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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0410122, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602319

RESUMO

Gut microbiota is one of the major elements in the control of host health. However, the composition of gut microbiota in koalas has rarely been investigated. Here, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine the individual and environmental determinants of gut microbiota diversity and function in 35 fecal samples collected from captive koalas. Meanwhile, blood immune-related cytokine levels were examined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to initially explore the relationship between the gut microbiota and the immune system in koalas. The relative abundance of many bacteria, such as Lonepinella koalarum, varies at different ages in koalas and decreases with age. Conversely, Ruminococcus flavefaciens increases with age. Moreover, bacterial pathways involved in lipid metabolism, the biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites, and infectious disease show a significant correlation with age. Age affects the relationship between the microbiota and the host immune system. Among them, the gut microbiota of subadult and aged koalas was closely correlated with CD8ß and CD4, whereas adult koalas were correlated with CLEC4E. We also found that sex, reproductive status, and living environment have little impact on the koala gut microbiota and immune system. These results shed suggest age is a key factor affecting gut microbiota and immunity in captive koalas and thus provide new insight into its role in host development and the host immune system. IMPORTANCE Although we have a preliminary understanding of the gut microbiota of koalas, we lack insight into which factors potentially impact captive koalas. This study creates the largest koala gut microbiota data set in China to date and describes several factors that may affect gut microbiota and the immune system in captive koalas, highlighting that age may be a key factor affecting captive koalas. Moreover, this study is the first to characterize the correlation between gut microbiota and cytokines in koalas. Better treatment strategies for infectious disorders may be possible if we can better understand the interactions between the immune system and the microbiota.

2.
Nat Metab ; 5(1): 29-40, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624157

RESUMO

Human pluripotent stem cell-derived islets (hPSC islets) are a promising alternative to primary human islets for the treatment of insulin-deficient diabetes. We previously demonstrated the feasibility of this approach in nonhuman primates; however, the therapeutic effects of hPSC islets can be limited by the maladaptive processes at the transplantation site. Here, we demonstrate successful implantation of hPSC-derived islets in a new transplantation site in the abdomen, the subanterior rectus sheath, in eight nonhuman primates (five male and three female). In this proof-of-principle study, we find that hPSC islets survive and gradually mature after transplantation, leading to improved glycemic control in diabetic primates. Notably, C-peptide secretion responds to meal challenge from 6 weeks post-transplantation (wpt), with stimulation indices comparable to those of native islets. The average post-prandial C-peptide level reaches approximately 2.0 ng ml-1 from 8 wpt, which is five times higher than the peak value we previously obtained after portal vein infusion of hPSC islets and was associated with a decrease of glycated hemoglobin levels by 44% at 12 wpt. Although additional studies in larger cohorts involving long-term follow-up of transplants are needed, our results indicate that the subanterior rectus sheath supports functional maturation and maintenance of hPSC islets, suggesting that it warrants further exploration as a transplantation target site in the context of for hPSC-based cell-replacement therapies.


Assuntos
Transplante das Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Transplante das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/métodos , Peptídeo C , Primatas , Abdome
3.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 24(1): 94-100, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36632754

RESUMO

Carotenoids are secondary metabolite responsible for colored pigments in plants and microbes (Li et al., 2022). They are a class of C40 tetraterpenoids consisting of eight isoprenoid units, and can be classified into carotenes and xanthophylls on the basis of their functional groups (Saini et al., 2015). Carotenes can be linear (phytoene, phytofluene, and ζ|-carotene) or branched (ß|-carotene and α|-carotene). Xanthophylls comprise ß,ß|-xanthophylls (ß|-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthins, and neoxanthin) and ß,ε|-xanthophylls (α-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, and lutein). Citrus fruits are complex sources of carotenoids, which are the principal pigments responsible for the typical orange color of most types (Chen, 2020). The difference in total carotenoid content and the diversity of carotenoid isomer proportion also accounts for other colors of citrus fruits, such as yellow, red, and pink (Chen, 2020).


Assuntos
Citrus , Citrus/metabolismo , Carotenoides , Xantofilas , Luteína/metabolismo , Zeaxantinas/metabolismo , Frutas
4.
Materials (Basel) ; 16(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36676613

RESUMO

Oxide metallurgy technology can improve the microstructure of a coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) but introduces extra inclusions. Local corrosion behavior of the CGHAZ of a Zr-Ti-Al-RE deoxidized steel was investigated in this work using theoretical calculations and experimental verification. The modified inclusions have a (Zr-Mg-Al-Ca-RE)Ox core claded by a CaS and TiN shell. CaS dissolves first, followed by the oxide core, leaving TiN parts. This confirms that the addition of rare earth can reduce lattice distortion and prevent a galvanic couple between the inclusions and the matrix, while the chemical dissolution of CaS causes localized acidification, resulting in the pitting corrosion initiation.

5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 146, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599884

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations are responsible for the oncogenesis and progression of cancer. However, the role of epigenetic reprogramming in pancreatic cancer is still not clear. In this study, we used the limma R package to identify differentially expressed protein-coding genes (PCGs) between pancreatic cancer tissues and normal control tissues. The cell-type identification by the estimating relative subsets of RNA transcripts (CIBERSORT) package was used to quantify relative cell fractions in tumors. Prognostic molecular clusters were constructed using ConsensusClusterPlus analysis. Furthermore, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and stepAIC methods were used to construct a risk model. We identified 2351 differentially expressed PCGs between pancreatic cancer and normal control tissues in The cancer genome atlas dataset. Combined with histone modification data, we identified 363 epigenetic PCGs (epi-PCGs) and 19,010 non-epi-PCGs. Based on the epi-PCGs, we constructed three molecular clusters characterized by different expression levels of chemokines and immune checkpoint genes and distinct abundances of various immune cells. Furthermore, we generated a 9-gene model based on dysfunctional epi-PCGs. Additionally, we found that patients with high risk scores showed poorer prognoses than patients with low risk scores (p < 0.0001). Further analysis showed that the risk score was significantly related to survival and was an independent risk factor for pancreatic cancer patients. In conclusion, we constructed a 9-gene prognostic risk model based on epi-PCGs that might serve as an effective classifier to predict overall survival and the response to immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer patients.


Assuntos
Código das Histonas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Prognóstico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Epigênese Genética , Transcriptoma
6.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 13(1): 320-338, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35879533

RESUMO

Naloxone, an FDA-approved opioid inhibitor, used to reverse opioid overdose complications has up till date faced challenges associated with its delivery. Limitations include the use of invasive delivery forms and the need for frequent redosing due to its short half-life. The goal of the current study was to design a transdermal rapidly dissolving polymeric microneedle (MN) patch with delivery and pharmacokinetic properties comparable to that seen with the commercially available NAL products, eliminating their delivery limitations. Patches of varying dimensions (500 µm; 100 array,800 µm; 100array, and 600 µm; 225 array) were fabricated to evaluate the effect of increasing MN length, and density (no. of needles/unit area) on drug release. Drug dose in each of these patches was 17.89 ± 0.23 mg, 17.2 ± 0.77 mg, and 17.8 ± 1.01 mg, respectively. Furthermore, the insertion efficiency of each of the MN patches was 94 ± 4.8%, 90.6 ± 1.69%, and 96 ± 1.29%, respectively. Compared to passive permeation, a reduced lag time of about 5-15 min was observed with a significant drug flux of 15.09 ± 7.68 g[Formula: see text]/cm2/h seen in the first 1 h (p < 0.05) with the array of 100 needles (500 µm long). Over 24 h, a four and ten-fold increase in permeation was seen with the longer length and larger density MN patch, respectively, when compared to the 500 µm (100 array) patch. Model simulations and analyses revealed the significance of needle base diameter and needle count in improving systemic pharmacokinetics of NAL.


Assuntos
Naloxona , Overdose de Opiáceos , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(1): 488-498, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562642

RESUMO

The high accumulation of galloylated flavan-3-ols in Camellia sp. is a noteworthy phenomenon. We identified a flavan-3-ol galloylation-related functional gene cluster in tannin-rich plant Camellia sp., which included UGT84A22 and SCPL-AT gene clusters. We investigated the possible correlation between the accumulation of metabolites and the expression of SCPL-ATs and UGT84A22. The results revealed that C. sinensis, C. ptilophylla, and C. oleifera accumulated galloylated cis-flavan-3-ols (EGCG), galloylated trans-flavan-3-ols (GCG), and hydrolyzed tannins, respectively; however, C. nitidissima did not accumulate any galloylated compounds. C. nitidissima exhibited no expression of SCPL-AT or UGT84A22, whereas the other three species of Camellia exhibited various expression patterns. This indicated that the functions of the paralogs of SCPL-AT vary. Enzymatic analysis revealed that SCPL5 was neofunctionalized as a noncatalytic chaperone paralog, a type of chaerone-like protein, associating with flavan-3-ol galloylation; moreover, CsSCPL4 was subfunctionalized in association with the galloylation of cis- and trans-flavan-3-ols. In C. nitidissima, an SCPL4 homolog was noted with mutations in two cysteine residues forming a disulfide bond, which suggested that this homolog was defunctionalized. The findings of this study improve our understanding of the functional diversification of SCPL paralogs in Camellia sp.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Camellia , Camellia/genética , Flavonoides/química , Taninos/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/química
8.
Cytokine ; 162: 156090, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotator cuff Tear (RCT) causes a lot of inconvenience for patients. In most cases, RCT injury does not heal back to bone after repair, and there is a high chance of retearing. Therefore, there is a need to explore more effective targeted therapies. Bone mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosome (BMSCs-Exo) has been proved to be beneficial to the proliferation of tendon cells, but its specific mechanism remains to be further explored. METHODS: BMSCs-Exo was isolated and identified by detecting the specific markers using flow cytometry and western blot assays. qRT-PCR and western blot were utilized to determine the gene or protein expressions, respectively. Cell proliferation, and migration in tenocytes were measured by CCK8, EdU and transwell assays. The interaction between miR-29a and FABP3 was analyzed using dual-luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: Our findings demonstrated that miR-29a was expressed in BMSCs-Exo and could be significantly enriched after TGF-ß1 treatment. Moreover, TGF-ß1-modified BMSCs-Exo co-cultured could promote the proliferation, migration and fibrosis of tenocytes by carrying miR-29a. Upon miR-29a was reduced in BMSCs-Exo, the regulatory roles of BMSCs-Exo on tenocytes were reversed. Mechanistically, miR-29a negatively regulated FABP3 via interaction with its 3'-UTR. Enforced expression of FABP3 could reverse the modulation of exosomal miR-29a in tenocytes. CONCLUSION: Exosomal miR-29a derived from TGF-ß1-modified BMSCs facilitated the proliferation, migration and fibrosis of tenocytes through targeting FABP3.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Tenócitos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proteína 3 Ligante de Ácido Graxo/metabolismo
9.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 2022 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464776

RESUMO

Odd-chain fatty acids (OCFAs) and their derivatives have attracted increasing attention due to their wide applications in the chemical, fuel, and pharmaceutical industry. However, most natural fatty acids are even-chained, and OCFAs are rare. In this work, a novel pathway was designed and established for de novo synthesis of OCFAs via 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) as the intermediate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Firstly, the OCFAs biosynthesis pathway from 3-HP was confirmed, followed by an optimization of the precursor 3-HP. After combining these strategies, a de novo production of OCFAs at 74.8 mg/L was achieved, and the percentage of OCFAs in total lipids reached 20.3%, reaching the highest ratio of de novo-produced OCFAs. Of the OCFAs produced by the engineered strain, heptadecenoic acid (C17:1) and heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) accounted for 12.1% and 7.6% in total lipid content, respectively. This work provides a new and promising pathway for the de novo bio-production of OCFAs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 1025063, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36465459

RESUMO

Objective: This Mendelian randomization (MR) study aimed to investigate the causal relationship between osteoarthritis (OA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: From a genome-wide association study of European ancestry, we selected single nucleotide polymorphisms for two types of OA, knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and hip osteoarthritis (HOA), as instrumental variables. We evaluated three types of CVD: coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF), and stroke. We used the traditional inverse variance weighting (IVW) method and other methods to estimate causality. Heterogeneity and sensitivity tests were also applied. Finally, we conducted a MR analysis in the opposite direction to investigate reverse causality. Results: IVW analysis showed that HOA significantly affected the incidence of HF [odds ratio (OR): 1.0675; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0182-0.1125, P = 0.0066]. HOA significantly affected the incidence of stroke (OR: 1.1368; 95% CI: 1.0739-1.2033, P = 9.9488e-06). CHD could dramatically affect the incidence of KOA (OR: 0.9011; 95% CI: 0.8442-0.9619, P = 0.0018). The rest of the results were negative. Conclusions: Our results revealed a potential causal relationship between HOA and risk of HF, and a potential causal relationship between HOA and risk of stroke. Our findings also suggested that CHD has a significant causal relationship with the risk of KOA. This paper may provide new ideas for the treatment of OA and CVD.

11.
Foods ; 11(23)2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496696

RESUMO

Peanut (also called groundnut, Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds are used for producing edible oils and functional foods, and offer a rich source of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. However, the location of these metabolites has not yet been firmly established. In the present study, the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) technique was applied to investigate spatial distribution of lipids and other key components in seeds of three peanut cultivars (ZH9, KQBH, HP). A total of 103 metabolites, including 34 lipid compounds, were putatively identified by MALDI-MSI. The abundance and spatial distribution of glycerolipids (GLs) and glycerophospholipids (GPs) were compared among the three peanut cultivars. All the identified lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were distributed mainly in the inner part of seeds. The visualization of phosphatidic acids (PAs) and triacylglycerols (TGs) revealed a dramatic metabolic heterogeneity between the different tissues making up the seed. The non-homogeneous spatial distribution of metabolites appeared to be related to the different functions of particular tissue regions. These results indicated that MALDI-MSI could be useful for investigating the lipids of foodstuffs from a spatial perspective. The present study may contribute to the development of oil crops with higher oil yields, and to improvement of food processing.

12.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 1050289, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36570894

RESUMO

Citrus leaves, which are a rich source of plant volatiles, have the beneficial attributes of rapid growth, large biomass, and availability throughout the year. Establishing the leaf volatile profiles of different citrus genotypes would make a valuable contribution to citrus species identification and chemotaxonomic studies. In this study, we developed an efficient and convenient static headspace (HS) sampling technique combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and optimized the extraction conditions (a 15-min incubation at 100 ˚C without the addition of salt). Using a large set of 42 citrus cultivars, we validated the applicability of the optimized HS-GC-MS system in determining leaf volatile profiles. A total of 83 volatile metabolites, including monoterpene hydrocarbons, alcohols, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, aldehydes, monoterpenoids, esters, and ketones were identified and quantified. Multivariate statistical analysis and hierarchical clustering revealed that mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) groups exhibited notably differential volatile profiles, and that the mandarin group cultivars were characterized by the complex volatile profiles, thereby indicating the complex nature and diversity of these mandarin cultivars. We also identified those volatile compounds deemed to be the most useful in discriminating amongst citrus cultivars. This method developed in this study provides a rapid, simple, and reliable approach for the extraction and identification of citrus leaf volatile organic compound, and based on this methodology, we propose a leaf volatile profile-based classification model for citrus.

13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(12): 1925-1931, 2022 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36572465

RESUMO

Objective: The survey learned about the current status of depression in community's elderly aged 60 years and older and explored its influencing factors. Methods: Respondents from the "Prevention and Intervention of Key Diseases in the Elderly" project used a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method to complete the depression screening of 14 335 ≥60-year-old elderly people in 16 counties and districts Liaoning, Henan, and Guangdong provinces in 2019. Through the questionnaire survey on the demographic characteristics of the subjects, whether they live with their families or interact with neighbors, daily exercise, cognitive function, and activity of daily living (ADL), the PHQ-9 depression screening scale was used to assess the depression status of the elderly in the last fortnight. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of depression in the elderly. Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among the elderly in Liaoning province, Henan province, and Guangdong province was 15.45%, and those in the three provinces were 18.17%, 18.87% and 9.93%, respectively. There were differences between urban and rural areas in the detection rate of depressive symptoms among the elderly in different regions, among which Henan: 17.09% vs. 20.61%; Guangdong province: 7.99% vs. 11.03%, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the detection rate of depressive symptoms in older women was higher than that in men (OR=1.76, 95%CI: 1.58-1.96), in those divorced or separated (OR=2.08, 95%CI: 1.01-4.30), with cognitive dysfunction (OR=1.78, 95%CI: 1.59-1.98) or impaired essential ability of daily living (BADL) (OR=1.74, 95%CI: 1.23-2.46). The impaired instrumental ability of daily living (IADL) (OR=2.23, 95%CI: 1.97-2.54) was a risk factor for depression in the elderly (P<0.05), and the impact of IADL impairment on depression in the elderly was higher than that of BADL impairment (2.23 vs. 1.74). Results also showed that factors as: 80 years old and above (OR=0.82, 95%CI: 0.68-0.99), living with family members (OR=0.67, 95%CI: 0.57-0.80), interacting with neighbors (OR=0.86, 95%CI: 0.76-0.98), exercise multiple times per week (OR=0.82, 95%CI: 0.69-0.96), and exercise almost every day (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.56-0.70) were protective for depression in the elderly (P<0.05). Conclusions: The detection rate of depressive symptoms in the elderly aged 60 and above in the community is relatively high in China. Gender, marital status, social interaction, physical exercise, cognitive function, and ADL are all influencing factors of depression in the elderly. The elderly health care sector should carry out psychological prevention and intervention of critical populations.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Depressão , Masculino , Idoso , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , China/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Front Physiol ; 13: 1070569, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36561217

RESUMO

Background: Minimal change disease (MCD) is one of the most common causes of primary nephrotic syndrome with high morbidity. This study aimed to explore the typical alterations of gut microbiota in MCD and establish a non-invasive classifier using key gut microbiome. We also aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of gut microbiota intervention in MCD through animal experiments. Methods: A total of 222 stool samples were collected from MCD patients and healthy controls at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University and Shandong Provincial Hospital for 16S rRNA sequencing. Optimum operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained for constructing a diagnostic model. MCD rat models were established using doxorubicin hydrochloride for exploring the therapeutic efficiency of gut microbial intervention through fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Results: The α-diversity of gut microbiota decreased in MCD patients when compared with healthy controls. The relative abundance of bacterial species also changed significantly. We constructed a diagnostic model based on eight optimal OTUs and it achieved efficiency of 97.81% in discovery cohort. The high efficiency of diagnostic model was also validated in the patients with different disease states and cross-regional cohorts. The treatment partially recovered the gut microbial dysbiosis in patients with MCD. In animal experiments, likewise, the gut microbiota changed sharply in MCD rats. However, gut microbial interventions did not reduce urinary protein or pathological kidney damage. Conclusion: Gut Microbiota shifts sharply in both patients and rats with MCD. Typical microbial changes can be used as biomarkers for MCD diagnosis. The gut microbiota compositions in patients with MCD tended to normalize after treatment. However, the intervention of gut microbiota seems to have no therapeutic effect on MCD.

15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1059692, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36569195

RESUMO

Background: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is a highly prevalent glomerular disease. The diagnosis potential of the gut microbiome in IgAN has not been fully evaluated. Gut microbiota, serum metabolites, and clinical phenotype help to further deepen the understanding of IgAN. Patients and methods: Cohort studies were conducted in healthy controls (HC), patients of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and non-IgA nephropathy (n_IgAN). We used 16S rRNA to measure bacterial flora and non-targeted analysis methods to measure metabolomics; we then compared the differences in the gut microbiota between each group. The random forest method was used to explore the non-invasive diagnostic value of the gut microbiome in IgAN. We also compared serum metabolites and analyzed their correlation with the gut microbiome. Results: The richness and diversity of gut microbiota were significantly different among IgAN, n_IgAN and HC patients. Using a random approach, we constructed the diagnosis model and analysed the differentiation between IgAN and n_IgAN based on gut microbiota. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the diagnosis was 0.9899. The metabolic analysis showed that IgAN patients had significant metabolic differences compared with HCs. In IgAN, catechol, l-tryptophan, (1H-Indol-3-yl)-N-methylmethanamine, and pimelic acid were found to be enriched. In the correlation analysis, l-tryptophan, blood urea nitrogen and Eubacterium coprostanoligenes were positively correlated with each other. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated changes in the gut microbiota and established models for the non-invasive diagnosis of IgAN from HC and n_IgAN. We further demonstrated a close correlation between the gut flora, metabolites, and clinical phenotypes of IgAN. These findings provide further directions and clues in the study of the mechanism of IgAN.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glomerulonefrite por IGA , Humanos , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/diagnóstico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Triptofano , Estudos de Coortes , Imunoglobulina A
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess cognitive benefits of a community-based multidomain intervention for improving cognition among older adults at risk of cognitive decline (COMBAT). DESIGN: A two-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling older adults aged 60 years or older and were at risk of cognitive decline (n = 209). INTERVENTION: In this 9-month intervention study, 10 community hospitals in Beijing, China, were randomized (1:1) to receive either a multidomain intervention of meditation, cognitive training, exercise, and nutrition counseling or usual care. The intervention was delivered with weekly 1-hour group training sessions and weekly home homework. MEASUREMENTS: Primary outcome was change in cognition as measured by a composite Z score of seven cognitive tests. Secondary outcomes included subjective cognitive abilities, positive and negative affective experiences, physical activity, and dietary habits. Assessments were administered at baseline, end of the intervention, and 1 year after completing the intervention (1-year follow-up). RESULTS: Immediately after the intervention, the intervention group showed significant enhancement in cognitive performance (p = 0.026). The between-group difference in the Z score of change of cognition was 0.20 (95% CI: 0.053, 0.35), with a Hedges' g of 0.40 (95% CI: 0.29, 0.50). However, this cognitive benefit was not significant at 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: This multidomain intervention was effective to improve cognition for at-risk individuals. Long-term effects on cognitive function and individual differences in response to the intervention deserve further investigation.

17.
medRxiv ; 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415468

RESUMO

While the development of different vaccines has slowed the dissemination of SARS-CoV-2, the occurrence of breakthrough infections continues to fuel the pandemic. As a strategy to secure at least partial protection, with a single dose of a given COVID-19 vaccine to maximum possible fraction of the population, delayed administration of subsequent doses (or boosters) has been implemented in many countries. However, waning immunity and emergence of new variants of SARS-CoV-2 suggest that such measures may jeopardize the attainment of herd immunity due to intermittent lapses in protection. Optimizing vaccine dosing schedules could thus make the difference between periodic occurrence of breakthrough infections or effective control of the pandemic. To this end, we have developed a mechanistic mathematical model of adaptive immune response to vaccines and demonstrated its applicability to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines as a proof-of-concept for future outbreaks. The model was thoroughly calibrated against multiple clinical datasets involving immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and mRNA vaccines in healthy and immunocompromised subjects (cancer patients undergoing therapy); the model showed robust clinical validation by accurately predicting neutralizing antibody kinetics, a correlate of vaccine-induced protection, in response to multiple doses of mRNA vaccines. Importantly, we estimated population vulnerability to breakthrough infections and predicted tailored vaccination dosing schedules to maximize protection and thus minimize breakthrough infections, based on the immune status of a sub-population. We have identified a critical waiting window for cancer patients (or, immunocompromised subjects) to allow recovery of the immune system (particularly CD4+ T-cells) for effective differentiation of B-cells to produce neutralizing antibodies and thus achieve optimal vaccine efficacy against variants of concern, especially between the first and second doses. Also, we have obtained optimized dosing schedules for subsequent doses in healthy and immunocompromised subjects, which vary from the CDC-recommended schedules, to minimize breakthrough infections. The developed modeling tool is based on generalized adaptive immune response to antigens and can thus be leveraged to guide vaccine dosing schedules during future outbreaks.

18.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358270

RESUMO

Tensins are a family of cellular-adhesion constituents that have been extensively studied. They have instrumental roles in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. The mammalian tensin family comprises four members: tensin1 (TNS1), tensin2, tensin3, and tensin4. Among them, TNS1 has recently received attention from researchers because of its structural properties. TNS1 engages in various biological processes, such as cell adhesion, polarization, migration, invasion, proliferation, apoptosis, and mechano-transduction, by interacting with various partner proteins. Moreover, the abnormal expression of TNS1 in vivo is associated with the development of various diseases, especially tumors. Interestingly, the role of TNS1 in different tumors is still controversial. Here, we systematically summarize three aspects of TNS1: the gene structure, the biological processes underlying its action, and the dual regulatory role of TNS1 in different tumors through different mechanisms, of which we provide the first overview.

19.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358340

RESUMO

The interstock, a stock between the rootstock and scion, has a significant regulatory effect on the stock and scion, and its function is highly dependent on graft compatibility. To assess the graft compatibility of the interstock and scion, 'Yuanxiaochun' was top grafted onto 'Ponkan', 'Shiranuhi', 'Harumi', 'Tarocco', and 'Kumquat'. The results showed significant differences in the survival ratio and preservation ratio among different combinations. Grafting compatibility in the early stages of grafting was associated with the genetic relationship. The biomass accumulation revealed that the interstock could influence both the rootstock and the scion. The physiological and biochemical traits analysis suggested that SPAD reading and soluble sugar could be employed as preselected indices to evaluate graft compatibility in the late stage of grafting. These results indicated that the evaluation of graft compatibility was a dynamic process. The findings provided a new approach for studying the stock and scion interaction mechanisms mediated by interstock, and directly provided a theoretical and practical basis for the high-grafting of 'Yuanxiaochun' citrus.

20.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(21)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36365293

RESUMO

Cold storage preserves lemon fruit quality; however, it can result in significant chilling injury (CI). The effects of pre- and post-harvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments at four concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mM) on CI and sensory quality of lemons during 80 d of storage at 7-10 °C were investigated. Both pre- and post-harvest MeJA treatments reduced CI, weight loss (WL) and maintained higher firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), and total acidity (TA) than in the controls. Antioxidant enzyme activities decreased in the control fruit but increased in both pre- and post-harvest MeJA-treated fruit. In addition, phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were higher in the control than in the MeJA-treated fruit. Pre-harvest MeJA treatment generally preserved fruit better than post-harvest MeJA treatment, with the best results observed when MeJA was applied at 0.3 mM, which enhanced the antioxidant system of the lemon fruits, thus reducing the post-harvest incidence of chilling injury. These results have important implications for improved fruit quality post-harvest.

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