the tonic seizures and death induced by the convulsants 3-mercaptopropionic acid and BIC was also verified. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, compound 5f and the positive drug phenytoin significantly increased the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) level in the mouse brain. Further, pretreatment with an inhibitor of the GABA synthesizing enzyme dramatically raised the ED50 value of 5f in the MES model. These results confirmed that the compound 5f plays its anticonvulsive action via regulating the GABA function in the brain. Also, a docking study of the compound 5f in the benzodiazepine (BZD) binding site of the GABAA receptor confirmed possible binding of the compound 5f with BZD receptors.

20.
Neuropharmacology ; 158: 107709, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310777

RESUMO

To investigate the roles of mu opioid receptors (MORs) in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) on ejaculation and its underlying mechanism in the rats, we performed copulation behavioral testing and acute experiments. During the acute experiments, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), bulbospongiosus muscle-electromyogram (BSM-EMG) and pressure of vas deferens (PVD) were all recorded. The expression levels and distributions of opioid receptors were also assessed in PVN of male rats. Moreover, adeno-associated virus type 1 (AAV1) was microinjected into PVN to demonstrate whether there are direct projections from PVN to lumbar spinothalamic (LSt) cells. We found that microinjection of MOR agonist, D-A1a2-NM9-Phe4-Gly(ol)5enkephalin (DAGO), into the PVN prolonged the intromission latency and inhibited ejaculation (P = 0.0241, P = 0.0473, respectively), while the opposed results appeared in CTAP (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2, MOR antagonist) group (P = 0.0021, P = 0.0286, respectively). Moreover, DAGO caused a significant decrease in MAP and HR (P = 0.0065, P = 0.0030, respectively), and PVD decreased significantly after DAGO microinjection in PVN (P = 0.0383). CTAP not only blocked the effect of DAGO but also significantly increased MAP, HR and PVD (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0010, P = 0.0074, respectively). Meanwhile, a significant increase was observed in BSM-EMG activity after microinjecting of CTAP (P = 0.0022), accompanied by visible BSM contraction. Additionally, anterograde monosynaptic transneuronal tracer AAV1 labeling revealed that neurons in PVN projected directly to LSt cells in L3-4 spinal cord. These results indicate that MORs in PVN centrally mediate ejaculation by regulating the sympathetic outflow, which may be treated as a therapeutic target for ejaculation disorders in the future.

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