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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860341

RESUMO

Flubendiamide is a widely used diamide insecticide with many adverse effects on environmental organisms. This study assessed its bioaccumulation and toxicity effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio) using LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of flubendiamide in the whole zebrafish increased in the early stages and achieved steady levels at 14 days. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of flubendiamide was 1.125-2.011. Although flubendiamide did not significantly affect the growth phenotypes of zebrafish, it significantly changed the hepatic somatic index (HSI) of zebrafish. Histopathological analysis showed that flubendiamide could cause structural damage to the liver tissue of zebrafish. Further physiological and biochemical analysis showed that flubendiamide significantly changed the activity of catalase (CAT) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in liver of zebrafish. Moreover, flubendiamide significantly changed the mRNA expression levels of cell apoptosis-related genes, including p53, puma, caspase-3, caspase-9, apaf-1, and bax in liver of zebrafish. In summary, these results indicate that flubendiamide can cause liver damage by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis in the liver of zebrafish. This study provides a background for further safety evaluation of flubendiamide to aquatic organisms.

2.
Front Genet ; 12: 773597, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764988

RESUMO

The maize (Zea mays L.) ZmCNR13 gene, encoding a protein of fw2.2-like (FWL) family, has been demonstrated to be involved in cell division, expansion, and differentiation. In the present study, the genomic sequences of the ZmCNR13 locus were re-sequenced in 224 inbred lines, 56 landraces and 30 teosintes, and the nucleotide polymorphism and selection signature were estimated. A total of 501 variants, including 415 SNPs and 86 Indels, were detected. Among them, 51 SNPs and 4 Indels were located in the coding regions. Although neutrality tests revealed that this locus had escaped from artificial selection during the process of maize domestication, the population of inbred lines possesses lower nucleotide diversity and decay of linkage disequilibrium. To estimate the association between sequence variants of ZmCNR13 and maize ear characteristics, a total of ten ear-related traits were obtained from the selected inbred lines. Four variants were found to be significantly associated with six ear-related traits. Among them, SNP2305, a non-synonymous mutation in exon 2, was found to be associated with ear weight, ear grain weight, ear diameter and ear row number, and explained 4.59, 4.61, 4.31, and 8.42% of the phenotypic variations, respectively. These results revealed that natural variations of ZmCNR13 might be involved in ear development and can be used in genetic improvement of maize ear-related traits.

3.
ACS Omega ; 6(42): 28441-28454, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723041

RESUMO

Sequential Knoevenagel condensation/cyclization leading to indene and benzofulvene derivatives has been developed. The reaction of 2-(1-phenylvinyl)benzaldehyde with malonates gave benzylidene malonates, cyclized indenes, and dehydrogenated benzofulvenes. The product selectivity depends on the reaction conditions. The reaction with piperidine, AcOH in benzene at 80 °C for 1.5 h gave a benzylidene malonate in 75% yield as a major product. The reactions with piperidine, AcOH in benzene at 80 °C for 17 h and with TiCl4-pyridine at room temperature gave an indene derivative in 56 and 79% yields, respectively, as a major product. The reaction with TiCl4-Et3N gave a benzofulvene in 40% yield selectively. Indene was transformed to a benzofulvene derivative using the reagents TiCl4-Et3N and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). The reaction of variously substituted aryl derivatives with dimethyl malonate gave indene and benzofulvene derivatives. The reactions of 2-(1-phenylvinyl)benzaldehyde with Meldrum's acid or malononitrile also gave cyclized compounds in the suitable sequential or stepwise conditions. Furthermore, the reaction of 2-arylbenzaldehydes has been investigated. The limitation and scope have been described. The reaction mechanism of the cyclization steps has been examined by DFT calculations.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755295

RESUMO

Hearing loss has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence in cross-sectional studies. However, little is known about the prospective association between hearing loss and CVD incidence. We aimed to examine the associations of hearing loss with risk of incident CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke in a Chinese population. We included 13,880 individuals aged 63.3 years from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study (2013-2018). Hearing loss was categorized into normal, mild, moderate, severe, or greater by the pure-tone average of thresholds at speech and high frequency in both ears. Cox proportional hazard models and linear regression models were used for multivariate longitudinal analyses. After multivariate adjustments, we observed suggestive dose-response associations of increased high-frequency hearing loss with elevated risk of CVD and stroke incidence. Compared with normal hearing loss at high frequency, those with moderate and severe or greater hearing loss had a 4% (95% CI: 0.92, 1.18) or 13% (95% CI: 0.98, 1.30) higher risk of CVD and 52% (95% CI: 1.06, 2.17) or 51% (95% CI: 1.03, 2.20) higher risk of stroke, while the associations were almost consistent across most subgroups. No significant associations were observed for CHD and high-frequency hearing loss, as well as CVD and speech-frequency hearing loss. In addition, higher high-frequency hearing loss was related to unfavorably altered lipid profiles and fasting glucose. Our data suggested that increased hearing loss might increase the risk of incident CVD and stroke among middle-aged and older Chinese, which was partially explained by altered CVD-related biomarkers.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669581

RESUMO

Treatment effect estimation helps answer questions, such as whether a specific treatment affects the outcome of interest. One fundamental issue in this research is to alleviate the treatment assignment bias among those treated units and controlled units. Classical causal inference methods resort to the propensity score estimation, which unfortunately tends to be misspecified when only limited overlapping exists between the treated and the controlled units. Moreover, existing supervised methods mainly consider the treatment assignment information underlying the factual space, and thus, their performance of counterfactual inference may be degraded due to overfitting of the factual results. To alleviate those issues, we build on the optimal transport theory and propose a novel causal optimal transport (CausalOT) model to estimate an individual treatment effect (ITE). With the proposed propensity measure, CausalOT can infer the counterfactual outcome by solving a novel regularized optimal transport problem, which allows the utilization of global information on observational covariates to alleviate the issue of limited overlapping. In addition, a novel counterfactual loss is designed for CausalOT to align the factual outcome distribution with the counterfactual outcome distribution. Most importantly, we prove the theoretical generalization bound for the counterfactual error of CausalOT. Empirical studies on benchmark datasets confirm that the proposed CausalOT outperforms state-of-the-art causal inference methods.

6.
Sustain Cities Soc ; 75: 102989, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631394

RESUMO

In Beijing, the lockdown imposed to curb the spread of COVID-2019 has led to a sharp drop in road traffic. This provides an opportunity to quantify the contribution rate of road traffic to PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations. This paper creatively puts forward the concept of the Maximum Possible Contribution Rate (MPCR) and estimates the MPCR of road traffic to PM2.5 and NO2 by analyzing the daily air pollution data and road traffic data in Beijing from January 24 to March 31, 2020 and the same period in 2019. The findings of this paper include: The decrease in SO2 concentration during the lockdown indicates a reduction in pollutant emissions from industry and households. During the lockdown, road traffic in Beijing reduced by 46.9 %, while the concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2 in the atmosphere reduced by 5.6 % and 29.2 % respectively. The MPCR of road traffic to PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations are 11.9 % and 62.3 %, respectively. The concentration of O3 did not increase significantly with the decrease of PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations. The findings of this paper provide a reference for city managers to evaluate the contribution rate of Beijing's road traffic to air pollutants and to formulate reasonable emission reduction policies.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671410

RESUMO

Purpose: The clinical efficacy of Chansu injection for COVID-19 treatment has been confirmed. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. We used network pharmacology and molecular docking technology to explore the potential material basis and mechanism of action of Chansu injection for COVID-19. Methods: The main components of Chansu injection were determined using HPLC. The PharmMapper, SwissTargetPrediction, SEA, and TCMID databases were used to screen for the active ingredients and therapeutic targets of Chansu injection, while the OMIM and GeneCards Suite databases were used to search for COVID-19-related targets. The STRING database was used for protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction and topological analysis, while DAVID was used for Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses of the core targets. The main active compounds of Chansu injection were docked with 3CL protease, ACE2, RdRp, and spike protein. Results: The three Chansu injection compounds were identified using HPLC. A total of 236 drug-related targets and 16,611 disease-related targets were identified, and 77 common targets were determined through mapping. The PPI mapping results revealed that 16 core targets were obtained through topological analysis and screening. Furthermore, GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses revealed that the PI3K and JAK-STAT signaling pathways are the major pathways. The molecular docking results suggest that the three Chansu injection components have high binding energies to the S protein. Conclusions: The potential mechanism of Chansu injection for COVID-19 involves multiple targets and pathways, thereby providing a scientific basis for its clinical application and further research.

8.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(5): 1306, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630661

RESUMO

Maiwei Yangfei (MWYF) is a compound Chinese herb that is safe and effective in the clinical setting in patients with pulmonary fibrosis (PF). The aim of the present study was to assess the role of a (MWYF) decoction in a bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF mouse model and to investigate the underlying functional mechanism. Chemical components within the MWYF decoction were analysed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 50 C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to one of the following five groups with 10 mice per group: Control, model, low dose MWYF (20 g/kg), medium dose MWYF (40 g/kg) and high dose MWYF (60 g/kg). A mouse PF model was established by the tracheal instillation of BLM (5 mg/kg) prior to MWYF treatment, except for mice in the control group. After 21 days of treatment with MWYF, the mice were sacrificed and the body weights were recorded. In addition, pulmonary tissues and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid were collected. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, hydroxyproline, pyridinoline and collagen I levels were determined using ELISA. Vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin, TGF-ß1, Smad3, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, collagen I and collagen III were determined using western blotting. Vimentin and α-SMA levels were also determined using immunofluorescence analysis. Collagens I and III were detected using immunohistochemical analysis and TGF-ß1 and Smad3 levels were determined using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Following treatment with MWYF decoction, the body weight of the mice in the PF group increased, the degree of pulmonary alveolitis and PF was reduced, collagen levels were reduced and the expression levels of α-SMA, vimentin and fibronectin were decreased. Although both protein and mRNA expression levels of TGF-ß1 and Smad3 were reduced, they remained higher than those observed in the control group. To conclude, MWYF decoction delayed the development of BLM-induced PF in mice, where the functional mechanism was likely associated with the TGF-ß1/Smad3 signalling pathway.

9.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534577

RESUMO

MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitors (MEKis) have recently achieved surprising success in treating unresectable plexiform neurofibromas (PNFs). However, few studies have investigated the mechanisms of MEKi resistance in patients with PNF. We determined the efficacy of six different MEKis for treating PNFs, explored drug resistance mechanisms, and identified potential combination therapies to overcome resistance. By screening drug efficacy among six MEKis in human NF1-deficient PNF cell lines, TAK-733 was found to reduce PNF cell viability the most. We then cultured the TAK-733‒resistant cells and explored the potential targets for further treatment. Both high-throughput drug screening and RNA sequencing analyses of MEKi-resistant PNF cells identified cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors as potential agents for PNFs. Dinaciclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, showed synergistic effects on MEKi-resistant cells. Coadministration of dinaciclib and TAK-733 significantly reduced cell viability and inhibited sphere formation and colony formation. Dinaciclib did not affect MEK signaling but decreased the expression of several prosurvival proteins, including survivin and cyclin-dependent kinase 1, to induce apoptosis and inhibit mitosis. TAK-733/dinaciclib combination therapy induced tumor reduction in PNF patient‒derived xenografts mouse models. Therefore, the combination of MEKi and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor may be promising for treating inoperable PNFs, especially when drug resistance exists. Our findings provide evidence for future clinical trials with MEKi-resistant patients with PNF.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471417

RESUMO

Background: Cinobufacini capsule, an anticancer traditional Chinese patent medicine, has been widely used as adjunctive treatment to platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC. Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of cinobufacini capsule combined with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC. Study Design. A systematic review and meta-analysis of eight outcome measures selected for this study were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in 7 electronic databases to identify all the relevant randomised controlled trials. Cochrane handbook 5.1.0 was applied to evaluate the quality of included trials, and the RevMan 5.3 and Stata 15.1 software were used to combine the trials for data analysis and assess the publication bias. Results: From the 19 studies reviewed, a total of 1,564 patients were included. Compared with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy alone, cinobufacini capsule combined with chemotherapy showed significant effects in improving ORR (RR = 1.49, 95% CI (1.33, 1.66)), 1-year survival rate (RR = 1.44, 95% CI (1.28, 1.63)), and 2-year survival rate (RR = 1.78, 95% CI (1.42, 2.22)), raising the percentages of CD3+ cells (SMD = 1.25, 95% CI (1.05, 1.45)), CD4+ cells (SMD = 1.52, 95% CI (1.33, 1.71)), and ratio of CD4+/CD8+ (SMD = 1.36, 95% CI (1.17, 1.54)), and reducing chemotherapy toxicity including leukopenia (RR = 0.61, 95% CI (0.51, 0.72)), thrombocytopenia (RR = 0.52, 95% CI (0.41, 0.67)), and vomiting (RR = 0.79, 95% CI (0.70, 0.88)). Conclusion: Cinobufacini capsule may increase the therapeutic effectiveness, improve cellular immune function, and reduce the toxicity of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with NSCLC. These results require confirmation by further rigorously designed randomised controlled trials (RCTs).

11.
Front Neurol ; 12: 704639, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566848

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a tumor predisposition genetic disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 3,000 individuals worldwide. It results from mutations of the NF1 gene and shows almost complete penetrance. NF1 patients show high phenotypic variabilities, including cafe-au-lait macules, freckling, or other neoplastic or non-neoplastic features. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of the diversities of clinical symptoms might contribute to the development of personalized healthcare for NF1 patients. Currently, studies have shown that the different types of mutations in the NF1 gene might correlate with this phenomenon. In addition, genetic modifiers are responsible for the different clinical features. In this review, we summarize different genetic mutations of the NF1 gene and related genetic modifiers. More importantly, we focus on the genotype-phenotype correlation. This review suggests a novel aspect to explain the underlying mechanisms of phenotypic heterogeneity of NF1 and provides suggestions for possible novel therapeutic targets to prevent or delay the onset and development of different manifestations of NF1.

12.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 488, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed for the first time to analyze clinical efficacy of bone transport technology in Chinese older patients with infectious bone nonunion after open tibial fracture. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed 220 older patients with infectious bone nonunion after open tibial fracture. There were 110 patients receiving bone transport technology (Group A) and 110 patients receiving membrane induction technique with antibiotic bone cement (Group B). RESULTS: There were 164 male patients and 56 female patients, with an age range of 65 to 71 years and an average age of 67 ± 1.3 years. Traffic accident, high-fall injury and crush injury account for 45.5, 27.7 and 26.8%, respectively. Age, gender, histories, causes and fracture location had no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05 for all). Operation time in the Group A was significantly shorter than that in the Group B (P < 0.05). Linear and positional alignment (70.9 vs. 57.3), American Knee Society knee function score (167.7 ± 14.9 vs. 123.8 ± 15.7), Baird-Jackson ankle function score (89.9 ± 3.5 vs. 78.4 ± 4.9), bone healing index (43.0 ± 2.0 vs. 44.3 ± 3.0) and clinical recovery (8.2 vs. 4.5) of patients in the Group A were significantly better than those in the Group B (P < 0.05 for all). Wound infection in the Group A (7.3%) was significantly less than that in the Group B (16.4%; P < 0.05). There were neither a neurovascular complication nor a recurrence of infection in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Bone transport technology achieved better knee and ankle joint function recovery and superior bone healing and clinical efficacy than membrane induction technique with antibiotic bone cement, suggesting that bone transport technique is worthy of extensive promotion to improve clinical condition of older patients with infectious bone nonunion after open tibial fracture.


Assuntos
Fraturas da Tíbia , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tecnologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Ann Plast Surg ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extensive cervicofacial reconstruction is challenging for plastic surgeons. Because of the location of the adjacent scalp flap nourished by the superficial temporal artery (STA), it can be a candidate for cervicofacial reconstruction. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to report a combined treatment of an expanded island STA flap and an 810-nm diode laser hair removal technique for extensive cervicofacial defects. METHODS: Between January 2015 and December 2018, 10 patients with lower face and neck scar contraction were reconstructed with a bilateral or unilateral expanded STA island flap and an 810-nm diode laser for hair removal in this retrospective study. Hair removal via the 810-nm laser was started when the injected volume reached the volume of the expander, with a fluence of 35 to 40 J/cm2 and a 1 to 2 Hz repetition rate. Before second-stage surgery, the hair reduction rate was assessed. Twelve months after surgery, the degree of epilation efficacy according to the satisfaction scale and Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale was evaluated. RESULTS: This study included 2 single-pedicle flaps and 8 double-pedicle flaps. The average size of the implanted expanders was 600 mL. The average injected volume was 1405 mL. Before second surgery, there was a 67.4% hair reduction rate. Twelve months after surgery, the results of Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale were very good (3), good (6), average (1), and poor (0). CONCLUSIONS: The expanded island STA flap and 810-nm diode laser technique may be a novel treatment option for severe face and neck aesthetic reconstruction.

14.
Cancer Metab ; 9(1): 31, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic reprogramming is a central feature in many cancer subtypes and a hallmark of cancer. Many therapeutic strategies attempt to exploit this feature, often having unintended side effects on normal metabolic programs and limited efficacy due to integrative nature of metabolic substrate sourcing. Although the initiating oncogenic lesion may vary, tumor cells in lymphoid malignancies often share similar environments and potentially similar metabolic profiles. We examined cells from mouse models of MYC-, RAS-, and BCR-ABL-driven lymphoid malignancies and find a convergence on de novo lipogenesis. We explore the potential role of MYC in mediating lipogenesis by 13C glucose tracing and untargeted metabolic profiling. Inhibition of lipogenesis leads to cell death both in vitro and in vivo and does not induce cell death of normal splenocytes. METHODS: We analyzed RNA-seq data sets for common metabolic convergence in lymphoma and leukemia. Using in vitro cell lines derived in from conditional MYC, RAS, and BCR-ABL transgenic murine models and oncogene-driven human cell lines, we determined gene regulation, metabolic profiles, and sensitivity to inhibition of lipogenesis in lymphoid malignancies. We utilize preclinical murine models and transgenic primary model of T-ALL to determine the effect of lipogenesis blockade across BCR-ABL-, RAS-, and c-MYC-driven lymphoid malignancies. Statistical significance was calculated using unpaired t-tests and one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: This study illustrates that de novo lipid biogenesis is a shared feature of several lymphoma subtypes. Using cell lines derived from conditional MYC, RAS, and BCR-ABL transgenic murine models, we demonstrate shared responses to inhibition of lipogenesis by the acetyl-coA carboxylase inhibitor 5-(tetradecloxy)-2-furic acid (TOFA), and other lipogenesis inhibitors. We performed metabolic tracing studies to confirm the influence of c-MYC and TOFA on lipogenesis. We identify specific cell death responses to TOFA in vitro and in vivo and demonstrate delayed engraftment and progression in vivo in transplanted lymphoma cell lines. We also observe delayed progression of T-ALL in a primary transgenic mouse model upon TOFA administration. In a panel of human cell lines, we demonstrate sensitivity to TOFA treatment as a metabolic liability due to the general convergence on de novo lipogenesis in lymphoid malignancies driven by MYC, RAS, or BCR-ABL. Importantly, cell death was not significantly observed in non-malignant cells in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: These studies suggest that de novo lipogenesis may be a common survival strategy for many lymphoid malignancies and may be a clinically exploitable metabolic liability. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study does not include any clinical interventions on human subjects.

15.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(13): 1059, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422971

RESUMO

Background: Tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TGCTs), synovial chondromatosis (SC), and synovial sarcoma (SS) exhibit similarities in clinical features and histochemical characteristics, and differential diagnosis remains challenging in clinical practice. Methods: Data were collected from the pathology database of Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital regarding patients who underwent surgery from 2010 to 2019 with histologically confirmed TGCTs, SC, and SS. Demographic and clinicopathological data of these patients were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry staining of 14 different markers was performed. Correlation analyses of the prognoses were evaluated. Results: A total of 26 patients with TGCTs (8 diffuse TGCTs and 18 localized TGCTs), 16 with SC, and 11 with SS were identified. Pain was the main symptom of patients with both TGCTs and SC, while a palpable mass was the most common symptom for patients with SS. In addition to clinical features, we identified vital risk factors for disease recurrence. The mean follow-up periods were 51, 39, and 14 months for TGCTs, SC, and SS, respectively. Younger patients with diffuse TGCTs or patients with a higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) displayed a significantly higher frequency of recurrence. We also plotted receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for age and NLR. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated and demonstrated the ability to distinguish recurrent from nonrecurrent cases. In addition, higher CD163 expression was linked to recurrent diffuse TGCT cases. Conclusions: These data indicated possible characteristics of different aspects of TGCTs, SC, and SS. Further clarification and understanding of these factors will help with differential clinical diagnosis and recurrent risk assessment.

16.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 4381-4393, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429854

RESUMO

The genus Vibrio contains a diverse group of heterotrophic bacteria, which are members of ubiquitous and abundant microbial communities in coastal ecosystems. Vibrio has been frequently found in a wide range of marine environments either by employing Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA sequencing or culturing methods. A combination of molecular and cultivation-dependent methods was developed to more precisely discriminate between different members of the genus Vibrio in seawater. This newly developed assay was subsequently applied to characterize Vibrio community composition in surface water at 18 mariculture sites. It Substantially improved the taxonomic resolution of Vibrio species when compared to traditional 16S rRNA analysis. Our qPCR and cultivation analyses revealed that average Vibrio abundance (Vibrio 16S rRNA gene copy numbers: 3.46 × 106 to 6.70 × 106 copies L-1) and live cell numbers (5.65 × 104-5.75 × 105 cfu mL-1) are significantly related to pH. Total bacteria and Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA metabarcode sequenceing resulted in a total of 10 and 32 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), respectively, and 15 Vibrio species were identified by targeted cultivation of Vibrio strains, with Vibrio fortis and V. brasiliensis dominating in the mariculture areas. The purpose of this study was to combine several analytical methods to improve current sequence-based Vibrio community surveys, and to prove for the effectiveness of this methodological approach comprehensively testing for Vibrio dynamics in different coastal environments.

17.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 45: 101470, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375807

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) on symptoms of depression and anxiety complicated by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Literature from 8 electronic medical databases were searched for meta-analysis using RevMan (version 5.3) and Stata (version 12.0) software. The GRADE Pro Guideline Development Tool and TSA Viewer (version.0.9.5.10 beta) were adopted to evaluate the certainty and conclusiveness of the evidence. RESULTS: 26 studies involving 2529 participants were identified. CHM demonstrated significant lower scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale compared to the control group without CHM. Moreover, CHM showed favorable safety. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence verified the efficacy and safety of CHM on relieving depression and anxiety in COPD. However, further large-scale and rigorously designed studies are urgently warranted to strengthen the evidence.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/etiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Environ Res ; 202: 111790, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329636

RESUMO

This study analyzed the size-resolved chemical compositions of cigarette-burning particles (CBPs). CBPs in the size range of 0.2-2.0 µm were characterized using a single particle mass spectrometer (SPAMS). CBPs were found to contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organonitrate, vinylpyridine, indene, guaiacol, methylindane, and metals such as Fe, Cr, Mn, and Cu. Fresh CBPs showed a single modal size distribution which peaked at 0.40 µm. CBPs in the size range of 0.5-0.1 µm contained more biomass burning markers (K+, K2Cl+, and levoglucosan), sulfate, naphthalene, and methylindane than CBPs in the size range of 0.2-0.5 µm. Nicotine is favorable to uptake on large particles (>0.5 µm). Among all particles, 57% contained PAHs. Heavy metals Fe, Mn, Cr, and Cu had mixing ratios of 0.06, 0.57, 0.26, and 0.34 respectively; nicotine and guaiacol had mixing ratios of 0.26 and 0.27; and vinylpyridine, indene, and methylindane had mixing ratios of 0.54, 0.55, and 0.65 respectively. Four particle types were resolved: cigarette-burning biomass burning (CB-BB, 50.3%), CB-BB-Metals (49.3%), CB-Nicotine (0.3%), and CB-Aged (0.1%). These results improve the scientific understanding of CBPs and provide useful references for smoking exposure studies that consider the size-resolved chemical compositions and mixing states of particle-phase components. The result can also benefit the study of exposure to secondhand smoking.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metais Pesados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Produtos do Tabaco , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
19.
PeerJ ; 9: e11618, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221723

RESUMO

Background: A bisresorcinol was isolated as the main constituent of Heliciopsis terminalis's trunk (Proteaceae). Recently, resorcinol is applied as an active whitening agent in various cosmetic products. Because of the structural mimic to resorcinol, benefits of the bisresorcinol as an aging-enzyme antagonist were demonstrated in this study. Methods: The bisresorcinol was purified from the crude ethanolic extract of H. terminalis's trunk by solvent extraction and preparative chromatography, respectively. Inhibitory activity on collagenase, elastase, and tyrosinase of the compound was investigated by using a different spectroscopic technique. Molecular docking was carried out to predict possible interactions of the substance around the enzyme active sites. Results: The IC50 values on collagenase of the bisresorcinol and caffeic acid were 156.7 ± 0.7 and 308.9 ± 1.6 µmole L-1, respectively. For elastase activity, the IC50 of 33.2 ± 0.5 and 34.3 ± 0.3 µmole L-1 was respectively determined for the bisresorcinol and ursolic acid. The bisresorcinol was inhibitory to tyrosinase by exhibiting the IC50 of 22.8 µmole L-1, and that of 78.4 µmole L-1 was present for ß-arbutin. The bisresorcinol bound to collagenase, elastase, and tyrosinase with the respective binding energies of -5.89, -5.69, and -6.57 kcal mol-1. These binding energies were in the same ranges of tested inhibitors. The aromatic phenol groups in the structure were responsible for principle as well as supporting binding interactions with enzymes. Hydrogen binding due to hydroxyl groups and π-related attractive forces from an aromatic ring(s) provided binding versatility to bisresorcinol. Conclusion: The bisresorcinol purified from H. terminalis might be useful for inclusion in cosmetic products as an aging-enzyme antagonist.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Local immunoglobulin hyperproduction is observed in nasal polyps (NPs) with and without ectopic lymphoid tissues (eLTs). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to identify the T-cell subsets involved in local immunoglobulin production independent of eLTs in NPs. METHODS: The localization, abundance, and phenotype of CD4+ T-cell subsets were studied by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and single-cell RNA sequencing. Purified nasal T-cell subsets were cultured with autologous peripheral naive B cells to explore their function. Programmed death ligand 1 and programmed death ligand 2 expression in NPs was investigated by immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry. RESULTS: Accumulation of PD-1highCXCR5-CD4+ T cells outside lymphoid aggregates was found in NPs. Nasal PD-1highCXCR5-CD4+ T cells were characterized by a unique phenotype that was related to B-cell help and tissue residency and distinct from PD-1-/intCXCR5- and CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells in NPs as well as PD-1highCXCR5highCD4+ follicular helper T cells in tonsils. Compared with the frequencies of PD-1highCXCR5-CD4+ T cells and their IFN-γ+, IL-17A+, and IL-21+ subsets in the control inferior turbinate tissues, the frequencies of these cells and their subsets were increased in both eosinophilic and noneosinophilic NPs, whereas the frequencies of the IL-4+ and IL-4+IL-21+ subsets were increased only in eosinophilic NPs. Nasal PD-1highCXCR5-CD4+ T cells induced immunoglobulin production from B cells in a potency comparable to that induced by tonsillar follicular helper T cells. PD-1highCXCR5-CD4+ T-cell frequencies were correlated with IgE levels in eosinophilic NPs. PD-L1 and PD-L2 suppressed the function of PD-1highCXCR5-CD4+ T cells, and their levels were reduced in NPs. PD-1highCXCR5-CD4+ T-cell abundance was associated with the postsurgical relapse of NPs. CONCLUSION: PD-1highCXCR5-CD4+ T cells participate in local immunoglobulin production independent of eLTs in NPs.

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