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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 731751, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603309

RESUMO

Gliomas are a type of malignant central nervous system tumor with poor prognosis. Molecular biomarkers of gliomas can predict glioma patient's clinical outcome, but their limitations are also emerging. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand family plays a critical role in shaping tumor immune landscape and modulating tumor progression, but its role in gliomas is elusive. In this work, samples of TCGA were treated as the training cohort, and as for validation cohort, two CGGA datasets, four datasets from GEO database, and our own clinical samples were enrolled. Consensus clustering analysis was first introduced to classify samples based on CXCL expression profile, and the support vector machine was applied to construct the cluster model in validation cohort based on training cohort. Next, the elastic net analysis was applied to calculate the risk score of each sample based on CXCL expression. High-risk samples associated with more malignant clinical features, worse survival outcome, and more complicated immune landscape than low-risk samples. Besides, higher immune checkpoint gene expression was also noticed in high-risk samples, suggesting CXCL may participate in tumor evasion from immune surveillance. Notably, high-risk samples also manifested higher chemotherapy resistance than low-risk samples. Therefore, we predicted potential compounds that target high-risk samples. Two novel drugs, LCL-161 and ADZ5582, were firstly identified as gliomas' potential compounds, and five compounds from PubChem database were filtered out. Taken together, we constructed a prognostic model based on CXCL expression, and predicted that CXCL may affect tumor progression by modulating tumor immune landscape and tumor immune escape. Novel potential compounds were also proposed, which may improve malignant glioma prognosis.

2.
Soft Matter ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612298

RESUMO

MDI/BD-block thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) crystallized at different isothermal temperatures and different cooling rates were investigated using multiple techniques. The MDI/BD blocks crystallized in form II when the isothermal temperature was equal to or higher than 150 °C, and in form I at lower isothermal temperatures. Form II had a higher crystal elastic modulus of 6.75 GPa than form I of 1.31 GPa. Form I exhibited contracted conformation, while form II exhibited an extended conformation when viewed from the length of the c-axis in the crystalline state. Based on an analysis of the second derivative in FTIR spectroscopy and simple modeling, the conformation differences were considered to stem from the urethane group's internal bond rotation concerning the phenyl ring and the opening bond angle of phenyl-CH2-phenyl. The generation of form II above 150 °C may be due to the activation of urethane and the flexible methylene elevated by the high temperature. Overall, it was seen that the crystallization of MDI/BD blocks involved a physicochemical change.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perjeta® is a recombinant, humanized monoclonal antibody that has been marketed and approved for the targeted therapy of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)-positive breast cancer in the United States. This study compared the bioequivalence, immunogenicity and safety of pertuzumab injection (a biosimilar of Perjeta® produced by Chia Tai Tianqing Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd) and Perjeta® (produced by Roche Pharma AG) in healthy Chinese males. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Healthy Chinese male subjects (N = 87) were randomly given intravenous injection of 5 mg/kg pertuzumab or Perjeta® at a 1:1 ratio. Plasma drug concentrations were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and primary pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were statistically analyzed. We detected the levels of anti-drug antibody (ADA) and neutralizing antibody (nAb) to evaluate drug immunogenicity and safety of the drugs throughout the study. RESULTS: The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of AUC0-t, Cmax and AUC0-∞ for pertuzumab and Perjeta® were 100.42%, 96.71% and 101.47%, respectively. The 90% CIs were all within 80%-125%, meeting the bioequivalence standards. The levels of ADA and nAb were similar. In addition, both had good safety in the study. CONCLUSION: The study shows that pertuzumab injection and Perjeta® had similar bioequivalence, immunogenicity and safety.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 694490, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594324

RESUMO

Tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs) have become an important source of markers for predicting the clinical outcomes of cancer patients. However, measurements of cellular heterogeneity vary due to the frequently updated reference genomes and gene annotations. In this study, we systematically collected and evaluated the infiltration pattern of 65 immune cells. We constructed the Immune Cell Pair (ICP) score based on the cell pair algorithm in 3,715 samples and across 12 independent cancer types, among which, the ICP score from six cancer types was further validated in 2,228 GEO samples. An extensive tumorigenic and immunogenomic analysis was subsequently conducted. As a result, the ICP score showed a robust reliability and efficacy in predicting the survival of patients with gliomas, in pan-cancer samples, and six independent cancer types. Notably, the ICP score was correlated with the genomic alteration features in gliomas. Moreover, the ICP score exhibited a remarkable association with multiple immunomodulators that could potentially mediate immune escape. Finally, the ICP score predicted immunotherapeutic responses with a high sensitivity, allowing a useful tool for predicting the overall survival and guiding immunotherapy for cancer patients.

5.
Injury ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To provide direct evidence of whether primary realignment (PR) or suprapubic cystostomy (SPC) had different effects on the prostatic displacement and prognosis in patients with pelvic fracture urethral injury who needed delay anastomotic urethroplasty based on Magnetic Resonance (MR) urethrography. METHODS: We screened the urethral stenosis database of our single institution from January 2016 to June 2020. Patients who underwent delayed anastomotic urethroplasty with a preoperative MR urethrography and no treatment history of urethra were included. We compared the urethral gap length and prostatic displacement between the PR and SPC group based on MR urethrography. The terminal outcomes such as stenosis-free rate, urinary continence and erectile function were also analyzed between two groups. RESULTS: 66 patients were included in this retrospective study in which 36 were in PR group and 30 in SPC group. Mean follow-up time was 15.1 months (3-38 months). One and two patients experienced recurrence of stenosis after urethroplasty in two groups (p = 1.000). No difference of erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence was found between two groups. Based on MR urethrography, the urethral gap length was 17.4 mm and 23.3 mm (p = 0.008) which presented a significant decrease in PR group. The superior prostatic displacement was similar in two groups (9.8 mm vs. 13.8 mm, p = 0.081). The numbers and distance of displacement on lateral aspect showed no difference, either. However, PR group had less anterior-posterior prostatic displacement (p = 0.005). Besides, the erectile function was significantly related to the lateral prostatic displacement (p = 0.030/0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Based on MR urethrography, patients in PR group showed shorter urethral gap distance and slighter anterior-posterior prostatic displacement without extra erectile dysfunction or incontinence. Besides, patients' erectile function might be significantly related to the lateral prostatic displacement.

6.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 423, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641907

RESUMO

This research aimed to investigate the expression and function of FAM83A in the proliferation and metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). FAM83A mRNA and protein expressions in HNSCC were detected in primary HNSCC samples and cell lines. The associations between FAM83A expression and clinicopathologic variables were evaluated through tissue microarrays. Besides, FAM83A knockdown and overexpression cell lines were constructed to assess cell growth and metastasis in vitro and the relationship between FAM83A and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, two models of xenograft tumors in nude mice were used to assess the tumorigenicity and metastasis ability of FAM83A in vivo. In the present study, overexpression of FAM83A in HNSCC samples was significantly associated with tumor size, lymph node status and clinical tumor stages. Mechanically, FAM83A could promote HNSCC cell growth and metastasis by inducing EMT via activating Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Rescue experiment demonstrated the inhibition of ß-catenin could counteract the function of FAM83A. Also, the FAM83A knockdown could suppress tumor growth and distant metastasis in the xenograft animal models of HNSCC. In conclusion, this study identifies FAM83A as an oncogene of HNSCC. This study provides new insights into the molecular pathways that contribute to EMT in HNSCC. We revealed a previously unknown FAM83A-Wnt-ß-catenin signaling axis involved in the EMT of HNSCC. There may be a potential bi-directional signaling loop between FAM83A and Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway in HNSCC.

7.
Nano Lett ; 21(19): 8370-8377, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543029

RESUMO

Lithium-rich layered oxides have received great attention due to their high energy density as cathode material. However, the progressive structural transformation from layered to spinel phase triggered by transition-metal migration and the irreversible release of lattice oxygen leads to voltage fade and capacity decay. Here, we report a Fe, Cl codoped and Co-free Li-rich layered cathode with significantly improved structural stability. It is revealed that the Fe and Cl codoping can facilitate the Li-ion diffusion and improve the rate performance of the materials. Moreover, the calculations show that the structural stability is enhanced by Fe and Cl codoping. As a result, the Fe and Cl codopant reduces the irreversible release of lattice oxygen, mitigates voltage fade, and improves the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency. This work provides a low-cost, environmentally friendly, practical strategy for high-performance cathode materials.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 189: 956-964, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478795

RESUMO

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are entomopathogenic bacteria that produce different kinds of insecticidal proteins. However, studies on Bt exopolysaccharides are lacking. Here, we aimed to explore the characteristics and insecticidal synergism of EPS, an exopolysaccharide from Bt strain 4D19. The molecular weight of EPS-2 was 58.0 kDa, which consisted of mannose (44.2%), GlcN (35.5%), D-GalN (8.0%), glucose (5.5%), arabinose (5.1%), galactose (0.9%), Man-UA (0.3%) and Glc-UA (0.2%). The toxicity of insecticidal proteins against Plutella xylostella was increased by adding EPS. EPS-2 bound to Cry1Ac protoxin and promoted the binding of Cry1Ac protoxin to the gut membrane of P. xylostella, but did not bind to activated toxins. These results suggested that EPS-2 may bind to the protoxin C-terminal region to enhance insecticidal activity. Our findings indicated that Bt strains produce exopolysaccharide to enhance the toxicity of insecticidal crystal proteins, which could be applied in biopesticide research and product development.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 691811, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489938

RESUMO

The glioma tumor microenvironment (TME), composed of several noncancerous cells and biomolecules is known for its complexity of cancer-immune system interaction. Given that, novel risk signature is required for predicting glioma patient responses to immunotherapy. In this study, we systematically evaluated the TME infiltration pattern of 2877 glioma samples. TME phenotypes were determined using the Partitioning Around Medoid method. Machine learning including SVM-RFE and Principal component analysis (PCA) were used to construct a TME scoring system. A total of 857 glioma samples from four datasets were used for external validation of the TME-score. The correlation of TME phenotypes and TME-scores with diverse clinicopathologic characteristics, genomic features, and immunotherapeutic efficacy in glioma patients was determined. Immunohistochemistry staining for the M2 macrophage marker CD68 and CD163, mast cell marker CD117, neutrophil marker CD66b, and RNA sequencing of glioma samples from the XYNS cohort were performed. Two distinct TME phenotypes were identified. High TME-score correlated with a high number of immune infiltrating cells, elevated expression of immune checkpoints, increased mutation rates of oncogenes, and poor survival of glioma patients. Moreover, high TME-score exhibited remarkable association with multiple immunomodulators that could potentially mediate immune escape of cancer. Thus, the TME-score showed the potential to predict the efficacy of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated the TME-score to be a valuable prognostic biomarker for gliomas. Our study demonstrated that TME could potentially influence immunotherapy efficacy in melanoma patients whereas its role in immunotherapy of glioma patients remains unknown. Therefore, a better understanding of the TME landscape in gliomas would promote the development of novel immunotherapy strategies against glioma.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(36): 14523-14529, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482686

RESUMO

High-speed capturing of uranyl (UO22+) ions from seawater elicits unprecedented interest for the sustainable development of the nuclear energy industry. However, the ultralow concentration (∼3.3 µg L-1) of uranium element leads to the slow ion diffusion inside the adsorbent particle, especially after the transfer paths are occupied by the coexisted interfering ions. Considering the geometric dimension of UO22+ ion (a maximum length of 6.04-6.84 Å), the interlayer spacing of graphene sheets was covalently pillared with phenyl-based units into twice the ionic length (13 Å) to obtain uranyl-specific nanofluidic channels. Applying a negative potential (-1.3 V), such a charge-governed region facilitates a unipolar ionic transport, where cations are greatly accelerated and co-ions are repelled. Notably, the resulting adsorbent gives the highest adsorption velocity among all reported materials. The adsorption capacity measured after 56 days of exposure in natural seawater is evaluated to be ∼16 mg g-1. This novel concept with rapid adsorption, high capacity, and facile operating process shows great promise to implement in real-world uranium extraction.

11.
Front Neurol ; 12: 718683, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566860

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to explore the characteristics of phase-amplitude coupling in patients with frontal epilepsy based on their electrocorticography data, in order to identify the localization of epileptic regions and further guide clinical resection surgery. Methods: We adopted the modulation index based on the Kullback-Leibler distance, phase-amplitude coupling co-modulogram, and time-varying phase-amplitude modulogram to explore the temporal-spatial patterns and characterization of PAC strength during the period from inter- seizure to post-seizure. Taking the resected area as the gold standard, the epileptogenic zone was located based on MI values of 7 different seizure periods, and the accuracy of localization was measured by the area under the receiver operating curve. Results: (1) The PAC in the inter- and pre-seizure periods was weak and paroxysmal, but strong PAC channels were confined more to the seizure-onset zone and resection region. PAC during the seizure period was intense and persistent, but gradually deviated from the seizure-onset zone. (2) The characteristics of coupling strength of the inter- and pre-seizure EEG can be used to accurately locate the epileptogenic zone, which is better than that in periods after the beginning of a seizure. (3) In an epileptic seizure, the preferred phases of coupling were usually in the rising branches at the pre- and early-seizure stages, while those in the middle- and terminal-seizure were usually in the falling branch. We thus speculate that the coupling occurred in the rising branch can promote the recruitment of abnormal discharge, while the coupling occurred in the falling branch can inhibit the abnormal discharge. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the phase-amplitude coupling during inter- and pre-seizure is a promising marker of epileptic focus location. The preferred phase of coupling changed regularly with the time of epileptic seizure, suggesting that the surge and suppression of abnormal discharges are related to different phases.

12.
Microsyst Nanoeng ; 7: 20, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567734

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global cause of morbidity and mortality. Initial management and risk stratification of patients with TBI is made difficult by the relative insensitivity of screening radiographic studies as well as by the absence of a widely available, noninvasive diagnostic biomarker. In particular, a blood-based biomarker assay could provide a quick and minimally invasive process to stratify risk and guide early management strategies in patients with mild TBI (mTBI). Analysis of circulating exosomes allows the potential for rapid and specific identification of tissue injury. By applying acoustofluidic exosome separation-which uses a combination of microfluidics and acoustics to separate bioparticles based on differences in size and acoustic properties-we successfully isolated exosomes from plasma samples obtained from mice after TBI. Acoustofluidic isolation eliminated interference from other blood components, making it possible to detect exosomal biomarkers for TBI via flow cytometry. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that exosomal biomarkers for TBI increase in the first 24 h following head trauma, indicating the potential of using circulating exosomes for the rapid diagnosis of TBI. Elevated levels of TBI biomarkers were only detected in the samples separated via acoustofluidics; no changes were observed in the analysis of the raw plasma sample. This finding demonstrated the necessity of sample purification prior to exosomal biomarker analysis. Since acoustofluidic exosome separation can easily be integrated with downstream analysis methods, it shows great potential for improving early diagnosis and treatment decisions associated with TBI.

13.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 2): 1852-1865, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507176

RESUMO

Low melting point liquid metal alloys are progressively utilized in different research fields due to their unique physicochemical properties. Among them, EGaIn is liquid at room temperature with an excellent solubility for reactive metal atoms such as Al. Combined with their characteristic flexible surface, large area and atomically flat interfaces, a library of two-dimensional materials can be generated. Liquid metal synthesis routes provide a highly reproducible thickness of nanosheets with fast, simple, scalable, inexpensive, high yield and non-toxic methods, especially for Al oxides and hydroxides. At the same time, Al-based heterojunction structure also shows a good application prospect in the field of electromagnetic wave absorption, therefore, the use of liquid metal synthesis methods to find the synthesis methods of Al-based layered double hydroxide (LDH) and its derivatives remains to be explored. In this work, EGaIn was used as an aluminum reservoir to prepare LDH and metal organic framework (MOFs) nano-arrays. The prepared CoAl-LDH@ZIF 67 can be transformed into CoAl-LDO@Co-C in the subsequent annealing process performed under nitrogen environments. Interestingly, a series of samples with different morphologies can be obtained by changing the synthesis parameters. The excellent electromagnetic wave interactions are fully characterized. It has an effective absorption bandwidth of 8.48 GHz at 2.6 mm. The findings demonstrated in this work pave the way for the application of lightwave and ductile complex nanoarrays obtained from liquid metals.

14.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 4603-4618, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471502

RESUMO

Background: Gliomas are one of the most common types of primary tumors in central nervous system. Previous studies have found that macrophages actively participate in tumor growth. Methods: Weighted gene co-expression network analysis was used to identify meaningful macrophage-related gene genes for clustering. Pamr, SVM, and neural network were applied for validating clustering results. Somatic mutation and methylation were used for defining the features of identified clusters. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the stratified groups after performing elastic regression and principal component analyses were used for the construction of MScores. The expression of macrophage-specific genes were evaluated in tumor microenvironment based on single cell sequencing analysis. A total of 2365 samples from 15 glioma datasets and 5842 pan-cancer samples were used for external validation of MScore. Results: Macrophages were identified to be negatively associated with the survival of glioma patients. Twenty-six macrophage-specific DEGs obtained by elastic regression and PCA were highly expressed in macrophages at single-cell level. The prognostic value of MScores in glioma was validated by the active proinflammatory and metabolic profile of infiltrating microenvironment and response to immunotherapies of samples with this signature. MScores managed to stratify patient survival probabilities in 15 external glioma datasets and pan-cancer datasets, which predicted worse survival outcome. Sequencing data and immunohistochemistry of Xiangya glioma cohort confirmed the prognostic value of MScores. A prognostic model based on MScores demonstrated high accuracy rate. Conclusion: Our findings strongly support a modulatory role of macrophages, especially M2 macrophages in glioma progression and warrants further experimental studies.

15.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 117999, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500397

RESUMO

Microplastics and nanoplastics are distributed in the environments universally. The interrelationship between vascular plants and micro/nanoplastics began to attract attention in recent years. Based on the relevant literatures collected from various databases, this review focuses on two topics: 1) the effect of vascular plants on the fate of micro/nanoplastics; 2) the effects of micro/nanoplastics on vascular plants. The review of the available studies reveals that vascular plants can act as sinks for microplastics and nanoplastics as their surfaces can adsorb these plastics; moreover, nanoplastics can be internalized by plants. Plastics on the surfaces and in the interiors of vascular plants can cause various phytotoxicity effects, including impacts on growth, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the results and mechanisms of phytotoxicity effects caused by microplastics or nanoplastics can be very different. However, knowledge gaps still exist in the relationships between micro/nanoplastics and vascular plants based on the analysis of available studies; thus, potential subjects for future studies were proposed, including the fates, analysis methods, influencing factors, mechanisms of phytotoxicity, and further influences of microplastics and nanoplastics in the vascular plant ecosystems. This study presents a review of micro/nanoplastics-vascular plant research and reaches a basis for future research.


Assuntos
Traqueófitas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 734450, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512360

RESUMO

Respiratory diseases, especially the pandemic of respiratory infectious diseases and refractory chronic lung diseases, remain a key clinical issue and research hot spot due to their high prevalence rates and poor prognosis. In this review, we aimed to summarize the recent advances in the therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms of key common bioactive compounds from Chinese herbal medicine. Based on the theories of traditional Chinese medicine related to lung diseases, we searched several electronic databases to determine the high-frequency Chinese medicines in clinical application. The active compounds and metabolites from the selected medicines were identified using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database (TCMSP) by analyzing oral bioavailability and drug similarity index. Then, the pharmacological effects and molecular mechanisms of the selected bioactive compounds in the viral and bacterial infections, inflammation, acute lung injury (ALI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, asthma, and lung cancer were summarized. We found that 31 bioactive compounds from the selected 10 common Chinese herbs, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), kaempferol, isorhamnetin, quercetin, and ß-sitosterol, can mainly regulate NF-κB, Nrf2/HO-1, NLRP3, TGF-ß/Smad, MAPK, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways to inhibit infection, inflammation, extracellular matrix deposition, and tumor growth in a series of lung-related diseases. This review provides novel perspectives on the preclinical study and clinical application of Chinese herbal medicines and their bioactive compounds against respiratory diseases.

17.
Adv Mater ; 33(39): e2102724, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387379

RESUMO

Porous carbon materials demonstrate extensive applications for their attractive characteristics. Mechanical flexibility is an essential property guaranteeing their durability. After decades of research efforts, compressive brittleness of porous carbon materials is well resolved. However, reversible stretchability remains challenging to achieve due to the intrinsically weak connections and fragile joints of the porous carbon networks. Herein, it is presented that a porous all-carbon material achieving both elastic compressibility and stretchability at large strain from -80% to 80% can be obtained when a unique long-range lamellar multi-arch microstructure is introduced. Impressively, the porous all-carbon material can maintain reliable structural robustness and durability under loading condition of cyclic compressing-stretching process, similar to a real metallic spring. The unique performance renders it as a promising platform for making smart vibration and magnetism sensors, even capable of operating at extreme temperatures. Furthermore, this study provides valuable insights for creating highly stretchable and compressible porous materials from other neat inorganic components for diverse applications in future.

18.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443587

RESUMO

Panax spp. (Araliaceae family) are widely used medicinal plants and they mainly include Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Panax quinquefolium L. (American ginseng), and Panax notoginseng (notoginseng). Polysaccharides are the main active ingredients in these plants and have demonstrated diverse pharmacological functions, but comparisons of isolation methods, structural features, and bioactivities of these polysaccharides have not yet been reported. This review summarizes recent advances associated with 112 polysaccharides from ginseng, 25 polysaccharides from American ginseng, and 36 polysaccharides from notoginseng and it compares the differences in extraction, purification, structural features, and bioactivities. Most studies focus on ginseng polysaccharides and comparisons are typically made with the polysaccharides from American ginseng and notoginseng. For the extraction, purification, and structural analysis, the processes are similar for the polysaccharides from the three Panax species. Previous studies determined that 55 polysaccharides from ginseng, 18 polysaccharides from American ginseng, and 9 polysaccharides from notoginseng exhibited anti-tumor activity, immunoregulatory effects, anti-oxidant activity, and other pharmacological functions, which are mediated by multiple signaling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor kappa B, or redox balance pathways. This review can provide new insights into the similarities and differences among the polysaccharides from the three Panax species, which can facilitate and guide further studies to explore the medicinal properties of the Araliaceae family used in traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Panax/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
19.
J Oncol ; 2021: 7840007, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394352

RESUMO

Malignant neoplasms are characterized by poor therapeutic efficacy, high recurrence rate, and extensive metastasis, leading to short survival. Previous methods for grouping prognostic risks are based on anatomic, clinical, and pathological features that exhibit lower distinguishing capability compared with genetic signatures. The update of sequencing techniques and machine learning promotes the genetic panels-based prognostic model development, especially the RNA-panel models. Gliomas harbor the most malignant features and the poorest survival among all tumors. Currently, numerous glioma prognostic models have been reported. We systematically reviewed all 138 machine-learning-based genetic models and proposed novel criteria in assessing their quality. Besides, the biological and clinical significance of some highly overlapped glioma markers in these models were discussed. This study screened out markers with strong prognostic potential and 27 models presenting high quality. Conclusively, we comprehensively reviewed 138 prognostic models combined with glioma genetic panels and presented novel criteria for the development and assessment of clinically important prognostic models. This will guide the genetic models in cancers from laboratory-based research studies to clinical applications and improve glioma patient prognostic management.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Morbidity and mortality from typhoid and paratyphoid fever remain an important problem for public health authorities in developing countries. In countries with lower incidences, most cases occur in travelers who visit regions in which typhoid and paratyphoid fever are highly endemic. The aim was to evaluate the source and transmission dynamics of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Taiwan by using genomic analysis. METHODS: During 2012-2019, 15 clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhi and S. Paratyphi A were collected. Demographic and clinical information of the infections were analyzed. We performed whole genome sequencing and evolutionary analysis on these isolates. RESULTS: Clinical and microbiological data from 7 S. Typhi and 8 S. Paratyphi A isolates in Taiwan showed epidemiological and bacterial genomic link to the infection in South and Southeast Asia. The Taiwanese typhoidal isolates also share highly similar genomes with those collected from UK, indicating global circulation of the typhoidal clones. Local transmission of the imported but indigenized international clones was observed. Mutations occurring at gyrA 83 aa, including S83Y and S83F, were identified in the ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. CONCLUSION: Due to the advance of global transportation and communication, the transmission mode of infectious disease has been modified. Domestic typhoid and paratyphoid fever caused by international resistant clones can occur in low-incidence countries. Genome analysis showed that the indigenous clone originally imported from other countries has been circulating in Taiwan for over a decade.

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