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1.
Biosci Rep ; 41(2)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543230

RESUMO

Tumor immune cell infiltration was significantly correlated with the progression and the effect of immunotherapy in cancers including esophageal carcinoma (ESCA). However, no biomarkers were identified which were associated with immune infiltration in ESCA. In the present study, a total of 128 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinomas (EAC). The results of gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Reactome pathway analysis displayed that the up-regulated DEGs were mainly involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), while the down-regulated DEGs were mainly involved in the regulation of cornification and keratinocyte differentiation. The most significant module of up-regulated DEGs was selected by Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE). Top ten similar genes of COL1A2 were explored, then validation and the prognostic analysis of these genes displayed that COL1A2, COL1A1, COL3A1, ZNF469 and Periostin (POSTN) had the prognostic value which were up-regulated in ESCA. The expressions of COL1A2 and its four similar genes were mainly correlated with infiltrating levels of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) and showed strong correlations with diverse immune marker sets in ESCA. To summarize, COL1A2 and its four similar genes were identified as the potential biomarkers associated with immune infiltration in ESCA. These genes might be applied to immunotherapy for ESCA.

2.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 721-727, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518125

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to understand the dynamic changes in daily step counts (DSC) during the development of chickens and to further explore the effects of exercise on the growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and tibial strength of cocks. A total of 600 (half male and half female) 1-day-old Wannan chickens with similar hatching weights were raised under the same rearing conditions. All birds were wing banded and housed in identical cages for from 1 to 8 wk in the experimental poultry house. The dimensions of the cages were 70 × 70 × 40 cm (length × width × height). At the age of 9 to 16 wk, these birds were reared in indoor pens (2 m × 2 m, 1,000 cm2 per bird). In addition, they also had a free-range grass paddock (20 m × 30 m, 1 m2 per bird). The DSC of male and female Wannan chicks were recorded from 70 to 112 d by using a pedometer. At 112 d of age, based on the average DSC, birds were divided into groups representing the highest (HS), medium, and lowest (LS) number of step groups. Fifteen cocks from each group were selected for subsequent experiments. Compared with the LS group, the HS group displayed higher tibial strength (P = 0.025) and lower BW, cooking loss (P = 0.014), shear force (P = 0.023), and drip loss (P = 0.008). The DSC had no effects on the female BW or male carcass parameters. There was no significant change in the DSC of all birds from 70 to 112 d. However, male chickens took more steps than females at 15 (P = 0.025) and 16 (P = 0.012) week of age. In conclusion, the effects of the DSC on the BW of Wannan chickens depend on sex, and enhanced exercise could improve the meat quality and tibial strength of cocks.

3.
Dermatology ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are great interindividual variations in the clinical efficacy of methotrexate (MTX) treatment and patients' genetic background seems promising in its explanation. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to test whether the polymorphism of annexin A6 (ANxA6) gene, a susceptibility factor for psoriasis, was associated with the clinical response to MTX therapy. METHODS: A total of 325 patients enrolled in the study received oral MTX treatment, of whom 310 completed the 1-year study and performed the genotype analysis. They were defined as responders (a reduction of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index [PASI] score ≥75%) and nonresponders (a reduction of PASI <50%) compared to baseline after 12 weeks of short-time therapy. On 1-year treatment, they were defined as responders if they achieved PASI75 and absolute PASI ≤3, otherwise as nonresponders. The genotypes of 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ANxA6 gene were verified using the Sequenom platform. Potential predictors associated with the treatment outcome of MTX were assessed by binary logistic regression. RESULTS: We found significant associations for the ANxA6 SNPs of rs11960458, rs960709, and rs13168551 with psoriasis severity. Patients with rs11960458 CC genotype and rs960709 GG genotype showed higher percentages of PASI75 and improvement rates of PASI at 12 weeks. And on 1-year treatment, statistical difference occurred in rs11960458 rather than other SNPs compared between responders and nonresponders that the frequency of CC genotype was higher in responders (p = 0.019). After adjustment for potential confounders, patients with rs11960458 TT/CT genotype (at 12 weeks: OR 0.483, 95% CI 0.245-0.951, p = 0.035; at 1 year: OR 0.483, 95% CI 0.280-0.833, p = 0.009) were significantly more likely to not respond to MTX both on the short-term and long-term treatment, while rs960709 and rs13168551 polymorphisms were only associated with the short-term efficacy of MTX (p = 0.018 and p = 0.036, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The CC ge-notype of ANxA6 (rs11960458) was significantly associated with a better response when compared to those patients with the TT/CT genotype, thus being a potential predictor for the clinical efficacy of MTX.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to discuss the importance of socioeconomic status (SES) and family sexual attitudes and investigate their association with sexual and reproductive health in a large sample of Chinese young adults. METHODS: We analysed a large sample of 53 508 youth aged 15-24 years from an internet-based survey from November 2019 to February 2020. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the association between SES, family sexual attitudes, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH), stratified by sex and adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Individuals with the highest expenditure were more likely to engage in early sexual intercourse (female: OR 4.19, 95% CI 3.00 to 5.87; male: OR 3.82, 95% CI 2.84 to 5.12). For both sexes, the likelihood of young adult sexual risk-taking such as first intercourse without using a condom, acquiring sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy was lower in those with higher maternal educational attainment, whereas it was higher in those with open family sexual attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Lower SES and open family attitudes toward sex had a significant association with a range of adverse young adulthood SRH outcomes. Public health policies should focus on more deprived populations and advocate suitable parental participation to reduce risky sexual behaviours in youth.

5.
Adv Mater ; : e2005755, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511677

RESUMO

Materials with strong magnetoresistive responses are the backbone of spintronic technology, magnetic sensors, and hard drives. Among them, manganese oxides with a mixed valence and a cubic perovskite structure stand out due to their colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). A double exchange interaction underlies the CMR in manganates, whereby charge transport is enhanced when the spins on neighboring Mn3+ and Mn4+ ions are parallel. Prior efforts to find different materials or mechanisms for CMR resulted in a much smaller effect. Here an enormous CMR at low temperatures in EuCd2 P2 without manganese, oxygen, mixed valence, or cubic perovskite structure is shown. EuCd2 P2 has a layered trigonal lattice and exhibits antiferromagnetic ordering at 11 K. The magnitude of CMR (104 %) in as-grown crystals of EuCd2 P2 rivals the magnitude in optimized thin films of manganates. The magnetization, transport, and synchrotron X-ray data suggest that strong magnetic fluctuations are responsible for this phenomenon. The realization of CMR at low temperatures without heterovalency leads to a new regime for materials and technologies related to antiferromagnetic spintronics.

6.
Soc Sci Med ; 269: 113586, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333377

RESUMO

Health guidelines aim to improve patient outcomes through the promotion of evidence-based practice. Yet, when a guideline's recommendations significantly differ from, or threaten the interests, values and preferred practices of end-users, organised and often very public resistance to guideline implementation may result. To explore this phenomenon, we theorise a case study consisting of the public discourse following the update to a primary care breast screening guideline in Canada in 2018. Informed by sociological perspectives on the professions and evidence-based medicine, this paper aims to explore: [1] why professional stakeholders form active resistances to the implementation of some clinical guidelines; and, [2] how professional values, perspectives, interests and/or experiences influence the stakeholders' stance. Current understandings have taken a reductive approach in conceptualising the exclusion of experts and their resistance as "conflict of interest." Rather, we suggest that resistance is the product of multiple areas of contention, stemming from tensions related to clinical and professional autonomy, medical jurisdiction, and the role of medical elites. We highlight considerations for future guideline development and implementation process changes to mitigate and resolve issues related to active resistance. These considerations include understanding resistance as a political strategy, increasing transparency of public input and coalition building as a part of the public response to active resistance.

7.
Zool Res ; : 1-9, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269825

RESUMO

Although domestic ducks have been important poultry species throughout human history, their origin remains enigmatic, with mallards and/or Chinese spot-billed ducks being proposed as the direct wild ancestor(s) of domestic ducks. Here, we analyzed 118 whole genomes from mallard, Chinese spot-billed, and domestic ducks to reconstruct their evolutionary history. We found pervasive introgression patterns among these duck populations. Furthermore, we showed that domestic ducks separated from mallard and Chinese spot-billed ducks nearly 38 thousand years ago (kya) and 54 kya, respectively, which is considerably outside the time period of presumed duck domestication. Thus, our results suggest that domestic ducks may have originated from another wild duck population that is currently undefined or unsampled, rather than from present-day mallard and/or Chinese spot-billed ducks, as previously thought. Overall, this study provides new insight into the complex evolution of ducks.

8.
Brief Bioinform ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270815

RESUMO

A large amount of omics data and number of bioinformatics tools has been produced. However, the methods for further exploring omics data are simple, in particular, to mine key regulatory genes, which are a priority concern in biological systems, and most of the specific functions are still unknown. First, raw data of two genotypes of melon (susceptible and resistant) were obtained by transcriptome analysis. Second, 391 transcription factors (TFs) were identified from the plant transcription factor database and cucurbit genomics database. Then, functional enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly annotated in the process of transcription regulation. Third, 243 and 230 module-specific TFs were screened by weighted gene coexpression network analysis and short time series expression miner, respectively. Several TF genes, such as WRKYs and bHLHs, were regarded as key regulatory genes according to the values of significantly different modules. The coexpression network showed that these TF genes were significant correlated with resistance (R) genes, such as DRP2, RGA3, DRP1 and NB-ARC. Fourth, cis-acting element analysis illustrated that these R genes may bind to WRKY and bHLH. Finally, the expression of WRKY genes was verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Phylogenetic analysis was carried out to further confirm that these TFs may play a critical role in Curcurbitaceae disease resistance. This study provides a new optimized combination strategy to explore the functions of TFs in a wide spectrum of biological processes. This strategy may also effectively predict potential relationships in the interactions of essential genes.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of multiple chronic conditions in China is poorly understood. We investigated the prevalence of multimorbidity among the middle-aged and elderly population in China and analyzed its demographic and socioeconomic correlates. METHODS: Data were obtained from the baseline of the China Kadoorie Biobank Study, which recruited over 0.5 million participants between 2004 and 2008. We calculated the prevalence by the characteristics of multimorbidity. The demographic and socioeconomic correlates were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: 15.9% of the participants were multimorbid. Although the prevalence of multimorbidity increased with age, the absolute number of people with multimorbidity was much higher among middle-aged adults (30-60 years, n = 42 041) than the elderly group (>60 years, n = 38 834). The odd of multimorbidity was higher in males (aOR =1.09, 95% CI: 1.07-1.11) and among those who were unemployed (aOR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.55-1.62). Those who received the highest level of education were most likely to be multimorbid compared with those with no education (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09-1.19). Such an association was similar when treating multimorbidity as multinomial variable. CONCLUSIONS: Multimorbidity is a public health concern, with higher prevalence among the elderly, males and those who belong to a lower socioeconomic stratum. Actions are needed to curb multimorbidity epidemic in China.

10.
Math Biosci Eng ; 17(6): 7732-7750, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378917

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose and investigate an almost periodic SEIR model with stage structure and latency, in which time-dependent maturation and incubation periods are incorporated. Two threshold parameters for the persistence and extinction of population and disease are introduced: the basic reproduction ratio $\hat{R}_{0}$ for population and the basic reproduction ratio $R_{0}$ for disease. If $\hat{R}_{0}<1 the="" population="" extinction="" state="" is="" globally="" attractive="" in="" the="" case="" where="" hat="" r="" _="" 0="">1$, it is shown that the disease tends to die out if $R_{0}<1 while="" remains="" persistent="" if="" r_="" 0="">1$. By virtue of numerical simulations, we verify the analytic results and investigate the effects of the fluctuations of maturation and incubation periods on disease transmission.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1758, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation (WHO) publishes a large number of clinical practice and public health guidelines to promote evidence-based practice across the world. Due to the variety of health system capacities and contextual issues in different regions and countries, adapting the recommendations in the guidelines to the local situation is vital for the success of their implementation. We aim to understand the range of experiences with guideline adaptation from the perspectives of those working in WHO regional and country offices. Our findings will inform development of guidance on how to improve adaptability of WHO guidelines. METHODS: A grounded theory-informed, qualitative study was carried out between March 2018 and December 2018. Seventeen semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants who included WHO guideline developers and staff in the headquarters, regional and country offices recruited from a sample of published WHO guidelines. Participants were eligible for recruitment if they had recent experience in clinical practice or public health guideline implementation. Deidentified transcripts of these interview were analysed through three cycles of coding. RESULTS: We categorised the adaptation processes described by the participants into two dominant models along a spectrum of guideline adaptation processes. First, the Copy or Customise Model is a pragmatic approach of either copying or customising WHO guidelines to suit local needs. This is done by local health authorities and/or clinicians directly through consultations with WHO staff. Selections and adjustments of guideline recommendations are made according to what the implementers deemed important, feasible and applicable through the consensus discussions. Second, the Capacity Building Model focuses on WHO building local capacity in evidence synthesis methods and adaptation frameworks to support local development of a national guideline informed by international guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: In comparing and contrasting these two models of guideline adaptation, we outline the different kinds of support from WHO that may be necessary to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the respective models. We also suggest clarifications in the descriptions of the process of guideline adaptation in WHO and academic literature, to help guideline adaptors and implementers decide on the appropriate course of action according to their specific circumstances. ETHICS: This project was conducted with ethics approval from The University of Sydney (Project number: 2017/723) and WHO (Protocol ID: 00001).

12.
Poult Sci ; 99(12): 6715-6722, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248587

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of plastic antipecking devices (PAD) on the production performance, upper beak length, behavior, and plumage condition of a local Chinese chicken breed. Three hundred sixty 63-d-old Wannan chickens with intact beaks were randomly allocated into 3 groups. Birds were fitted with the PAD at 63 d (PAD63d) and at 77 d of age (PAD77d). Control birds were not fitted with PAD. The results showed that there were no significant effects of PAD on the BW, carcass traits, and meat quality (P > 0.05). The mortality in the PAD63d and PAD77d groups was lower than that in the control group. Compared with those in the PAD77d and control groups, the feed conversion ratio (FCR) from 63 to 112 d of age was lower in the PAD63d group. The ADFI of birds from 63 to 112 d of age was lowest in birds in the PAD63d group, intermediate in birds in the PAD77d group, and highest in control birds (P < 0.05). Birds in the PAD63d and PAD77d groups showed a lower frequency of walking and running, a higher frequency of sleeping, and higher plumage scores of the back and tail than those of control birds (P < 0.05). Birds' daily walking steps in the PAD77d group decreased compared with that of birds in the control group (P < 0.05). The upper beak length at 91 d and 112 d of age was longest in birds in the PAD63d group and shortest in control birds (P < 0.05). Overall, PAD appeared to be effective at reducing mortality, FCR, overall activity, and plumage damage and increasing the upper beak length.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238577

RESUMO

This study aims to estimate the eco-efficiencies of China at provincial levels. The eco-efficiencies of production and treatment stages are disentangled by the network data envelopment analysis (DEA) method. The key driving factors are identified by the integrative use of driving force-pressure-state-impact-response frame model (DPSIR) model and partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) method. This study provides several important findings. In general, the eco-efficiencies of most regions in China are inefficient and show significant regional differences. All DPSIR factors have significant and strong impacts on the eco-efficiency of the treatment stage. The eco-efficiency of the production stage evidently outweighs the eco-efficiency in economically well-developed regions. The originality of this study lies in three aspects. First, using two-stage network DEA, this study dissects the overall eco-efficiency into production efficiency and treatment efficiency. Empirical results provide insights into the root cause of the low efficiency of each province (municipality). Second, on the basis of the DPSIR model, an expanded pool of driving factors is investigated. Third, using the PLS-SEM method to analyze eco-efficiency is more reliable and effective than applying other traditional regression models.

14.
J Clin Neurosci ; 80: 215-222, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sellar lesions with central diabetes insipidus have a wide range of causes, and diagnosis is relatively difficult. The indication and clinical value of biopsy are still controversial. OBJECTIVE: To describe the etiology, demographic characteristics, manifestations, laboratory tests and imaging findings of this disease and to explore the clinical value and safety of endoscopic transsphenoidal biopsy. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 124 patients with sellar lesions and central diabetes insipidus who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal biopsy at the Neurosurgery Department, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, from 2011 to 2019. RESULTS: The main etiology includes congenital diseases, inflammatory/infectious diseases and tumor diseases. The most common diseases were germ cell tumors, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphocytic hypophysitis, and Rathke's cleft cysts. Except for the age at the time of biopsy of patients with tumor diseases, which was significantly lower than that of the other two, the other clinical manifestations of the three types of diseases were not significantly different. Among the 124 patients, biopsy was performed via an endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for 101 with intrasellarly available lesions or via an endoscopic extended transsphenoidal approach for 23 with intrasellarly unavailable lesions. 6 patients had central nervous system infections after surgery, and 3 had cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, of which 2 were surgically repaired. These incidences were basically the same as those of classic surgery. 2 patients had worse visual acuity, 2 had worse visual field, and 2 had worse eye movement. Excepting one patient, all of whom have recovered after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive examination is difficult for identifying the common causes of this type of disease. Endoscopic transsphenoidal biopsy is relatively safe and effective, helps doctors to select the best treatment for patients, and is worth promoting.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A paucity of data has made it challenging to construct a deprivation index at the lowest administrative, or county, level in China. An index is required to guide health equity monitoring and resource allocation to regions of greatest need. This study used China's 2010 census data to construct a county-level area deprivation index (CADI). METHODS: Data for 2869 counties from China's 2010 census were used to generate a CADI. Eleven indicators across four domains of deprivation were selected for principal component analysis with standardisation of the first principal component. Sensitivity analysis was used to test whether the population size and weighting method affected the index's robustness. Deprived counties identified by the CADI were then compared with China's official list of poverty-stricken counties. RESULTS: The first principal component explained 60.38% of the total variation in the deprivation indicators. The CADI ranged from the least deprived value of -2.71 to the most deprived value of 2.92, with SD of 1. The CADI was found to be robust against county-level population size and different weighting methods. When compared with the official list of poverty-stricken counties in China, the deprived counties identified by the CADI were found to be even more deprived. CONCLUSION: Constructing a robust area deprivation index for China at the county level based on population census data is feasible. The CADI is a potential policy tool to identify China's most deprived areas. In the future, it may support health equity monitoring and comparison at the national and subnational levels.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(42): 26091-26098, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020279

RESUMO

We have demonstrated the effectiveness of reinforcement learning (RL) in bluff body flow control problems both in experiments and simulations by automatically discovering active control strategies for drag reduction in turbulent flow. Specifically, we aimed to maximize the power gain efficiency by properly selecting the rotational speed of two small cylinders, located parallel to and downstream of the main cylinder. By properly defining rewards and designing noise reduction techniques, and after an automatic sequence of tens of towing experiments, the RL agent was shown to discover a control strategy that is comparable to the optimal strategy found through lengthy systematically planned control experiments. Subsequently, these results were verified by simulations that enabled us to gain insight into the physical mechanisms of the drag reduction process. While RL has been used effectively previously in idealized computer flow simulation studies, this study demonstrates its effectiveness in experimental fluid mechanics and verifies it by simulations, potentially paving the way for efficient exploration of additional active flow control strategies in other complex fluid mechanics applications.

17.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 40(5): 782-791, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of curcumin extracted from Jianghuang (Rhizoma Curcumae Longae) against ultraviolet B (UVB) and the possible mechanism. METHODS: Effects of curcumin were detected in vivo and in vitro. Morphological changes of white guinea pig skin were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. HaCaT cell proliferation was measured by 3-[4,5-dimethylthylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium broide (MTT) assays. The cell cycle distribution, apoptotic rate, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential, and intracellullar calcium ion concentration of HaCaT cells were detected by flow cytometry. Antioxidant levels in skin tissues and HaCat cells were measured by biochemical methods. RESULTS: UVB inhibited in vitro cell proliferation by inducing G2/M arrest, increasing ROS, apoptosis, and necrosis, and decreasing B-cell lymphoma-2, and increasing Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase-3 levels. CONCLUSION: Curcumin blocks the effects of UVB by reducing ROS and apoptosis, and reversing UVB-induced changes in the expression of apoptotic proteins. The mitochondrial pathway is involved in curcumin-regulated apoptosis.

19.
J Org Chem ; 85(20): 13029-13036, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954735

RESUMO

An intramolecular decarboxylative coupling reaction for the construction of 2-(1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)aniline derivatives was developed from readily available isatins and hydrazides by virtue of electrochemistry. In this reaction, isatins were employed as amino-attached C1 sources, providing a variety of 2-(1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)aniline derivatives with moderate to good yields.

20.
J BUON ; 25(3): 1323-1329, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862572

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was performed to investigate the effects of lanostane against human breast cancer cells with emphasis on its potential to inhibit cancer cell growth and metastasis along with understanding the underlying molecular mechanism mediating the effects. METHODS: The SK-BR-3 normal breast line and the MB-157 breast cancer cell line were used in this study. MTT of cell growth was used to determine the viability of cells under lanostane treatment. Colony formation assay was used to analyze the clone forming capability of cancer cells when treated with lanostane. DAPI and acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining assays were performed for assessing the apoptic cell death. The level of cellular apoptosis was further examined using flow cytometry. Wound healing and transwell assays were performed to determine the migration and invasion of cancer cells. Western blotting was used for determining the concentration of proteins of interest. RESULTS: The lanostane treatment of cancer cells resulted in loss of cell viability. The IC50 value was 15µM and the inhibitory effects were dose-dependent. However, the inhibition of cell proliferation in normal breast cells was comparatively lower. The antiproliferative effects of lanostane were modulated through Bax/Bcl-2 pathway inducing apoptosis of cancer cells. Furthermore, the lanostane rendered cancer cells less motile and reduced their metastasis remarkably. The inhibition of cell metastasis was modulated through Rho-associated kinases (ROCK) signaling pathway which is involved in metastasis of breast cancer to bone tissues. Hence, the results suggested that lanostane inhibited the breast cancer metastasis to bone. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study are suggestive of anticancer effects of lanostene triterpene which exerted its effects by inhibiting cell proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells mediated through inactivation of Rho-associated kinase signaling. The study holds promise to provide a lead for exploring the secondary metabolite-based anticancer approach against various human malignancies.

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