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2.
Mol Cell ; 78(5): 850-861.e5, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348779

RESUMO

Cas13 has demonstrated unique and broad utility in RNA editing, nucleic acid detection, and disease diagnosis; however, a constantly active Cas enzyme may induce unwanted effects. Bacteriophage- or prophage-region-encoded anti-CRISPR (acr) gene molecules provide the potential to control targeting specificity and potency to allow for optimal RNA editing and nucleic acid detection by spatiotemporally modulating endonuclease activities. Using integrated approaches to screen acrVI candidates and evaluate their effects on Cas13 function, we discovered a series of acrVIA1-7 genes that block the activities of Cas13a. These VI-A CRISPR inhibitors substantially attenuate RNA targeting and editing by Cas13a in human cells. Strikingly, type VI-A anti-CRISPRs (AcrVIAs) also significantly muffle the single-nucleic-acid editing ability of the dCas13a RNA-editing system. Mechanistically, AcrVIA1, -4, -5, and -6 bind LwaCas13a, while AcrVIA2 and -3 can only bind the LwaCas13-crRNA (CRISPR RNA) complex. These identified acr molecules may enable precise RNA editing in Cas13-based application and study of phage-bacterium interaction.

3.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017068

RESUMO

As a polyphenolic compound, resveratrol (Res) is widely present in a variety of plants. Previous studies have shown that Res can inhibit various tumors. However, its role in c remains largely unexplored. In the present study, we first demonstrated that Res inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis of glioblastoma A172 cell. Further experiments showed that Res induced mitochondrial dysfunction and activated the activity of caspase-9. Functional studies have found that Res treatment is associated with an increase in the expression of Pak2. Interestingly, inhibition of Pak2 could further augment the proapoptotic effect of Res. Mechanistically, Pak2 inhibition induced reactive oxygen species overproduction, mitochondria-JNK pathway activation, and AMPK-YAP axis suppression. However, overexpression of YAP could abolish the anticancer effects of Res and Pak2 inhibition, suggesting a necessary role played by the AMPK-YAP pathway in regulating cancer-suppressive actions of Res and Pak2 inhibition. Altogether, our results indicated that Res in combination with Pak2 inhibition could further enhance the anticancer property of Res and this effect is mediated via the AMPK-YAP pathway.

4.
Precis Clin Med ; 2(3): 166-182, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598387

RESUMO

Autophagy and inflammasomes are shown to interact in various situations including infectious disease, cancer, diabetes and neurodegeneration. Since multiple layers of molecular regulators contribute to the interplay between autophagy and inflammasome activation, the detail of such interplay remains largely unknown. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which have been implicated in regulating an expanding list of cellular processes including immune defense against pathogens and inflammatory response in cancer and metabolic diseases, may join in the crosstalk between inflammasomes and autophagy in physiological or disease conditions. In this review, we summarize the latest research on the interlink among ncRNAs, inflammasomes and autophagy and discuss the emerging role of these three in multiple signaling transduction pathways involved in clinical conditions. By analyzing these intriguing interconnections, we hope to unveil the mechanism inter-regulating these multiple processes and ultimately discover potential drug targets for some refractory diseases.

5.
Cell Rep ; 29(1): 76-88.e7, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577957

RESUMO

Efforts to target glutamine metabolism for cancer therapy have focused on the glutaminase isozyme GLS. The importance of the other isozyme, GLS2, in cancer has remained unclear, and it has been described as a tumor suppressor in some contexts. Here, we report that GLS2 is upregulated and essential in luminal-subtype breast tumors, which account for >70% of breast cancer incidence. We show that GLS2 expression is elevated by GATA3 in luminal-subtype cells but suppressed by promoter methylation in basal-subtype cells. Although luminal breast cancers resist GLS-selective inhibitors, we find that they can be targeted with a dual-GLS/GLS2 inhibitor. These results establish a critical role for GLS2 in mammary tumorigenesis and advance our understanding of how to target glutamine metabolism in cancer.

6.
Immunology ; 158(3): 240-251, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429483

RESUMO

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated systems (CRISPR-Cas) systems in prokaryotes function at defending against foreign DNAs, providing adaptive immunity to maintain homeostasis. CRISPR-Cas may also influence immune regulation ability in mammalian cells through alterations of pathogenic extent and nature. Recent research has implied that Type I CRISPR-Cas systems of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain UCBPP-PA14 impede recognition by Toll-like receptor 4, and decrease pro-inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism by which CRISPR-Cas systems affect host immunity is largely undemonstrated. Here, we explored whether CRISPR-Cas systems can influence autophagy to alter the activation of inflammasome. Using the wild-type PA14 and total CRISPR-Cas region deletion (∆TCR) mutant strain, we elucidated the role and underlying mechanism of Type I CRISPR-Cas systems in bacterial infection, and showed that CRISPR-Cas systems impacted the release of mitochondrial DNA and induction of autophagy. CRISPR-Cas deficiency led to an increase of mitochondrial DNA release, a decrease in autophagy, an increase of inflammasome activation and, ultimately, an elevation of pro-inflammatory response. Our findings illustrate a new important mechanism by which Type I CRISPR-Cas systems control their virulence potency to evade host defense.


Assuntos
Morte Celular Autofágica/imunologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/imunologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/imunologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/patologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/imunologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3728, 2019 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427601

RESUMO

Discovery of CRISPR-Cas systems is one of paramount importance in the field of microbiology. Currently, how CRISPR-Cas systems are finely regulated remains to be defined. Here we use small regulatory RNA (sRNA) library to screen sRNAs targeting type I-F CRISPR-Cas system through proximity ligation by T4 RNA ligase and find 34 sRNAs linking to CRISPR loci. Among 34 sRNAs for potential regulators of CRISPR, sRNA pant463 and PhrS enhance CRISPR loci transcription, while pant391 represses their transcription. We identify PhrS as a regulator of CRISPR-Cas by binding CRISPR leaders to suppress Rho-dependent transcription termination. PhrS-mediated anti-termination facilitates CRISPR locus transcription to generate CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and subsequently promotes CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity against bacteriophage invasion. Furthermore, this also exists in type I-C/-E CRISPR-Cas, suggesting general regulatory mechanisms in bacteria kingdom. Our findings identify sRNAs as important regulators of CRISPR-Cas, extending roles of sRNAs in controlling bacterial physiology by promoting CRISPR-Cas adaptation priming.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , RNA Bacteriano/biossíntese , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Fator Rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Terminação da Transcrição Genética/fisiologia , Bacteriófagos/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , RNA Bacteriano/genética
8.
Foods ; 8(8)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394825

RESUMO

Oviductus Ranae is a nutritional product for both medicine and food. Its quality is uneven due to multiple factors. An efficient method was established to evaluate the quality of Oviductus Ranae using fingerprint techniques and chemometric methods based on the analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in petroleum ether extract by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). During this process, 27 batches of Oviductus Ranae were analyzed by HPLC and two types of chromatographic fingerprints were established. The fingerprint that was obtained by matching six known peaks was used for the quantification of six PUFAs. Another fingerprint was obtained by matching sixteen peaks with a peak area ratio greater than 0.5% and it was used to classify the different qualities of Oviductus Ranae by further combining three different chemometric models. The 27 batches of Oviductus Ranae were divided into four categories, which was consistent with the analysis results of six PUFAs contents. The two high-quality samples with significantly higher contents were classified into one category, and samples with medium contents were divided into two categories, including eight and thirteen samples, respectively. The four inferior samples with lower contents were classified into one category. The results indicated that the newly developed method has potential application prospects for the quality evaluation of Oviductus Ranae.

9.
J Vis Exp ; (148)2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259890

RESUMO

Sepsis, a severe and complicated life-threatening infection, is characterized by an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses in multiple organs. With the development of therapies, most patients survive the hyperinflammatory phase but progress to an immunosuppressive phase, which increases the emergence of secondary infections. Therefore, improved understanding of the pathogenesis underlying secondary hospital-acquired infections in the immunosuppressive phase during sepsis is of tremendous importance. Reported here is a model to test infectious outcomes by creating double-hit infections in mice. A standard surgical procedure is used to induce polymicrobial peritonitis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and followed by intranasal infection of Staphylococcus aureus to simulate pneumonia occurring in immune suppression that is frequently seen in septic patients. This dual model can reflect the immunosuppressive state occurring in patients with protracted sepsis and susceptibility to secondary infection from nosocomial pneumonia. Hence, this model provides a simple experimental approach to investigate the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced secondary bacterial pneumonia, which may be used for discovering novel treatments for sepsis and its complications.

10.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247960

RESUMO

Natural products play an important role in drug discovery. This work employed a natural product 1-methylhydantoin as the lead compound to develop novel dual-active drugs. 1-Methylhydantoin was isolated from Oviductus Ranae, which is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for tussive and inflammation treatment for a long time. An in silico study screened the more active 1-methylhydantoin derivatives. Antitussive assessment indicated that the newly synthesized agent had similar bioactivity with the natural product. An anti-inflammatory model used xylene induced ear edema model. At the same dosage (100 mg/Kg), the newly prepared agent had an inhibition rate 53.18% which was much higher than that of the lead compound (22.69%). The results might be ascribed to the cyclooxygenases-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenases-2 (COX-2) selectivity, and the fitness of the compound, and the binding pocket. The anti-particulate matter (PM 2.5) acute pneumonia was evaluated through an in vivo model constructed by nasal instillation with PM 2.5 suspension. The results of the above models suggested that this novel agent had remarkable antitussive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-PM 2.5 acute pneumonia activities.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antitussígenos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Hidantoínas/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antitussígenos/síntese química , Antitussígenos/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Desenho de Fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/síntese química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Hidantoínas/síntese química , Hidantoínas/química , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052194

RESUMO

This work demonstrated a method combining reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with chemometrics analysis to identify the authenticity of Ranae Oviductus. The fingerprint chromatograms of the Ranae Oviductus protein were established through an Agilent Zorbax 300SB-C8 column and diode array detection at 215 nm, using 0.085% TFA (v/v) in acetonitrile (A) and 0.1% TFA in ultrapure water (B) as mobile phase. The similarity was in the range of 0.779-0.980. The fingerprint chromatogram of Ranae Oviductus showed a significant difference with counterfeit products. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) successfully identified Ranae Oviductus from the samples. These results indicated that the method established in this work was reliable.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Materia Medica/química , Mapeamento de Peptídeos , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Materia Medica/classificação , Mapeamento de Peptídeos/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Cell Stress Chaperones ; 24(3): 621-633, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976981

RESUMO

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been identified as a primary factor involved in brain ischemia-reperfusion injury progression. p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) is a novel ER function regulator. The aim of our study is to explore the influence of Pak2 on ER stress and determine whether melatonin attenuates ER stress-mediated cell death by modulating Pak2 expression in vitro using N2a cells. The results of our study demonstrated that hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR) injury repressed the levels of Pak2, an effect that was accompanied by activation of ER stress. In addition, decreased Pak2 was associated with oxidative stress, calcium overload, and caspase-12-mediated apoptosis activation in HR-treated N2a cells. Interestingly, melatonin treatment reversed the decreased Pak2 expression under HR stress. Knockdown of Pak2 abolished the protective effects of melatonin on ER stress, oxidative stress, and caspase-12-related N2a cells death. Additionally, we found that Pak2 was regulated by melatonin via the AMPK pathway; inhibition of AMPK prevented melatonin-mediated Pak2 upregulation, a result that was accompanied by an increase in N2a cell death. Altogether, these results identify the AMPK-Pak2 axis as a new signaling pathway responsible for ER stress and N2a cell viability under HR injury. Modulation of the AMPK-Pak2 cascade via supplementation of melatonin might be considered an effective approach to attenuate reperfusion-mediated N2a cell damage via repression of ER stress.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Quinases Ativadas por p21/metabolismo , Animais , Caspase 12/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(2): 214-217, 2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520915

RESUMO

Scalable synthesis of ß-truxinic acid (CBDA-4) was accomplished by capturing and photodimerizing a metastable crystalline solid of trans-cinnamic acid. This synthetic approach builds a foundation for investigating the properties and applications of the useful diacid. The X-ray crystal structure of CBDA-4 was determined for the first time. The cyclobutane ring in CBDA-4 was cleaved upon heating, making it a promising building block for thermally recyclable/degradable materials.

14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 13704, 2017 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29057941

RESUMO

A previously overlooked building block, cyclobutane-1,3-diacid (CBDA), is introduced to materials synthesis due to its great potentials. As an example of CBDA, α-truxillic acid or 2,4-diphenylcyclobutane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, was readily synthesized from commercially available trans-cinnamic acid. This CBDA showed outstanding stability both in sunlight and upon heating. While its two carboxylic acid groups can be readily utilized in connecting with other molecules to form new materials, the cyclobutane ring was able to tolerate acid and base treatments showing good chemical stability. A series of cyclobutane-containing polymers (CBPs), namely poly-α-truxillates, were obtained by condensation between α-truxillic acid and diols including ethylene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-petanediol, and 1,6-hexanediol. The structures of these poly-α-truxillates were analyzed by NMR, FT-IR, and HRMS. Powder X-ray diffraction results of the poly-α-truxillates indicated that they are semi-crystalline materials. Preliminary thermal, chemical, and photochemical tests showed that the poly-α-truxillates exhibited comparable stabilities to PET.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(40): 12155-12159, 2017 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714228

RESUMO

Polyladderane, the first polymer to contain the ladderane functional group, was synthesized from a gemini monomer through photoreaction in the solid state. The modular design of the gemini monomers used to create polyladderane allowed specific structural modification, resulting in the formation of two distinct polymer products. Monomers were synthesized by connecting two photoreactive units, either sorbic acids (monomer I) or 2-furanacrylic acids (monomer II), with a 1,4-butanediol linker. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the monomers confirmed that they packed in the desired head-to-tail orientation and within a viable distance for photoreaction by electronically complementary interaction. Pre-organized gemini monomers were irradiated with UV light and monitored by FT-IR. Two polyladderanes with cis,anti,cis-[3]-ladderane as a characteristic functional group were constructed stereospecifically in 24-36 hours.

16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 12: 1499-1514, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28260895

RESUMO

The combination of chemotherapy drugs attracts more attention in clinical cancer trials. However, the poor water solubility of chemotherapeutic drugs restricts their anticancer application. In order to improve antitumor efficiency and reduce side effects of free drugs, we prepared paclitaxel (PTX) and honokiol (HK) combination methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone) micelles (P-H/M) by solid dispersion method against breast cancer. The particle size of P-H/M was 28.7±2.5 nm, and transmission electron microscope image confirmed that P-H/M were spherical in shape with small particle size. After being encapsulated in micelles, the release of PTX or HK showed a sustained behavior in vitro. In addition, both the cytotoxicity and the cellular uptake of P-H/M were increased in 4T1 cells, and P-H/M induced more apoptosis than PTX-loaded micelles or HK-loaded micelles, as analyzed by flow cytometry assay and Western blot. Furthermore, the antitumor effect of P-H/M was significantly improved compared with PTX-loaded micelles or HK-loaded micelles in vivo. P-H/M were more effective in inhibiting tumor proliferation, inducing tumor apoptosis, and decreasing the density of microvasculature. Moreover, bioimaging analysis showed that drug-loaded polymeric micelles could accumulate more in tumor tissues compared with the free drug. Our results suggested that P-H/M may have potential applications in breast cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Micelas , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Polímeros/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Western Blotting , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lignanas/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula
17.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 39(7): 1073-9, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26969589

RESUMO

Despite the significant breakthroughs in research on microalgae as a feedstock for biodiesel, its production cost is still much higher than that of fossil diesel. One possible solution to overcome this problem is to optimize algal growth and lipid production in wastewater. The present study examines the optimization of pretreatment of municipal wastewater and aeration conditions in order to enhance the lipid productivity of Scenedesmus obliquus. Results showed that no significant differences were recorded in lipid productivity of S. obliquus grown in primary settled or sterilized municipal wastewater; however, ultrasound pretreatment of wastewater significantly decreased the lipid production. Whereas, aeration rates of 0.2 vvm significantly increased lipid content by 51 %, with respect to the non-aerated culture, which resulted in maximum lipid productivity (32.5 mg L(-1) day(-1)). Furthermore, aeration enrichment by 2 % CO2 resulted in increase of lipid productivity by 46 % over the CO2 non-enriched aerated culture. Fatty acid profile showed that optimized aeration significantly enhanced monounsaturated fatty acid production, composed mainly of C18:1, by 1.8 times over the non-aerated S. obliquus culture with insignificant changes in polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion; suggesting better biodiesel characteristics for the optimized culture.


Assuntos
Ar , Biocombustíveis , Scenedesmus/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias , Scenedesmus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Sci Rep ; 5: 10322, 2015 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25980982

RESUMO

To develop injectable formulation and improve the stability of curcumin (Cur), Cur was encapsulated into monomethyl poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (ε-caprolactone)-poly (trimethylene carbonate) (MPEG-P(CL-co-TMC)) micelles through a single-step solid dispersion method. The obtained Cur micelles had a small particle size of 27.6 ± 0.7 nm with polydisperse index (PDI) of 0.11 ± 0.05, drug loading of 14.07 ± 0.94%, and encapsulation efficiency of 96.08 ± 3.23%. Both free Cur and Cur micelles efficiently suppressed growth of CT26 colon carcinoma cells in vitro. The results of in vitro anticancer studies confirmed that apoptosis induction and cellular uptake on CT26 cells had completely increased in Cur micelles compared with free Cur. Besides, Cur micelles were more effective in suppressing the tumor growth of subcutaneous CT26 colon in vivo, and the mechanisms included the inhibition of tumor proliferation and angiogenesis and increased apoptosis of tumor cells. Furthermore, few side effects were found in Cur micelles. Overall, our findings suggested that Cur micelles could be a stabilized aqueous formulation for intravenous application with improved antitumor activity, which may be a potential treatment strategy for colon cancer in the future.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Micelas , Polímeros , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Tamanho da Partícula , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas , Polímeros/química , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(40): 5209-11, 2014 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24296775

RESUMO

A flexible organic sheet spontaneously assembled under mild conditions from a tri-carbamate. By introducing cyclohexyl side chains as 'pillars' between the sheets, a hydrogen bonded organic framework was formed which displayed a capacity for accommodating and releasing guest molecules. The guest size/shape selectivity of the lamellar framework was demonstrated by testing with various guests.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(10): 1218-20, 2014 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24336342

RESUMO

Two polymeric ladders were synthesized by topochemical polymerization. The critical assemblies with multiple reactive centers were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Approximately 64% and 70% of the mass of the two polymeric ladders can be derived from biomass, respectively.

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