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1.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 162, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246108

RESUMO

Recent emergence of high-level tigecycline resistance mediated by Tet(X3/X4) in Enterobacteriaceae undoubtably constitutes a serious threat for public health worldwide. Antibiotic adjuvant strategy makes antibiotic more effective against these resistant pathogens through interfering intrinsic resistance mechanisms or enhancing antibiotic actions. Herein, we screened a collection of drugs to identify compounds that are able to restore tigecycline activity against resistant pathogens. Encouragingly, we discovered that anti-HIV agent azidothymidine dramatically potentiates tigecycline activity against clinically resistant bacteria. Meanwhile, addition of azidothymidine prevents the evolution of tigecycline resistance in E. coli and the naturally occurring horizontal transfer of tet(X4). Evidence demonstrated that azidothymidine specifically inhibits DNA synthesis and suppresses resistance enzyme activity. Moreover, in in vivo infection models by Tet(X4)-expression E. coli, the combination of azidothymidine and tigecycline achieved remarkable treatment benefits including increased survival and decreased bacterial burden. These findings provide an effective regimen to treat infections caused by tigecycline-resistant Escherichia coli.

2.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126322, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182505

RESUMO

The riparian zone is closely related to the surrounding environment, and it is important to find out the distribution characteristics of organic carbon in the sediment of the riparian zone. In this paper, the distribution of organic carbon in sediments and its influencing factors were analyzed in the riparian zone of small watershed. The results show that the distribution of organic carbon was significantly related to the lithology of sediment, and the sedimentary environment determined the content of organic carbon in sediment. In shallow sediments, organic carbon changed significantly with depth, and redox conditions were the main influencing factors. When the environment changed from oxidation condition to reduction condition, both the mineralization of organic carbon and the change of iron oxide morphology would change the stabilizing effect of organic carbon, thus affecting the distribution of organic carbon. In addition, under the influence of flood, the organic carbon in the riparian sediments changed with the distance to the river in the horizontal direction.

3.
Sci Adv ; 6(11): eaax2271, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195335

RESUMO

Antibodies are essential for elucidating gene function. However, affordable technology for proteome-scale antibody generation does not exist. To address this, we developed Proteome Epitope Tag Antibody Library (PETAL) and its array. PETAL consists of 62,208 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against 15,199 peptides from diverse proteomes. PETAL harbors binders for a great multitude of proteins in nature due to antibody multispecificity, an intrinsic antibody feature. Distinctive combinations of 10,000 to 20,000 mAbs were found to target specific proteomes by array screening. Phenotype-specific mAb-protein pairs were found for maize and zebrafish samples. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry mAbs for membrane proteins and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing mAbs for transcription factors were identified from respective proteome-binding PETAL mAbs. Differential screening of cell surface proteomes of tumor and normal tissues identified internalizing tumor antigens for antibody-drug conjugates. By finding high-affinity mAbs at a fraction of current time and cost, PETAL enables proteome-scale antibody generation and target discovery.

4.
Biosci Rep ; 40(3)2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141497

RESUMO

The lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer (LMN-CRC) seriously threatens the prognosis of patients. Chemotherapy, as the most common treatment, results in severe bone marrow suppression. 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 (SGRh2), a major effective constituent of ginseng, has demonstrated therapeutic effects on a variety of diseases, including some tumours. SGRh2 treatment had no effect on other organs. Therefore, ginsenosides are considered a safe and effective antineoplastic drug. However, the effects of SGRh2 on LMN-CRC remain unknown. The present study investigated the potential effect of SGRh2 on LMN-CRC in vitro and in vivo. SW480 and CoLo205 cell lines were treated with SGRh2. SGRh2 dose-dependently decreased CRC cell proliferation by CCK-8, colony formation and Edu assays. The Transwell and scratch assays revealed that SGRh2 inhibits the migratory and invasive abilities of CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the results of Western blotting revealed that SGRh2 decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP9. In terms of the underlying mechanisms, SGRh2 regulates CRC metastasis by affecting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which significantly up-regulated epithelial biomarkers (E-cadherin) and down-regulated mesenchymal biomarkers (N-cadherin and vimentin) and EMT transcriptional factors (Smad-3, Snail-1, and Twist-1). In vivo, SGRh2 significantly inhibited LMN-CRC without affecting other normal organs. Immunohistochemical results showed that SGRh2 treats LMN-CRC by regulating EMT. These results demonstrate that SGRh2 has therapeutic potential for LMN-CRC.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5016, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193460

RESUMO

Modern sugarcane is an unusually complex heteroploid crop, and its genome comprises two or three subgenomes. To reduce the complexity of sugarcane genome research, the ploidy level and number of chromosomes can be reduced using flow chromosome sorting. However, a cell cycle synchronization (CCS) protocol for Saccharum spp. is needed that maximizes the accumulation of metaphase chromosomes. For flow cytometry analysis in this study, we optimized the lysis buffer, hydroxyurea(HU) concentration, HU treatment time and recovery time for sugarcane. We determined the mitotic index by microscopic observation and calculation. We found that WPB buffer was superior to other buffers for preparation of sugarcane nuclei suspensions. The optimal HU treatment was 2 mM for 18 h at 25 °C, 28 °C and 30 °C. Higher recovery treatment temperatures were associated with shorter recovery times (3.5 h, 2.5 h and 1.5 h at 25 °C, 28 °C and 30 °C, respectively). The optimal conditions for treatment with the inhibitor of microtubule polymerization, amiprophos-methyl (APM), were 2.5 µM for 3 h at 25 °C, 28 °C and 30 °C. Meanwhile, preliminary screening of CCS protocols for Badila were used for some main species of genus Saccharum at 25 °C, 28 °C and 30 °C, which showed that the average mitotic index decreased from 25 °C to 30 °C. The optimal sugarcane CCS protocol that yielded a mitotic index of >50% in sugarcane root tips was: 2 mM HU for 18 h, 0.1 X Hoagland's Solution without HU for 3.5 h, and 2.5 µM APM for 3.0 h at 25 °C. The CCS protocol defined in this study should accelerate the development of genomic research and cytobiology research in sugarcane.

7.
BMC Genet ; 21(1): 23, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Buffalo milk is considered as a highly nutritious food owing to its higher contents of fatty acids (FA) and rich nutrient profile. Higher fat contents of buffalo milk make it suitable for processing to develop various healthy and nutritious products. Moreover, buffalo milk contains more unsaturated FAs (UFA) such as oleic and linolenic acid, which are important from the human health point of view owing to their desirable physiological effects. However, inadequate information is available about the chemical composition and mechanism of FA synthesis in buffalo milk. In this study, we hypothesized that expression of SCD1 gene could alter the biosynthesis of FA in epithelial cells of mammary gland and subsequently affect the FA contents in buffalo milk. We investigated the transcriptional and biological role of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 (SCD1) in the buffalo mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) during FA and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. RESULTS: Results revealed that unsaturated fatty acid contents were much higher in concentration in buffalo milk as compared to Holstein cow. Significant increase in the expression level of FAS, ACACA, SREBP1, PPARG, GPAT, and AGPAT genes was observed in response to altered expression of SCD1 in buffalo milk. Moreover, change in SCD1 gene in BMECs also mediated the expression of genes related to FA biosynthesis subsequently leading to alter the FA composition. Overexpression of SCD1 significantly increased the expression of genes associated with FA and TAG synthesis leading to enhance FA and unsaturated FA contents in BMECs. However, down-regulation of SCD1 exhibited opposite consequences. CONCLUSION: Our study provides mechanistic insights on transcriptional regulation of SCD1 to alter FA and TAG synthesis through directly or indirectly mediating biosynthesis and metabolic pathways in BMECs. We provide preliminary findings regarding engineering of FA contents in buffalo milk through SCD1 signaling.

8.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170003

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyse the clinical spectrum, genetic features, specific D4Z4 hypomethylation status and genotype-phenotype correlations for somatic mosaicism in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: This was a prospective, hospital-based, case-control, observational study of 35 participants with FSHD with somatic mosaicism recruited over 10 years, with 17 penetrant patients and 18 non-penetrant mutation carriers. This study also included a univariate comparison of 17 paired mosaic and non-mosaic patients with FSHD. RESULTS: Mosaic participants with FSHD varied in age of diagnosis (median 45; range 15-65 years), muscle strength (FSHD clinical score median 0; range 0-10 points), clinical severity (age-corrected clinical severity score (ACSS) median 0; range 0-467 points), D4Z4 repeats (median 3; range 2-5 units), mosaic proportion (median 55%; range 27%-72%) and D4Z4 methylation extent (median 49.82%; range 27.17%-64.51%). The genotypic severity scale and D4Z4 methylation extent were significantly associated with ACSS (p1=0.003; p2=0.002). Among the matched pairs, the 17 mosaic patients had shorter D4Z4 repeats, lower FSHD clinical scores and lower ACSS than non-mosaic patients. Additionally, 34 of 35 (97%) participants carried two mosaic arrays, while a single patient had three mosaic arrays (3%). Two cases also carried four-type non-mosaic arrays on chromosome 10 (translocation configuration). CONCLUSIONS: Broadly, this large mosaic FSHD cohort exhibited significant clinical heterogeneity and relatively slight disease severity. Both genotypic severity scale and D4Z4 hypomethylation status served as modifiers of clinical phenotypes. Consistent with previous reports, mitotic interchromosomal/intrachromosomal gene conversion without crossover was here identified as a major genetic mechanism underlying mosaic FSHD.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176486

RESUMO

Strong Mn-Mn coupling interactions (dipole-dipole and spin-exchange), predominantly determined by statistically and apparently short Mn···Mn distances in traditional heavily Mn2+-doped semiconductors, can promote energy transfer within randomly positioned and close-knit Mn2+ pairs. However, the intrinsic mechanism on controlling Mn2+ emission efficiency is still elusive due to the lack of precise structure information on local tetrahedrally coordinated Mn2+ ions. Herein, a group of Mn2+-containing metal-chalcogenide open frameworks (MCOFs), built from [Mn4In16S35] nanoclusters (denoted T4-MnInS) with a precise [Mn4S] configuration and length-variable linkers, were prepared and selected as unique models to address the above-mentioned issues. MCOF-5 and MCOF-6 that contained a symmetrical [Mn4S] core with a D2d point group and relatively long Mn···Mn distance (∼3.9645 Å) exhibited obvious red emission, while no room-temperature PL emission was observed in MCOF-7 that contained an asymmetric [Mn4S] configuration with a C1 point group and relatively short Mn···Mn distance (∼3.9204 Å). The differences of Mn-Mn dipole-dipole and spin-exchange interactions were verified through transient photoluminescent spectroscopy, electron spin resonance (ESR), and magnetic measurements. Compared to MCOF-5 and MCOF-6 showing a narrower/stronger ESR signal and longer decay lifetime of microseconds, MCOF-7 displayed a much broader/weaker ESR signal and shorter decay lifetime of nanoseconds. The results demonstrated the dominant role of distance-directed Mn-Mn dipole-dipole interactions over symmetry-directed spin-exchange interactions in modulating PL quenching behavior of Mn2+ emission. More importantly, the reported work offers a new pathway to elucidate Mn2+-site-dependent photoluminescence regulation mechanism from the perspective of atomically precise nanoclusters.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047267

RESUMO

The X-linked recessive degenerative disease dystrophinopathy results from variants in the DMD gene. Given the large size and complexity of the DMD gene, molecular diagnosis for all dystrophinopathies remains challenging. Here we identified two cryptic exon retention variants caused by intronic single nucleotide variants in dystrophinopathy patients using combined RNA- and DNA-based methods. As one variant was previously unreported, we explored its likely pathogenic mechanism, via bioinformatic prediction for in silico verification of splicing. Then we constructed a minigene system harboring the variant and used morpholino modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to induce cryptic exon skipping. ASOs treatment corrected the mis-splicing in the mutant minigene system. Our study defines a novel intronic variant that can cause dystrophinopathy, and illustrates a strategy to overcome the aberrant splicing.

11.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23234, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains an important disease threatening the security of public health, and no effective targets have been found for the immunological diagnosis or therapy of tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between lncRNA CASC8 genetic polymorphism and tuberculosis risk. METHOD: A total of 900 tuberculosis patients and 1534 healthy individuals in the Western Chinese Han population were recruited for our study. Candidate SNPs of CASC8 were initially filtered by importing the 1000 genomes database into Haploview, and subsequently genotyped using modified multiplex ligation detection reactions. RESULTS: The lncRNA CASC8 genetic variant rs7836840 was associated with an increased tuberculosis risk with a P-value of .034, but .134 after Bonferroni correction. Using subtype analysis, the C allele in rs7836840 showed a significant association with tuberculosis susceptibility (OR = 1.196, 95% CI = 1.05-1.362, P = .02739 after Bonferroni correction). Patients carrying genotype AG and GG of rs7825118 and rs9297758 exhibited lower Hb concentrations (P = .006) and neutrophil counts (P = .015), respectively, while genotype AG and AA in rs6981424 demonstrated higher levels of ALT (P = .005) and AST (P = .033) in a dominant model, which were consistent with a tendency toward increased TB risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study was the first to explore the association between lncRNA CASC8 polymorphisms and TB infection risk and clinical manifestations. Our results provide evidence that CASC8 may act as a biomarker for the progression of clinical tuberculosis.

12.
Mol Med Rep ; 21(3): 1077-1088, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016449

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that affects the physical, and mental health of middle­aged and elderly people. The aims of the present study were to determine the biological function and molecular mechanisms of miR­363­3p in chondrocyte apoptosis. Exploration of the molecular mechanisms of OA may be helpful in the understand of the causes, and facilitating the prevention and treatment of OA. In the present study, the expression of nuclear respiratory factor1 (NRF1) was downregulated in the articular cartilage of OA rats in vivo and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)­treated chondrocytes in vitro. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are regulators of gene expression in the progression of OA. TargetScan software was used to predict that NRF1 was a potential target for miRNA (miR)­363, and this was confirmed in subsequent experiments. The expression of miR­363­3p was negatively correlated with the expression of NRF1, and its expression was significantly upregulated in OA model rats and in LPS­induced chondrocytes compared with the expression in the respective controls. In addition, the overexpression of miR­363­3p increased the levels of interleukin (IL)­1ß, IL­6 and tumor necrosis factor­α in vivo, and was demonstrated to promote chondrocyte injury and apoptosis by Safranin O staining and TUNEL. Moreover, the inhibition of miR­363­3p expression increased the expression of NRF1 and protected chondrocytes from apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, whereas the overexpression of miR­363­3p downregulated NRF1 expression and promoted LPS­induced chondrocyte apoptosis through the p53 pathway in vitro. The results of this study suggested that miR­363­3p­mediated inhibition of NRF1may be associated with chondrocyte apoptosis in OA.

13.
Am Nat ; 195(3): 534-546, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097035

RESUMO

The ontogeny of seed plants usually involves a dormant dehydrated state and the breaking of dormancy and germination, which distinguishes it from that of most organisms. Seed germination and seedling establishment are critical ontogenetic stages in the plant life cycle, and both are fueled by respiratory metabolism. However, the scaling of metabolic rate with respect to individual traits remains poorly understood. Here, we tested metabolic scaling theory during seed germination and early establishment growth using a recently developed model and empirical data collected from 41 species. The results show that (i) the mass-specific respiration rate (Rm) was weakly correlated with body mass, mass-specific N content, and mass-specific C content; (ii) Rm conformed to a single Michaelis-Menten curve as a function of tissue water content; and (iii) the central parameters in the model were highly correlated with DNA content and critical enzyme activities. The model offers new insights and a more integrative scaling theory that quantifies the combined effects of tissue water content and body mass on respiratory metabolism during early plant ontogeny.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006087

RESUMO

Results of a preclinical study suggested that the anticonvulsant drug ethosuximide may elicit ketamine-like rapid-acting antidepressant actions. We evaluated the antidepressant efficacy of ethosuximide versus placebo in non-medicated adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included patients at three mental health centers in China. Eighty eligible adults (aged 18-65 years) met the DSM-5 criteria for MDD. Patients in the acute single study received three doses (500, 1000, or 1500 mg) of ethosuximide or placebo. Patients in the repeated study received ethosuximide (1500 mg/day) or placebo for 2 weeks. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale were used to assess antidepressant and antianxiety responses to ethosuximide. No significant reductions in depression and anxiety rating scale scores were observed after a single oral administration of ethosuximide, in comparison with placebo. Furthermore, patients receiving ethosuximide for 2 weeks did not show reductions in depression and anxiety rating scale scores. There were no serious adverse events. Responses to the study's primary and secondary outcome measures, the clinician-rated HAM-D and MADRS, showed no change from baseline to the end of treatment, with either ethosuximide or placebo. These results suggest that ethosuximide does not produce ketamine-like robust antidepressant actions in adult patients with MDD.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3143, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081991

RESUMO

Invasive alien species are currently considered one of the main threats to global biodiversity. One of the most rapidly expanding invasive plants in recent times is Kalanchoe × houghtonii (Crassulaceae), an artificial hybrid created in the 1930s in the United States by experimental crossings between K. daigremontiana and K. tubiflora, two species endemic to Madagascar. Thanks to its large colonizing capacity (mainly derived from the production of asexual plantlets), K. × houghtonii soon escaped from cultivation and quickly spread in many parts of the world. However, its actual range is not well known due to the lack of a formal description until recent times (2006) and its strong morphological resemblance with one of its parentals (K. daigremontiana). The present study was aimed, in the first instance, to delimit the present distribution area of K. × houghtonii at the global scale by gathering and validating all its occurrences and to track its colonization history. Currently, K. × houghtonii can be found on all continents except Antarctica, although it did not reach a global distribution until the 2000s. Its potential distribution, estimated with MaxEnt modelling software, is mainly centered in subtropical regions, from 20° to 40° of both northern and southern latitudes, mostly in areas with a high anthropogenic activity. Unexpectedly, concomitant to a poleward migration, future niche models suggest a considerable reduction of its range by up to one-third compared to the present, which might be related with the Crassulaceaean Acid Metabolism (CAM) of K. × houghtonii. Further research may shed light as to whether a decrease in potential habitats constitutes a general pattern for Crassulaceae and CAM plants.

17.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(11): 2215-2224, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091898

RESUMO

The chemical and electronic structures of the 21st and 22nd proteinogenic amino acid selenocysteine (Sec), pyrrolysine (Pyl), and their derivatives (deprotonated and protonated ions) were extensively characterized for the first time. Through the fragment based step-by-step research on their potential energy surface (PES), electronic energies of the most stable conformers of Sec, Pyl and the related ions were finally determined at the advanced CBS-QB3 and DSD-PBEP86-D3(BJ)/aug-cc-pVTZ levels, respectively, with the identification of many new low-energy conformers. The infrared spectra (IR) at 298 K of the most abundant conformers in different forms were scaled by comparison with the anharmonic frequency calculations and analyzed comparing with the experimental spectra of similar molecules. The characteristic soft X-ray spectra (including X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectra (NEXAFS)) of the most stable conformers at 498 K were also simulated. In particular, the two possible protonated configurations of Pyl can be clearly distinguished by their different spectral features. Furthermore, a small binding energy intersection appeared around 293 eV at the C 1s edge between the canonical and protonated Pyl conformers, which is different from all the previous studies. This work thus filled the gap in our knowledge by providing detailed information on the chemical and electronic structures of Sec and Pyl and will be a useful guidance for future experimental research.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028712

RESUMO

The initial concept of flood control has gradually shifted to flood risk management which emphasizes more public participation. Therefore, understanding the public's protective coping behavioral patterns to floods is significant, and can help improve the effectiveness of public participation and implementation of flood-mitigation measures. However, the quantitative effect of socio-demographic factors on flood risk perception and behaviors is not clear. In this study, the socio-demographic factors are included to explore the quantitative relationship with and the affect path to flood protective coping behaviors with socio-demographic factors are studied. Shenzhen City in China is chosen as the study area, which suffers frequent urban floods every year. Questionnaire surveys are conducted in five flood-prone communities there, and 339 valid questionnaires were collected. The correlations between flood risk perception, flood risk knowledge, flood risk attitude, socio-demographic factors, and protective coping behaviors are analyzed firstly. A structural equation model (SEM) about these factors is then established to verify the correctness of hypothetical paths and discover new paths. The results indicates that socio-demographic factors and flood risk perception do not have impacts on protective coping behaviors directly, but are mediated by flood risk knowledge and flood risk attitude. Flood risk attitude is an important factor that affects protective coping behaviors directly. Moreover, two affect paths to flood protective coping behaviors are proposed. The findings of Shenzhen city in this study can be extended to other cities with similar characteristics, providing support for conducting effective flood mitigation measures.

19.
Heart ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk equations in Indigenous Australians. METHODS: We conducted an individual participant meta-analysis using longitudinal data of 3618 Indigenous Australians (55% women) aged 30-74 years without CVD from population-based cohorts of the Cardiovascular Risk in IndigenouS People(CRISP) consortium. Predicted risk was calculated using: 1991 and 2008 Framingham Heart Study (FHS), the Pooled Cohorts (PC), GloboRisk and the Central Australian Rural Practitioners Association (CARPA) modification of the FHS equation. Calibration, discrimination and diagnostic accuracy were evaluated. Risks were calculated with and without the use of clinical criteria to identify high-risk individuals. RESULTS: When applied without clinical criteria, all equations, except the CARPA-adjusted FHS, underestimated CVD risk (range of percentage difference between observed and predicted CVD risks: -55% to -14%), with underestimation greater in women (-63% to -13%) than men (-47% to -18%) and in younger age groups. Discrimination ranged from 0.66 to 0.72. The CARPA-adjusted FHS equation showed good calibration but overestimated risk in younger people, those without diabetes and those not at high clinical risk. When clinical criteria were used with risk equations, the CARPA-adjusted FHS algorithm scored 64% of those who had CVD events as high risk; corresponding figures for the 1991-FHS were 58% and were 87% for the PC equation for non-Hispanic whites. However, specificity fell. CONCLUSION: The CARPA-adjusted FHS CVD risk equation and clinical criteria performed the best, achieving higher combined sensitivity and specificity than other equations. However, future research should investigate whether modifications to this algorithm combination might lead to improved risk prediction.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952331

RESUMO

Timely and secure evacuation of residents during flood disasters or other emergency events is an important issue in urban community flood risk management, especially in vulnerable communities. An agent-based modeling framework was proposed in order to indicate how the community properties (e.g., community density and percentage of vulnerable residents), residents' psychological attributes (e.g., flood risk tolerance threshold) and mutual aid mechanism affect the flood evacuation process. Results indicated that: (1) The community density negatively affected the flood evacuation efficiency. The greater the density of the community, the longer the evacuation time. (2) There was a negative correlation between the flood risk tolerance threshold of residents and evacuation efficiency. (3) The proportion of vulnerable resident agents had opposite effects on the evacuation efficiency of different types of communities, which was to negatively affect low-density communities and positively affect high-density communities. (4) Mutual aid mechanism can reduce evacuation time in low-density communities, and the effect was more pronounced with a higher proportion of vulnerable resident agents in the community. These findings can help managers to develop better emergency evacuation management for urban communities.

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