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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015242

RESUMO

To evaluate the application effect of antimicrobial peptides Gal-13 (AMP Gal-13) instead of antibiotic feed additives, 90 7-day-old Ross 308 broilers were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group A was fed a basic diet as the control, and Groups B and C were supplemented with AMP Gal-13 (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively). After a 35-day feeding experiment, the weight and average daily gain (ADG) of the broilers in Group B were significantly higher than those of the broilers in Group A. The Enterococcus sp. and Escherichia coli counts in the ileum and cecum in Group A were significantly higher than those in Groups B and C, while the Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bifidobacterium sp. counts were significantly lower. The amylase activity of the jejunum in Group B was significantly higher than that in Group A. The villus length (VL): crypt depth (CD) ratios of the jejunum and ileum in Group B were significantly higher than those in Group A. The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the liver and serum in Groups B and C were significantly higher than those in Group A, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) activity was significantly lower. The titers of Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-specific antibodies were elevated significantly in Group B at the age of 42 days. Additionally, the weights of the spleen and thymus were significantly increased. The expression levels of Il-2, Il-6, Tgf-ß4, Tnf-α, and Mif in the spleen in Groups B and C were significantly downregulated to different degrees; Il-4 expression in Group B was significantly upregulated, while Ifn-γ expression in Group C was significantly upregulated. The results suggested that adding AMP Gal-13 to the diet could improve intestinal digestion, the antioxidant capacity, and immune function, ultimately promoting the growth of broilers.

2.
Org Lett ; 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029401

RESUMO

We disclose a Ag-catalyzed asymmetric interrupted Barton-Zard reaction of α-aryl-substituted isocyanoacetates with 2- and 3-nitroindoles, which enables the dearomatization of nitroindoles and hence offers rapid access to an array of optically active tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-b]indole derivatives bearing three contiguous stereogenic centers, including two tetrasubstituted chiral carbon atoms with pretty outcomes (up to 99% yield, 91:9 dr, and 96% ee). The synthetic potential of the protocol was showcased by the gram-scale reaction and versatile transformations of the product.

3.
Reprod Biol ; 22(1): 100592, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995817

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a benign gynecological disease. Accumulating evidence has revealed the participation of dysregulated miRNAs in the progression of endometriosis. Here, the function and molecular mechanism of miR-143-3p in endometriosis were investigated. The levels of vasohibin 1 (VASH1) and miR-143-3p in endometrial tissues and endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs) were detected by RT-qPCR. Migrative and invasive phenotypes of ESCs were tested by Transwell assays. The protein expression of VASH1, TGF-ß signaling markers, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers was examined by western blotting. The targeted relationship between miR-143-3p and VASH1 was confirmed by bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay. We found that miR-143-3p expression was significantly upregulated in ectopic endometrial tissues compared to that in eutopic and normal endometrial tissues. MiR-143-3p knockdown restrained EMT process, invasive and migrative behaviors of ESCs. Mechanically, miR-143-3p targeted VASH1 and negatively regulated VASH1. VASH1 downregulation reserved the effects of miR-143-3p knockdown in ESCs. MiR-143-3p activated TGF-ß signaling via targeting VASH1. Furthermore, activation of TGF-ß signaling counteracted the miR-143-3p knockdown-caused suppression of migration, invasion and EMT process in ESCs. Overall, miR-143-3p activates TGF-ß signaling by targeting VASH1 to facilitate migration and invasion of ESCs.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 58(4): 553-556, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34908046

RESUMO

Using 1-thioaurones and 1-azaaurones as electron-deficient oxa-dienes, an organocatalytic asymmetric aromatizing inverse electron-demand [4+2] cycloaddition with γ-deconjugated butenolides and azlactones was developed. A wide range of optically active benzothiophene-fused δ-lactones and indole-fused δ-lactones were obtained with desirable outcomes (up to 94% yield, >99 : 1 dr and 99% ee).

5.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 757556, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34867881

RESUMO

A dsRNA segment was identified in the fungus Melanconiella theae isolated from tea plants. The complete dsRNA sequence, determined by random cloning together with RACE protocol, is 2,461 bp in length with an AU-rich content (62.37%) and comprises a single ORF of 2,265-nucleotides encoding an RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp, 754 amino acids in size). The terminus sequences can fold into predicted stable stem-loop structures. A BLASTX and phylogenetic analysis revealed the dsRNA genome shows similarities with the RdRp sequences of mitoviruses, with the highest identity of 48% with those of grapevine-associated mitovirus 20 and Colletotrichum fructicola mitovirus 1. Our results reveal a novel member, tentatively named Melanconiella theae mitovirus 1 (MtMV1), belongs to the family Mitoviridae. MtMV1 is capsidless as examined by transmission electron microscope, efficiently transmitted through conidia as 100 conidium-generated colonies were analyzed, and easily eliminated by hyphal tipping method combined with green-leaf tea powder. MtMV1 has a genomic sequence obviously divergent from those of most members in the family Mitoviridae and some unique characteristics unreported in known members. This is the first report of a mycovirus infecting Melanconiella fungi to date.

6.
Front Oncol ; 11: 779202, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869030

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate whether multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based logistic regression models can facilitate the early prediction of chemoradiotherapy response in patients with residual brain gliomas after surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 84 patients with residual gliomas after surgery from January 2015 to September 2020 who were treated with chemoradiotherapy were retrospectively enrolled and classified as treatment-sensitive or treatment-insensitive. These patients were divided into a training group (from institution 1, 57 patients) and a validation group (from institutions 2 and 3, 27 patients). All preoperative and postoperative MR images were obtained, including T1-weighted (T1-w), T2-weighted (T2-w), and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (CET1-w) images. A total of 851 radiomics features were extracted from every imaging series. Feature selection was performed with univariate analysis or in combination with multivariate analysis. Then, four multivariable logistic regression models derived from T1-w, T2-w, CET1-w and Joint series (T1+T2+CET1-w) were constructed to predict the response of postoperative residual gliomas to chemoradiotherapy (sensitive or insensitive). These models were validated in the validation group. Calibration curves, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and decision curve analysis (DCA) were applied to compare the predictive performances of these models. Results: Four models were created and showed the following areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) in the training and validation groups: Model-Joint series (AUC, 0.923 and 0.852), Model-T1 (AUC, 0.835 and 0.809), Model-T2 (AUC, 0.784 and 0.605), and Model-CET1 (AUC, 0.805 and 0.537). These results indicated that the Model-Joint series had the best performance in the validation group, followed by Model-T1, Model-T2 and finally Model-CET1. The calibration curves indicated good agreement between the Model-Joint series predictions and actual probabilities. Additionally, the DCA curves demonstrated that the Model-Joint series was clinically useful. Conclusion: Multiparametric MRI-based radiomics models can potentially predict tumor response after chemoradiotherapy in patients with postoperative residual gliomas, which may aid clinical decision making, especially to help patients initially predicted to be treatment-insensitive avoid the toxicity of chemoradiotherapy.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874870

RESUMO

This article proposes two adaptive asymptotic tracking control schemes for a class of interconnected systems with unmodeled dynamics and prescribed performance. By applying an inherent property of radial basis function (RBF) neural networks (NNs), the design difficulties aroused from the unknown interactions among subsystems and unmodeled dynamics are overcome. Then, in order to ensure that the tracking errors can be suppressed in the specified range, the constrained control problem is transformed into the stabilization problem by using an auxiliary function. Based on the adaptive backstepping method, a time-triggered controller is constructed. It is proven that under the framework of Barbalat's lemma, all the variables in the closed-loop system are bounded and the tracking errors are further ensured to converge to zero asymptotically. Furthermore, the event-triggered strategy with a variable threshold is adopted to make more precise control such that the better system performance can be obtained, which reduces the system communication burden under the condition of limited communication resources. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

8.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855639

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent, most lethal cancers in the world. Increasing evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota is closely related to the pathogenesis and prognosis of CRC. The normal microbiota plays an essential role in maintaining gut barrier function and the immune microenvironment. Recent studies have identified carcinogenic bacteria such as enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) and Streptococcus gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus), as well as protective bacterial such as Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila), as potential targets of CRC treatment. Gut microbiota modulation aims to restore gut dysbiosis, regulate the intestinal immune system and prevent from pathogen invasion, all of which are beneficial for CRC prevention and prognosis. The utility of probiotics, prebiotics, postbiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation and dietary inventions to treat CRC makes them novel microbe-based management tools. In this review, we describe the mechanisms involved in bacteria-derived colorectal carcinogenesis and summarized novel bacteria-related therapies for CRC. In summary, we hope to facilitate clinical applications of intestinal bacteria for preventing and treating CRC.

9.
Small ; : e2103747, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859956

RESUMO

Metal-gas batteries draw a lot of attention due to their superiorities in high energy density and stable performance. However, the sluggish electrochemical reactions and associated side reactions in metal-gas batteries require suitable catalysts, which possess high catalytic activity and selectivity. Although precious metal catalysts show a higher catalytic activity, high cost of the precious metal catalysts hinders their commercial applications. In contrast, nonprecious metal catalysts complement the weakness of cost, and the gap in activity can be made up by increasing the amount of the nonprecious metal active centers. Herein, recent work on carbon-based nonprecious metal catalysts for metal-gas batteries is summarized. This review starts with introducing the advantages of carbon-based nonprecious metal catalysts, followed by a discussion of the synthetic strategy of carbon-based nonprecious metal catalysts and classification of active sites, and finally a summary of present metal-gas batteries with the carbon-based nonprecious metal catalysts is presented. The challenges and opportunities for carbon-based nonprecious metal catalysts in metal-gas batteries are also explored.

10.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860006

RESUMO

Cell-membrane-coated nanoparticles are widely studied due to their inherent cellular properties, such as immune escape and homologous homing. A cell membrane coating can also maintain the relative stability of nanoparticles during circulation in a complex blood environment through cell membrane encapsulation technology. In this study, we fused a murine-derived ID8 ovarian cancer cell membrane with a red blood cell (RBC) membrane to create a hybrid biomimetic coating (IRM), and hybrid IRM camouflaged indocyanine green (ICG)-loaded magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-ICG@IRM) were fabricated for combination therapy of ovarian cancer. Fe3O4-ICG@IRM retained both ID8 and RBC cell membrane proteins and exhibited highly specific self-recognition of ID8 cells in vitro and in vivo as well as a prolonged circulation lifetime in blood. Interestingly, in the bilateral flank tumor model, the IRM-coated nanoparticles also activated specific immunity, which killed homologous ID8 tumor cells but had no effect on B16-F10 tumor cells. Furthermore, Fe3O4-ICG@IRM showed synergistic photothermal therapy, resulting in the release of whole-cell tumor antigens by photothermal-induced tumor necrosis, which further enhanced antitumor immunotherapy for primary tumor and metastatic tumor by activating CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and reducing regulatory Foxp3+ T cells. Together, the biomimetic Fe3O4-ICG@IRM nanoparticles showed synergistic photothermal-immunotherapy for ovarian cancer.

11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7196, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893613

RESUMO

Interfacial moiré superlattices in van der Waals vertical assemblies effectively reconstruct the crystal symmetry, leading to opportunities for investigating exotic quantum states. Notably, a two-dimensional nanosheet has top and bottom open surfaces, allowing the specific case of doubly aligned super-moiré lattice to serve as a toy model for studying the tunable lattice symmetry and the complexity of related electronic structures. Here, we show that by doubly aligning a graphene monolayer to both top and bottom encapsulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), multiple conductivity minima are observed away from the main Dirac point, which are sensitively tunable with respect to the small twist angles. Moreover, our experimental evidences together with theoretical calculations suggest correlated insulating states at integer fillings of -5, -6, -7 electrons per moiré unit cell, possibly due to inter-valley coherence. Our results provide a way to construct intriguing correlations in 2D electronic systems in the weak interaction regime.

12.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 5587428, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744513

RESUMO

Objective: Chronic heart failure (CHF) refers to a state of persistent heart failure that can be stable, deteriorated, or decompensated. The mechanism and pathogenesis of myocardial remodeling remain unknown. Based on 16S rDNA sequencing and metabolomics technology, this study analyzed the gut microbiota and serum metabolome in elderly patients with CHF to provide new insights into the microbiota and metabolic phenotypes of CHF. Methods: Blood and fecal samples were collected from 25 elderly patients with CHF and 25 healthy subjects. The expression of inflammatory factors in blood was detected by ELISA. 16S rDNA sequencing was used to analyze the changes in microorganisms in the samples. The changes of small molecular metabolites in serum samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to analyze the correlation between gut microbiota and serum metabolites. Results: Our results showed that the IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels were significantly increased, and the IL-10 level was significantly decreased in the elderly patients with CHF compared with the healthy subjects. The diversity of the gut microbiota was decreased in the elderly patients with CHF. Moreover, Escherichia Shigella was negatively correlated with biocytin and RIBOFLAVIN. Haemophilus was negatively correlated with alpha-lactose, cellobiose, isomaltose, lactose, melibiose, sucrose, trehalose, and turanose. Klebsiella was positively correlated with bilirubin and ethylsalicylate. Klebsiella was negatively correlated with citramalate, hexanoylcarnitine, inosine, isovalerylcarnitine, methylmalonate, and riboflavin. Conclusion: The gut microbiota is simplified by the disease, and serum small-molecule metabolites evidently change in elderly patients with CHF. Serum and fecal biomarkers could be used for elderly patients with CHF screening.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769438

RESUMO

Oleanolic acid (OA), asiatic acid (AA), and maslinic acid (MA) are ubiquitous isomeric triterpene phytochemicals with many pharmacological effects. To improve their application value, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce RAW264.7 cells and studied the differences in the anti-inflammatory effects of the triterpenes according to their structural differences. MTT, Griess, and immunofluorescence assays, ELISA, flow cytometry, and Western blotting, were performed. The release of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and interleukin (IL-6), was significantly inhibited by OA, AA, and MA at the same concentration, and AA and MA promoted the production of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10. OA, AA, and MA inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation in RAW264.7 cells. OA and AA inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, P38, and JNK1/2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, OA increased LPS-induced Nrf2 expression and decreased Keap1 expression in RAW264.7 cells. OA, AA, and MA inhibited LPS-stimulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and alleviated mitochondrial membrane potential depletion. Overall, our data suggested that OA, AA, and MA exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. In particular, OA and AA take effects through the MAPKs, NF-κB, and Nrf2 signaling pathways.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(47): 11534-11542, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806391

RESUMO

The force- and flow-induced translocation processes of linear and ring polymers are studied using a combination of multiparticle collision dynamics and molecular dynamics, focusing on the behavior of the polymer translocation time. We compare the force- and flow-induced translocations of linear and ring polymers. It is found that when the translocation time (τ*) is characterized by scaling exponents, δ, δ', and α, via the relations τ* ∼ fδNα and τ* ∼ Jδ'Nα, the scaling exponents are not constants. For long chains tested, α = 1.0 for both force- and flow-induced translocations. The difference between the force- and flow-induced translocations stems from different monomer crowding effects due to distinct flow patterns outside the channel. Furthermore, general relations for polymer translocation time are derived for these two translocation processes, which are in good agreement with the simulation results. Our results provide clear molecular pictures for the force- and flow-induced translocations, which shed light on the understanding of translocation dynamics and provide guidance for practical applications such as molecular sequencing and ultrafiltration.

15.
Future Oncol ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783576

RESUMO

Objective: To verify the association between CD44 and CD133 expression levels and the prognosis of patients with lower-grade gliomas (LGGs) and constructing radiomic models to predict those two genes' expression levels before surgery. Materials & methods: Genomic data of patients with LGG and the corresponding T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas and the Cancer Imaging Archive, which were utilized for prognosis analysis, radiomic feature extraction and model construction, respectively. Results & conclusion: CD44 and CD133 expression levels in LGG can significantly affect the prognosis of patients with LGG. Based on the T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images, the radiomic features can effectively predict the expression levels of CD44 and CD133 before surgery.

16.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 6556266, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721825

RESUMO

This study aimed to detect and diagnose the lung nodules as early as possible to effectively treat them, thereby reducing the burden on the medical system and patients. A lung computed tomography (CT) image segmentation algorithm was constructed based on the deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN). The clinical data of 69 patients with lung nodules diagnosed by needle biopsy and pathological comprehensive diagnosis at hospital were collected for specific analysis. The CT image segmentation algorithm was used to distinguish the nature and volume of lung nodules and compared with other computer aided design (CAD) software (Philips ISP). 69 patients with lung nodules were treated by radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The results showed that the diagnostic sensitivity of the CT image segmentation algorithm based on the CNN was obviously higher than that of the Philips ISP for solid nodules <5 mm (63 cases vs. 33 cases) (P < 0.05); it was the same result for the subsolid nodule <5 mm (33 case vs. 5 cases) (P < 0.05) that was slightly higher for solid and subsolid nodules with a diameter of 5-10 mm (37 cases vs. 28 cases) (P < 0.05). In addition, the CNN algorithm can reach all detection for calcified nodules and pleural nodules (7 cases; 5 cases), and the diagnostic sensitivities were much better than those of Philips ISP (2 cases; 3 cases) (P < 0.05). Patients with pulmonary nodules treated by RFA were in good postoperative condition, with a half-year survival rate of 100% and a one-year survival rate of 72.4%. Therefore, it could be concluded that the CT image segmentation algorithm based on the CNN could effectively detect and diagnose the lung nodules early, and the RFA could effectively treat the lung nodules.

17.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(6): 1203-1219, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601650

RESUMO

Drought severely affects the growth and development of maize, but there is a certain degree of compensation effect after rewatering. This study intends to elaborate the response mechanism of maize at the physiological and molecular level as well as excavating potential genes with strong drought resistance and recovery ability. Physiological indexes analysis demonstrated that stomata conductance, transpiration rate, photosynthesis rate, antioxidant enzymes, and proline levels in maize were significantly altered in response to drought for 60 and 96 h and rewatering for 3 days. At 60 h, 96 h, and R3d, we detected 3095, 1941, and 5966 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 221, 226, and 215 differentially expressed miRNAs. Weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) showed that DEGs responded to maize drought and rewatering through participating in photosynthesis, proline metabolism, ABA signaling, and oxidative stress. Joint analysis of DEGs, miRNA, and target genes showed that zma-miR529, miR5072, zma-miR167e, zma-miR167f, zma-miR167j, miR397, and miR6214 were involved to regulate SBPs, MYBs, ARFs, laccases, and antioxidant enzymes, respectively. Hundreds of differentially expressed DNA methylation-related 24-nt siRNA clusters overlap with DEGs, indicating that DNA methylation is involved in responses under drought stress. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance, and may identify new targets for breeding drought-tolerant maize lines.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Fotossíntese , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Zea mays/genética
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 713485, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630388

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the impact of glycerol monolaurate (GML) on performance, immunity, intestinal barrier, and cecal microbiota in broiler chicks. A total of 360 one-day-old broilers (Arbor Acres) with an average weight of 45.7 g were randomly allocated to five dietary groups as follows: basal diet and basal diets complemented with 300, 600, 900, or 1200 mg/kg GML. Samples were collected at 7 and 14 days of age. Results revealed that feed intake increased (P < 0.05) after 900 and 1200 mg/kg GML were administered during the entire 14-day experiment period. Dietary GML decreased (P < 0.05) crypt depth and increased the villus height-to-crypt depth ratio of the jejunum. In the serum and jejunum, supplementation with more than 600 mg/kg GML reduced (P < 0.05) interleukin-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, and malondialdehyde levels and increased (P < 0.05) the levels of immunoglobulin G, jejunal mucin 2, total antioxidant capacity, and total superoxide dismutase. GML down-regulate (P < 0.05) jejunal interleukin-1ß and interferon-γ expression and increased (P < 0.05) the mRNA level of zonula occludens 1 and occludin. A reduced (P < 0.05) expression of toll-like receptor 4 and nuclear factor kappa-B was shown in GML-treated groups. In addition, GML modulated the composition of the cecal microbiota of the broilers, improved (P < 0.05) microbial diversity, and increased (P < 0.05) the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed that the genera Barnesiella, Coprobacter, Lachnospiraceae, Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides, Odoriacter, and Parabacteroides were related to inflammation and intestinal integrity. In conclusion, GML ameliorated intestinal morphology and barrier function in broiler chicks probably by regulating intestinal immune and antioxidant balance, as well as intestinal microbiota.

19.
Food Funct ; 12(21): 10903-10916, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647113

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism of enhancing the immune effect of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine in broilers fed with Bacillus cereus PAS38. The results showed that the NDV antibody titer of broilers in the treatment group supplemented with B. cereus PAS38 was higher than that of the control group, and the difference was significant at 28 days of age (P < 0.05). The spleen, thymus and bursa of fabricius of 42-day-old broilers were quickly collected to construct a differentially expressed gene library of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 31 immune-related differentially expressed genes were screened from three immune organs, of which 15 were up-regulated and 16 were down-regulated. After silencing the up-regulated genes MIF, CD74, DOCK2 and KLHL6, the expression levels of cytokines (Akirin2, NF-κB, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α) in lymphocytes were reduced to varying degrees. B. cereus PAS38 might be involved in the proliferation, differentiation, activation, migration of B lymphocytes and vaccine antigen presentation by up-regulating the expression of MIF, CD74, DOCK2, KLHL6 and other genes. Moreover, it also stimulated plasma cells to produce immunoglobulins and specific antibodies, thereby improving the humoral immune function of broilers and enhancing the immune effect of the NDV vaccine.

20.
Org Lett ; 23(21): 8600-8605, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672632

RESUMO

An enantioselective dearomative 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of 2-nitrobenzothiophenes and isatin-derived azomethine ylides with a bifunctional hydrogen-bonding thiourea catalyst was established, giving polyheterocyclic compounds in excellent results (up to 99% yield, >20:1 dr for all cases and up to 99% ee). The enantioselectivity could be reversed by the bifunctional hydrogen-bonding squaramide catalyst containing the same chiral source as in the thiourea catalyst. DFT calculations revealed the origin of the observed stereochemistry and the reversal of enantioselectivity.

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