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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114603, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496264

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eucommia ulmoides (E. ulmoides) leaves are included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and are traditionally used to treat hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and other diseases. Numerous pharmacological studies have shown that E. ulmoides has a good effect on lowering blood lipids and can improve obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver. AIM: To study the mechanism of E. ulmoides leaves in regulating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by combining prediction and validation. METHODS: Using network pharmacology, and molecular docking to predict E. ulmoides in regulating the action mechanism and potential active ingredients of nonalcoholic fatty liver, large hole adsorption resin enrichment active sites, in vitro experiments were performed to verify its fat-lowering effect and mechanism. RESULTS: The major components of E. ulmoides leaves exhibited good combination with lipid metabolism-regulating core proteins, particularly flavonoids. EUL 50 significantly reduced lipid accumulation, and increased PPARγ. Compared with the control group, the autophagy level increased after the administration of EUL 50. PPARγ decreased significantly after the addition of chloroquine (CQ, autophagy inhibitor). CONCLUSION: The active ingredients in E. ulmoides leaves regulating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are mainly flavonoids and phenolics. EUL 50 may play a role in lowering lipids by regulating PPARγ expression through inducing autophagy.

2.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 763549, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778234

RESUMO

The nicotine from tobacco stalk showed obvious inhibitory effect on the activity of cellulase and fermentability of microorganisms, which seriously hinders the utilization of tobacco stalk. Dilute sulfuric acid presoak of tobacco stalk was used to enhance the performance of instant catapult steam explosion (ICSE) for tobacco stalk pretreatment. The presoak was beneficial to break the recalcitrant structure of tobacco stalk, reduce nicotine content to relieve the inhibition on the activity of cellulase and metabolism of microorganisms, and promote the performance of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The optimized 0.8% sulfuric acid (w/w) presoak-integrated ICSE pretreatment resulted in 85.54% nicotine removal from tobacco stalk; meanwhile, the total sugar concentration from enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated tobacco stalk increased from 33.40 to 53.81 g/L (the ratio of dry tobacco stalk to water was 1:8, w/w), ethanol concentration increased 103.36% from 5.95 to 12.10 g/L in flask, compared with separate ICSE pretreatment. Finally, the ethanol concentration achieved the highest 23.53 g/L in a 5-L fermenter with the ethanol yield from the glucose of tobacco stalk hydrolysate achieving 71.40% by increasing the solid loading of the tobacco stalk in the enzymatic hydrolysis process (the ratio of dry tobacco stalk to water was 1:4, w/w). These results achieved the expected purpose of efficient utilization of discarded tobacco stalk.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22782, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815451

RESUMO

Foliar application of micronutrient is a rapid and promising strategy to enhance the concentration and bioavailability of micronutrients in wheat grain. To explore the effects of foliar application of micronutrients on the concentration and bioavailability of zinc and iron in grain in wheat cultivars and landraces, field experiments were carried out using 65 wheat cultivars and 28 landraces to assess the effects of foliar application of zinc (iron) on phytic acid concentrations, zinc (iron) concentrations and their molar ratios. The results indicated that mean grain zinc concentration of landraces (44.83 mg kg-1) was 11.13% greater than that of cultivars (40.34 mg kg-1) on average across seasons, while grain iron concentration did not differ significantly between landraces (41.00 mg kg-1) and cultivars (39.43 mg kg-1). Foliar zinc application significantly improved the concentration and bioavailability of zinc in grains in both cultivars and landraces, while landraces had almost two-fold more increase in grain zinc and also greater improvement in zinc bioavailability compared to cultivars. While foliar iron application did not significantly affect iron concentration and bioavailability in grains in either cultivars or landraces. Our study showed that, with foliar application of zinc but not iron, wheat landraces had better performance than cultivars in terms of the increases in both concentration and bioavailability of micronutrient in grains.

4.
Front Oncol ; 11: 756817, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804949

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most common primary and deadliest malignant brain tumor with chemoresistance and poor prognosis. There is a lack of effective chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of GBM. In this work, we reported the preparation of a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, DMC-HA, from the structural modification of natural product curcumin. DMC-HAs were tested in an HDAC inhibition assay and an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for cytotoxicity. It showed potent inhibition of HDAC1-2 and HDAC6 with IC50 values in the submicromolar concentration range. DMC-HA significantly inhibited the proliferation of human glioblastoma U87 cells and mediated apoptosis of U87 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, DMC-HA elevated the acetylation level of histone H3 in U87 cells. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that DMC-HA possessed acceptable pharmacokinetic profiles, accompanied with certain brain permeability. Lastly, we showed that DMC-HA suppressed the growth of tumor in U87 tumor xenograft model in vivo with no obvious toxicity. These results demonstrate that DMC-HA has the potential to be developed as a chemotherapeutic drug for GBM patients.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769185

RESUMO

Laccases can catalyze the remediation of hazardous synthetic dyes in an eco-friendly manner, and thermostable laccases are advantageous to treat high-temperature dyeing wastewater. A novel laccase from Geothermobacter hydrogeniphilus (Ghlac) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Ghlac containing 263 residues was characterized as a functional laccase of the DUF152 family. By structural and biochemical analyses, the conserved residues H78, C119, and H136 were identified to bind with one copper atom to fulfill the laccase activity. In order to make it more suitable for industrial use, Ghlac variant Mut2 with enhanced thermostability was designed. The half-lives of Mut2 at 50 °C and 60 °C were 80.6 h and 9.8 h, respectively. Mut2 was stable at pH values ranging from 4.0 to 8.0 and showed a high tolerance for organic solvents such as ethanol, acetone, and dimethyl sulfoxide. In addition, Mut2 decolorized approximately 100% of 100 mg/L of malachite green dye in 3 h at 70 °C. Furthermore, Mut2 eliminated the toxicity of malachite green to bacteria and Zea mays. In summary, the thermostable laccase Ghlac Mut2 could effectively decolorize and detoxify malachite green at high temperatures, showing great potential to remediate the dyeing wastewater.

6.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 66: 102887, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740126

RESUMO

Findings of multi-session transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as an adjunctive treatment of neurocognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated the neurocognitive effects of adjunctive multi-session tDCS for schizophrenia. Twelve RCTs covering 418 schizophrenia patients were included and analyzed in this meta-analysis. The RevMan software (Version 5.3) was used to calculate risk ratios (RRs) and standardized mean differences (SMDs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Adjunctive tDCS outperformed the comparator in improving working memory deficits (SMD = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.65; I2 = 52%; p = 0.03), but no significant effects were found in other cognitive domains. No group differences were found with regard to total psychopathology measured by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (SMD =-0.29, 95%CI: -0.61, 0.03; I2 = 50%, p = 0.07) and discontinuation due to any reason (RR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.39, 1.66; I2 = 9%, p = 0.56). Adjunctive tDCS appears to have a significant therapeutic effect improving the working memory deficits in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Esquizofrenia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/terapia
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(19): 5027-5037, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738398

RESUMO

To obtain the chemical profile of Tibetan medicinal plant ″Bangga″, the present study established the HPLC fingerprint of ″Bangga″ and inferred common chemical constituents of its two original plants, Aconitum tanguticum and A. naviculare by LC-MS. The HPLC analysis was performed on a Kromasil 100 C_8 column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 µm) with acetonitrile(A)-0.1% formic acid in water(B) as mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. Besides, the flow rate was set at 1 mL·min~(-1) and the column temperature was 35 ℃. The detection wavelength was set at 255 nm and the injection volume was 10 µL. Seventeen batches of ″Bangga″ samples were analyzed and the HPLC fingerprint was established under the above conditions. Similarity evaluation was performed using Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine(2012). As a result, 16 common peaks were selec-ted and the similarity values of 17 batches of ″Bangga″ were in the range of 0.702-0.966. Furthermore, one batch of A. tanguticum and one batch of A. naviculare were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and 74 common compounds were inferred, including 10 phenolic acids, 26 flavonoids, and 38 alkaloids. The established method, with good separation and strong specificity, is simple and feasible, and can be used for the quality control of ″Bangga″ and identification of its two original plants. A. tanguticum and A. naviculare are similar in chemical composition and component content, but are quite different in the content of flavonoids.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tibet
8.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(9): 2991-3004, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622612

RESUMO

Flowering is a critical transitional stage during plant growth and development, and is closely related to seed production and crop yield. The flowering transition is regulated by complex genetic networks, whereas many flowering-related genes generate multiple transcripts through alternative splicing to regulate flowering time. This paper summarizes the molecular mechanisms of alternative splicing in regulating plant flowering from several perspectives, future research directions are also envisioned.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética
9.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 727370, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708038

RESUMO

Background: In children, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is one of the most common primary glomerular diseases leading to end-stage renal disease. Exosomes facilitate communication between cells by transporting proteins and microRNAs. We aimed to investigate the utility of urine exosomal miR-193a for diagnosis and prognosis estimation among patients with primary FSGS, and preliminarily explore the regulation mechanism of exosome secretion from podocytes. Methods: Specimens of urine were obtained from patients with primary FSGS, minimal change nephropathy (MCN) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN), followed by exosome isolation. We quantified urine exosomal miR-193a based on quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and evaluated its applicability using area-under-receiver-operating-characteristics curves (AUROCs). The semiquantitative glomerulosclerosis index (GSI) was used to evaluate the degree of glomerulosclerosis according to the method of Raij et al. We further used FAM-labeled miR-193a-5p to examine exosome shuttling using confocal microscopy for visualization, and explored the regulation mechanism of exosomes release from podocytes using Fluo-3AM dye. Results: Urine exosomal miR-193a levels were significantly higher in patients with primary FSGS than those with MCN and IgAN. The AUROCs for discriminating between primary FSGS and MCN or IgAN were 0.85 and 0.821, respectively. Urine exosomal miR-193a levels positively correlated with GSI in patients with primary FSGS. We further found that kidney tissues from these patients had increased CD63 expression involving podocytes in non-sclerotic tufts. Exosomes from cultured podocytes could transport miR-193a-5p to recipient cells, potentially through a calcium-dependent release mechanism. Conclusion: Urine exosomal miR-193a might be harnessed as a non-invasive marker for diagnosis and outcome assessment among patients with primary FSGS. Exosomes were potential vehicles for miRNAs shuttling between podocytes, and released from podocytes in a calcium-dependent manner.

10.
Int J Biol Markers ; 36(3): 48-54, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explored the relevance between rs1695 and susceptibility to the lung cancer in the Chinese Han population. Stratification analysis was conducted on the basis of age, gender, smoking status, tumor-related family history, and pathological type to observe relations between rs1695 and susceptibility to lung cancer in the subgroups. METHODS: A case-control study was performed with 974 lung cancer patients who were pathologically diagnosed and 1005 healthy cases based on physical examination to analyze the association between rs1695 and the risk of lung cancer. RESULTS: The frequencies of the AA, GA, and GG genotypes of rs1695 were 68.4%, 28.7%, and 2.9% in cases and 64.8%, 30.8%, and 4.2% in controls, respectively. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking status, and family history, it appears that the rs1695 G allele decreases the risk of lung cancer (OR = 0.811, 95% CI 0.684-0.961, P = 0.016). Moreover, compared with the AA genotype, the GA + GG genotype decreased lung cancer susceptibility (OR = 0.808, 95% CI 0.663-0.985, P = 0.035) and the GG genotype (OR = 0.591, 95% CI 0.347-0.988, P = 0.048). In a stratified analysis, the risk of lung cancer in the G allele carriers decreased among the males, patients without a tumor-related family history, and patients with lung adenocarcinoma, especially in smokers. CONCLUSION: The polymorphism of locus rs1695 is related to the risk of lung cancer and is expected to be a target for the prediction of lung cancer.

11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(17): 4417-4423, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581045

RESUMO

In view of the current inadequate standards for Gleditsiae Spina in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, this study put forward some new items of the quality standards of Gleditsiae Spina. Thin-layer chromatography(TLC) was performed for identification with the reference substance of taxifolin and the reference material of Gleditsiae Spina as the control. According to the general principles of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition, Vol. 4), the moisture, total ash content, and alcohol-soluble extract of medicinal materials and decoction pieces of Gleditsiae Spina were determined. The content determination method for medicinal materials and decoction pieces of Gleditsiae Spina was established using high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), with taxifolin as the quality control index. Based on the determination results of 30 batches of samples of Gleditsiae Spina from different habitats, the draft quality standards of Gleditsiae Spina were developed, which provided suggestions for the revision of the quality standards of Gleditsiae Spina in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Controle de Qualidade , Padrões de Referência
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 630-638, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479031

RESUMO

Expansin gene (EXP) family plays important roles in plant growth and crop improvement. However, it has not been well studied in the Brassica genus that includes several important agricultural and horticultural crops. To get insight to the evolution and expansion of EXP family in Brassica, Brassica EXPs which are homologues of 35 known AtEXPs of Arabidopsis were comprehensively and systematically analyzed in the present study. In total, 340 Brassica EXPs were clustered into four groups that corresponded multiple alignment to four subfamilies of AtEXPs, with divergent conserved motifs and cis-acting elements among groups. To understand the expansion of EXP family, an integrated genomic block system was constructed among Arabidopsis and Brassica species based on 24 known ancestral karyotype blocks. Obvious gene loss, segmental duplication, tandem duplication and DNA sequence repeat events were found during the expansion of Brassica EXPs, of which the segmental duplication was possibly the major driving force. The divergence time was estimated in 1109 orthologs pairs of EXPs, revealing the divergence of Brassica EXPs from AtEXPs during ~30 MYA, and the divergence of EXPs among Brassica species during 13.50-17.94 MYA. Selective mode analysis revealed that the purifying selection was the major contributor to expansion of Brassica EXPs. This study provides new insights into the evolution and expansion of the EXP family in Brassica genus.


Assuntos
Brassica , Brassica/genética , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
13.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(15): 1228, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532365

RESUMO

Background: Daidzein is a soybean isoflavone that has been shown in previous studies to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, it remains unknown whether daidzein plays a protective role against concanavalin A (Con A)-induced autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Methods: In this study, an animal model of AIH was constructed by intravenous injection of Con A (15 mg/kg). Daidzein (200 mg/kg/d) was intraperitoneally administered to mice for 3 days before the Con A injection. Alpha mouse liver 12 (AML-12) cells were incubated in the absence or presence of daidzein to determine whether daidzein can alleviate Con A-induced hepatotoxicity. Results: The findings showed that pretreatment with daidzein significantly reduced Con A-induced oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis in Con A-induced liver injury. Pretreatment with daidzein significantly prevented the decrease of intrahepatic protein levels of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), phosphorylated GSK3ß (p-GSK3ß), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NOQ1 (NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1) in response to Con A administration. Meanwhile, malondialdehyde (MDA) production was reduced, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and SOD2 mRNA expression were elevated in daidzein-pretreated livers. In in vitro experiments, daidzein pretreatment prevented Con A-induced murine hepatocyte death. This effect was partly diminished by an inhibitor of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Conclusions: These results indicate that daidzein pretreatment attenuates Con A-induced liver injury through the Akt/GSK3ß/Nrf2 pathway. Our findings provide new insights into the use of plant-derived products for AIH treatment beyond immunosuppression.

14.
Heliyon ; 7(8): e07845, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485732

RESUMO

Background: Liver injury caused by ischemia reperfusion (I/R) during surgical procedures, such as liver resection or liver transplantation, is a major cause of liver damage and graft failure. The current method of treatment is mostly preventative (i.e., ischemic preconditioning). While a number of pharmacological modalities have been studied to reduce hepatic I/R injury, none have been entirely successful. It has been demonstrated that the administration of adrenomedullin (AM) in combination with AM-binding protein (AM/AMBP-1) exerts significant protective effects in various pathological conditions. In an effort to develop AM/AMBP-1 as a novel therapeutic for hepatic I/R injury, the present study examined the effect of a low dose of human AM, which does not induce hypotension, in combination with human AMBP-1 in a rabbit model of hepatic I/R (i.e., non-rodent species). Methods: Ischemia of 70% of the liver was induced by placing a microvascular clip across the hilum of the left and median lobes for 60 min. The clip was then removed to commence reperfusion. At 15 min following clip removal (i.e., reperfusion), human AM/AMBP-1 was administered intravenously via the ear marginal vein continuously for 30 min. At 20 h, blood and tissue samples were collected for various measurements. Results: The serum levels of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) and lactate dehydrogenase, were elevated following hepatic I/R. The administration of AM/AMBP-1 significantly decreased these levels by 58, 44, 41%, respectively. Hepatic I/R increased the direct and total bilirubin levels, whereas treatment with human AM/AMBP-1 decreased these levels by 60% and 69%, respectively. Treatment with AM/AMBP-1 also inhibited interleukin-6 gene expression by 95%. There were no changes in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) gene expression and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), lactate and Suzuki scores after treatment. The treatment, however, reduced apoptosis post-hepatic I/R in the ischemic portion of the liver. Conclusion: Additional experiments with AM and AMBP-1 alone are needed to completely interpret the experimental results in this non-rodent species of hepatic I/R injury. The present study suggests that human AM/AMBP-1 may be developed as a novel therapeutic to attenuate hepatic I/R associated inflammation and liver injury.

15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2900-2911, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467680

RESUMO

Paridis Rhizoma(PR) is prepared from the dried rhizome of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis(PPY) or P. polyphylla var. chinensis(PPC) in Liliaceae family. The rapid development of PPY or PPC planting industry resulted from resource shortage has caused the waste of a large number of non-medicinal resources. To clarify the chemical compositions in rhizomes, fibrous roots, stems, leaves, seeds and pericarps of PPC, and explore the comprehensive application value and development prospect of these parts, the qualitative and quantitative analyses on the different parts of PPC were carried out by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). A total of 136 compounds were identified, including 112 steroidal saponins, 6 flavonoids, 11 nitrogen-containing compounds and 7 phytosterols. Rhizomes, fibrous roots, and seeds mainly contained protopennogenyl glycosides and pennogenyl glycosides; leaves and stems mainly contained protodiosgenyl glycosides and diosgenyl glycosides; pericarps mainly contained pennogenyl glycosides, followed by diosgenyl glycosides. The total level of four saponins was the highest in fibrous roots and rhizomes, followed by those in the pericarps and arillate seeds, and the lowest in the stems and exarillate seeds. This study can provide data support for the comprehensive development and rational application of non-medicinal parts of PPC.


Assuntos
Liliaceae , Melanthiaceae , Saponinas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Rizoma , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2912-2922, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467681

RESUMO

The dried fruit body of Phylloporia ribis(Hymenochaetaceae), which prefers to live on the stumps of Lonicera japonica(Caprifoliaceae), has a variety of activities, whereas its pharmacodynamic material basis is not completely clear and there are few reports on its quality control and evaluation. In this study, an UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was used to analyze the nucleosides and nucleobases in P. ribis and a HPLC method was established for simultaneous determination of 10 nucleosides and nucleobases. MS and MS/MS data were acquired in positive ion mode. Based on the data comparison of the sample and the reference substance, the literature data and the compound databases of ChemSpider and PubChem, 18 nucleosides and nucleobases were identified qualitatively from the water extract of P. ribis for the first time. After optimization, the HPLC was performed using a Welch Ultimate AQ C_(18) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 µm) by gradient elution with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase, the flow rate of 1.0 mL·min~(-1), the detection wavelength of 260 nm, and the column temperature of 30 ℃. Through the investigation of the extraction method, solvent and time, it was determined that the test solution should be obtained by cold water extraction for 18 h. At the present HPLC conditions, 10 components of uracil, cytidine, hypoxanthine, uridine, thymine, inosine, guanosine, 2'-deoxyinosine, 2'-deoxyguanosine and thymidine could be well separated(R > 1.5) and showed good linearity(r > 0.999 9) in the concentration ranges of 0.247-24.7, 0.283-28.3, 0.273-27.3, 0.256-25.6, 0.257-25.7, 0.318-31.8, 0.245-24.5, 0.267-26.7, 0.250-25.0 and 0.267-26.7 mg·L~(-1), respectively. The average reco-veries of 10 components were 95.78%-104.5%, and the RSDs were 2.2%-5.2%(n=6). The contents of 10 nucleosides and nucleobases in different samples of P. ribis varied greatly, which were 0.021-0.122, 0.004-0.029, 0.014-0.226, 0.009-0.442, 0.003-0.014, 0.002-0.146, 0.007-0.098, 0-0.054, 0.005-0.069, 0.004-0.081 and 0.072-1.28 mg·g~(-1) for uracil, cytidine, hypoxanthine, uridine, thymine, inosine, guanosine, 2'-deoxyinosine, 2'-deoxyguanosine, thymidine and total 10 components, respectively. These results demonstrated that the components had significant differences in the internal quality, and good quality control was needed to ensure the medical efficacy. This study provides a scientific basis for the discovery of pharmacodynamic ingredients, quality control and evaluation of P. ribis.


Assuntos
Nucleosídeos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Basidiomycota , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Guanosina
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2923-2930, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467682

RESUMO

The present study determined the quantitative markers of total proanthocyanidins in the purification of the industrial waste Choerospondias axillaris pericarp based on the comparison results of high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and mass spectrometry(MS) and optimized the purification process with two stable procyanidins as markers. The adsorption and desorption of five different macroporous adsorption resins, the static adsorption kinetics curve of NKA-Ⅱ resin, the maximum sample load, and the gradient elution were investigated. The UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS was employed for qualitative analysis of the newly-prepared total proanthocyanidins of C. axillaris pericarp. As revealed by the results, NKA-Ⅱ resin displayed strong adsorption and desorption toward total proanthocyanidins. The sample solution(50 mg·mL~(-1)) was prepared from 70% ethanol crude extract of C. axillaris pericarp dissolved in water and 7-fold BV of the sample solution was loaded, followed by static adsorption for 12 h. After 8-fold BV of distilled water and 6-fold BV of 10% ethanol were employed to remove impurities, the solution was eluted with 8-fold BV of 50% ethanol, concentrated, and dried under reduced pressure, and purified total proanthocyanidin powder was therefore obtained. Measured by vanillin-hydrochloric acid method, the purity and transfer rate of total proanthocyanidins were 47.67% and 59.92%, respectively, indicating the feasibi-lity of the optimized process. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS qualitative analysis identified 16 procyanidins in C. axillaris total proanthocyanidins. The optimized purification process is simple in operation and accurate in component identification, and it can be applied to the process investigation of a class of components that are difficult to be separated and purified. It can also provide technical support and research ideas for the comprehensive utilization of industrial waste.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Proantocianidinas , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extratos Vegetais , Proantocianidinas/análise , Resinas Sintéticas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2931-2941, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467683

RESUMO

As a new strategy capable of uncovering the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines, the quantitative analysis of multi-components by single-marker(QAMS) has been widely employed for the quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal materials, slices, and extracts. However, its application in the assessment of Chinese patent medicines is yet to be explored. By referring to the determination of three bufogenins in Bufonis Venenum by QAMS described in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 Edition), this paper selected seven representative preparations containing Bufonis Venenum and explored whether the relative correction factors(RCFs) of cinobufagin(CB) to bufalin(BF) and resibufogenin(RB) could be directly used for the quality control of Bufonis Venenum-contained preparations. Based on the qualitative analyses under the same chromatographic conditions as used for toad venom, combing specificity test, five preparations such as Yatong Yili Pills, Houzheng Pills, Xiongdan Jiuxin Pills, Liushen Pills and Niuhuang Xiaoyan Pills, were expected to use validated RCFs for the direct determination of three components. Taking Houzheng Pills as an example, the methodological validation of bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin was carried out, and the recoveries of bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin were 90.64%-106.1%. The obvious difference was not observed between the contents of bufalin and resibufogenin in 24 batches of preparation samples by QAMS and external reference method. In the tested samples, the content of bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin were 1.27-2.61, 2.44-5.66 and 0.988-3.16 mg·g~(-1) in 10 batches of Liushen Pills samples. The contents of bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin were 0.760-1.32, 1.35-2.39 and 0.600-1.55 mg·g~(-1) in 10 batches of Houzheng Pills samples from three manufacturers. The obtained data contribute to improving the quality standard of Bufonis Venenum-contained preparations, and they also provide some ideas for the application of QAMS in the quality evaluation and control of Chinese patent medicines.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Controle de Qualidade
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2889-2899, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467710

RESUMO

Sophorae Flavescentis Radix,derived from the root of Sophora flavescens in the Leguminosae family,has been widely used in the medicine,agriculture,animal husbandry,and daily chemical industry. A pharmacophore model-based method for rapid discovery of tyrosinase inhibitors( TIs) from S. flavescens was established by molecular docking under Lipinski rules,and verified by enzyme assays. Briefly,the chemical constituent database of S. flavescens( CDSF) was established based on the previous papers. Theoptimal pharmacophore model( OPM) was constructed by DS 2019 on the basis of known active TIs. Eighty-three hits predominated by flavonoids having higher fitting scores with OPM than the positive control were screened out,and subjected to molecular docking based on the three-dimensional structure of tyrosinase crystal protein. The potential TIs such as kurarinone and nor-kurarinone were rapidly discovered from the compounds with higher docking scores than the positive control under the Lipinski rules. The results were verified by the in vitro enzyme assays. The inhibition activities of tyrosinase from non-medicinal parts of S. flavescens were also tested to explore the relationship between the inhibition activity and chemical compositions. This study is expected to provide data support for the comprehensive application and development of S. flavescens and also a new method for the rapid discovery of active substances or functional constituents in the complex systems.


Assuntos
Sophora , Animais , Flavonoides , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4023-4033, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467711

RESUMO

Paris polyphylla var. chinensis(PPC) is used as one of the origin plants of Paridis Rhizoma described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). Its resources shortage makes the planting scale gradually expand, and plenty of aerial parts are abandoned because of not being effectively used. On the basis of previous research, this study separated steroidal saponins to further clarify the chemical composition of the aerial parts of PPC. As a result, three pairs of 25R or 25S epimers of furostanol saponins were obtained by various column chromatography techniques. Their structures were identified as neosolanigroside Y6(1), solanigroside Y6(2), neoprotogracillin(3), protogracillin(4), neoprotodioscin(5) and protodioscin(6) by spectral data combining with chemical transformation. Compound 1 is a new compound, and compounds 2, 3 and 5 are isolated from Paris plants for the first time. Compounds 4 and 6 are isolated from this plant for the first time. Previously, only several spirostanol glycosides with 25S configuration were isolated from Paris plants. Guided by mass spectrometry, the present study isolated the furostanol saponins with 25S configuration from this genus for the first time, which further enriches the chemical information of Paris genus and provides a reference for the isolation of similar compounds.


Assuntos
Liliaceae , Melanthiaceae , Saponinas , Extratos Vegetais , Rizoma
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