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1.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 47-54, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously studies have shown that Nox2 and Nox4, as members of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase, Nox), participate in brain damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of specific chemical inhibitors of Nox2 and Nox4 on cerebral I/R-induced brain injury in rats. METHODS: At 0.5 h before MCAO surgery, the rats were pretreated with vehicle, Nox2 inhibitor (gp91ds-tat), and Nox4 inhibitor (GKT137831), respectively. After reperfusion for 24 h, the infarct sizes of brain tissues in rats in various groups are determined. The penumbra (ischemic) tissues are collected to measure ROS levels, neuronal apoptosis, and degeneration, as well as the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in brain tissues of rats. RESULTS: gp91ds-tat and GKT137831 pretreatment significantly reduced the infarct sizes in brain tissues of rats, effectively suppressed I/R-induced increase in ROS levels, neuronal apoptosis and degeneration, and obviously alleviated BBB damage. CONCLUSION: Under cerebral I/R conditions, Nox2 inhibitor (gp91ds-tat) and Nox4 inhibitor (GKT137831) can effectively play a protective role in the brain tissues of rats.

2.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 105-119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407071

RESUMO

The protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) pathway, which is a branch of the unfolded protein response, participates in a range of pathophysiological processes of neurological diseases. However, few studies have investigated the role of the PERK in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The present study evaluated the role of the PERK pathway during the early phase of ICH-induced secondary brain injury (SBI) and its potential mechanisms. An autologous whole blood ICH model was established in rats, and cultured primary cortical neurons were treated with oxyhemoglobin to mimic ICH in vitro. We found that levels of phosphorylated alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (p-eIF2α) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) increased significantly and peaked at 12 h during the early phase of the ICH. To further elucidate the role of the PERK pathway, we assessed the effects of the PERK inhibitor, GSK2606414, and the eIF2α dephosphorylation antagonist, salubrinal, at 12 h after ICH both in vivo and in vitro. Inhibition of PERK with GSK2606414 suppressed the protein levels of p-eIF2α and ATF4, resulting in increase of transcriptional activator CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase-12, which promoted apoptosis and reduced neuronal survival. Treatment with salubrinal yielded opposite results, which suggested that activation of the PERK pathway could promote neuronal survival and reduce apoptosis. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of the PERK pathway during the early phase of ICH-induced SBI. These findings highlight the potential value of PERK pathway as a therapeutic target for ICH.

3.
Bioorg Chem ; 92: 103219, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476616

RESUMO

Twenty-four 1,2-diarylbenzimidazole derivatives were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. It turned out that most of them were potential anticancer drugs. Among them, compound c24 showed the highest anti-tumor activity (GI50 = 0.71-2.41 µM against HeLa, HepG2, A549 and MCF-7 cells), and low toxicity to normal cells (CC50 > 100 µM against L02 cells). In the microtubule binding assay, c24 showed the most potent inhibition of microtubule polymerization (IC50 = 8.47 µM). The binding ability of compound c24 to tubulin crystal was verified by molecular docking simulation experiment. Further studies on HepG2 and HeLa cells showed that compound c24 could cause mitotic arrest of tumor cells to G2/M phase then inducing apoptosis. To sum up, compound c24 is a promising microtubule assembly inhibitor.

4.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 225: 117483, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493713

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution has become an important issue threatening human health and the liver is a very important metabolic organ. Here, we use label-free Raman confocal imaging to study the alterations of the liver tissue after cadmium pollution. Raman imaging has been performed on 100µmx100µm liver tissues to study the distribution of important macromolecules and the average Raman spectrum of the entire region has been used to characterize and quantize the change of biochemical compositions in liver tissue. The poisoned livers displayed a significant decrease in the intensity of 748 cm-1, 1128 cm-1 and 1585 cm-1 bands of cytochrome C, in comparison to the control. The collagen peak at 1082 cm-1 is significantly higher than that of control, suggesting the increasing fibrosis of Cd liver tissues. To confirm the results, we selected a 30µmx15µm liver cell area for high-resolution Raman imaging. We observed a substantial increase of lipids and proteins at specific points of hepatocytes. The confocal Raman imaging of liver tissues provided a unique tool to better understand disease-induced changes in the biochemical phenotype of primary liver tissues. Our study provides valuable references as in vitro models for studying Cd accumulation and toxicity in human liver.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448893

RESUMO

Wearable electronics containing different functional sensors with abilities to meet people's daily needs are highly desirable. Here, a stretchable triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) for wearable electronics is demonstrated. By stacking two layers of silicone rubbers embedded with silver nanowires (AgNWs) and a Ni foam as electrodes respectively, the fabricated TENG can serve as a new type of sensor that is wearable, stretchable, skin-friendly, noninvasive and durable. It can convert mechanical deformation into electric signals. The deformation like stretching and extruding of the TENG results in interlayer rubbing due to inhomogeneous strain, producing triboelectric charges that can induce voltage signals in the electrodes in response to the deformation. Based on the principle, a joint sensor based on the TENG is demonstrated, which can generate different output voltages according to the bending degrees of the joint. Furthermore, a three-dimensional sensor integrating three TENGs is fabricated to depict the deformations of different muscle areas. The output voltages of the three TENGs can be simultaneously monitored to reflect the deformation degrees of different muscle areas.

6.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(8): 772-776, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416501

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) in children. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 16 children with PRCA. The outcome and prognosis of patients treated with prednisone combined with Huaiqihuang granules versus prednisone alone were evaluated. RESULTS: All the 16 children complained of symptoms of anemia including pale or sallow complexion. Of 12 children undergoing pathogen test, 7 (58%) were found to have pathogen infection, among which human cytomegalovirus was the most common. Lymphocyte subsets were measured for 7 children, among whom 5 (71%) had lymphocyte immune disorder. Six children were found to have abnormalities in immunoglobulin and complement. The 8 children treated with prednisone combined with Huaiqihuang granules had a median follow-up time of 21.5 months, among whom 1 was almost cured, 1 was relieved, and 6 were obviously improved; the median onset time of treatment was 1 month, and 2 children had disease recurrence in the course of drug reduction or withdrawal. The 8 children in the prednisone alone treatment group had a median follow-up time of 34 months, among whom 4 were almost cured, and 4 were obviously improved; the median onset time of treatment was 2.5 months, and 4 children had recurrence during drug reduction or withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: Children with PRCA usually complain of anemia-related symptoms. Laboratory tests show pathogen infection in some children with PRCA, and most of children have immune disorders. Glucocorticoids have a good therapeutic effect, but some children relapse in the course of drug reduction or withdrawal. Combined treatment with prednisone and Huaiqihuang granules may have a faster onset of action and less possibility of recurrence.


Assuntos
Aplasia Pura de Série Vermelha , Criança , Glucocorticoides , Humanos , Prednisona , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3672, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413315

RESUMO

Besides genome editing, CRISPR-Cas12a has recently been used for DNA detection applications with attomolar sensitivity but, to our knowledge, it has not been used for the detection of small molecules. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) have evolved to sense and respond sensitively to a variety of small molecules to benefit bacterial survival. By combining the single-stranded DNA cleavage ability of CRISPR-Cas12a and the competitive binding activities of aTFs for small molecules and double-stranded DNA, here we develop a simple, supersensitive, fast and high-throughput platform for the detection of small molecules, designated CaT-SMelor (CRISPR-Cas12a- and aTF-mediated small molecule detector). CaT-SMelor is successfully evaluated by detecting nanomolar levels of various small molecules, including uric acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid among their structurally similar analogues. We also demonstrate that our CaT-SMelor directly measured the uric acid concentration in clinical human blood samples, indicating a great potential of CaT-SMelor in the detection of small molecules.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(35): 32414-32422, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424910

RESUMO

Exploitation of a versatile strategy for fabricating a plant protein adhesive with outstanding adhesion and water resistance is a growing concern in the ecofriendly wood industry. Herein, a core-shell nanohybrid elastomer composed of the cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) core and elastic polyurethane shell is prepared via a co-deposition strategy and then used as an efficient reinforcer to improve the performances of soy protein (SP) adhesive. It is found that the core-shell nanohybrid acts as a multiple cross-linker, giving rise to the construction of a stable protein adhesive system. Moreover, owing to the nanohybrid design combining "strong yet tough" qualities, the hard CNC serves to repair the discontinuous protein adhesion layer for a rigid and integrated system, while the elastic polyurethane contributes to energy dissipation, thus endowing the protein adhesive with excellent overall cohesive strength. Given such synergistic effects, the modified SP-based adhesive exhibits a significant improvement in both adhesion and water resistance, particularly achieving a 311.8% increase in wet adhesion strength compared to that of the pristine SP adhesive. This work may provide an effective guide for the preparation and practical application of high-performance plant-protein-based adhesive.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12544, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467314

RESUMO

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is often associated with hiatal hernia (HH). However, the need for fundoplication during hiatal hernia repair (HHR) remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of HHR with concomitant laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (HHR-LNF) in HH patients. A total of 122 patients with symptomatic HH were randomized to receive either HHR (n = 61) or HHR-LNF (n = 61). The measures of evaluating outcomes included DeMeester scores (DMS), complications, Reflux Diagnostic Questionnaire and patients' satisfaction 24 months following surgery. Despite comparable values in both groups at randomization, the DMS, total numbers of reflux episodes and percentage of time with pH < 4 were significantly higher in HHR group than in HHR-LNF group (P = 0.017, P = 0.002 and P = 0.019, respectively) at 6 months after surgery. One months postoperatively, complications were higher in the HHR-LNF group than in the HHR group (all P < 0.001), and there was no difference between the two groups at 6 months. By the end of the 2-year follow-up, HHR-LNF group showed a significantly lower reflux syndrome frequency-intensity score and greater percentage of satisfaction compared with HHR group (all P < 0.001). Laparoscopic HHR should be combined with a fundoplication in GERD patients with HH. HHR-LNF is safe and effective, not only improve reflux-related symptom, but also reduce the incidence of complications.

10.
Nature ; 572(7771): 665-669, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435014

RESUMO

Intestinal commensal bacteria can inhibit dense colonization of the gut by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections1,2. A four-strained consortium of commensal bacteria that contains Blautia producta BPSCSK can reverse antibiotic-induced susceptibility to VRE infection3. Here we show that BPSCSK reduces growth of VRE by secreting a lantibiotic that is similar to the nisin-A produced by Lactococcus lactis. Although the growth of VRE is inhibited by BPSCSK and L. lactis in vitro, only BPSCSK colonizes the colon and reduces VRE density in vivo. In comparison to nisin-A, the BPSCSK lantibiotic has reduced activity against intestinal commensal bacteria. In patients at high risk of VRE infection, high abundance of the lantibiotic gene is associated with reduced density of E. faecium. In germ-free mice transplanted with patient-derived faeces, resistance to VRE colonization correlates with abundance of the lantibiotic gene. Lantibiotic-producing commensal strains of the gastrointestinal tract reduce colonization by VRE and represent potential probiotic agents to re-establish resistance to VRE.

11.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate a Met-controlled allosteric module (AM) of neural generation as a potential therapeutic target for brain ischemia. METHODS: We selected Markov clustering algorithm (MCL) to mine functional modules in the related target networks. According to the topological similarity, one functional module was predicted in the modules of baicalin (BA), jasminoidin (JA), cholic acid (CA), compared with I/R model modules. This functional module included three genes: Inppl1, Met and Dapk3 (IMD). By gene ontology enrichment analysis, biological process related to this functional module was obtained. This functional module participated in generation of neurons. Western blotting was applied to present the compound-dependent regulation of IMD. Co-immunoprecipitation was used to reveal the relationship among the three members. We used IF to determine the number of newborn neurons between compound treatment group and ischemia/reperfusion group. The expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) were supposed to show the changing circumstances for neural generation under cerebral ischemia. RESULTS: Significant reduction in infarction volume and pathological changes were shown in the compound treatment groups compared with the I/R model group (P<0.05). Three nodes in one novel module of IMD were found to exert diverse compound-dependent ischemic-specific excitatory regulatory activities. An anti-ischemic excitatory allosteric module (AME) of generation of neurons (AME-GN) was validated successfully in vivo. Newborn neurons increased in BJC treatment group (P<0.05). The expression of VEGF and MMP-9 decreased in the compound treatment groups compared with the I/R model group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: AME demonstrates effectiveness of our pioneering approach to the discovery of therapeutic target. The novel approach for AM discovery in an effort to identify therapeutic targets holds the promise of accelerating elucidation of underlying pharmacological mechanisms in cerebral ischemia.

12.
Small ; : e1902551, 2019 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423746

RESUMO

Developing nonprecious electrocatalysts with superior activity and durability for electrochemical water splitting is of great interest but challenging due to the large overpotential required above the thermodynamic standard potential of water splitting (1.23 V). Here, in situ growth of Fe2+ -doped layered double (Ni, Fe) hydroxide (NiFe(II,III)-LDH) on nickel foam with well-defined hexagonal morphology and high crystallinity by a redox reaction between Fe3+ and nickel foam under hydrothermal conditions is reported. Benefiting from tuning the local atomic structure by self-doping Fe2+ , the NiFe(II,III)-LDH catalyst with higher amounts of Fe2+ exhibits high activity toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER) as well as hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity. Moreover, the optimized NiFe(II,III)-LDH catalyst for OER (O-NiFe(II,III)-LDH) and catalyst for HER (H-NiFe(II,III)-LDH) show overpotentials of 140 and 113 mV, respectively, at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 in 1 m KOH aqueous electrolyte. Using the catalysts for overall water splitting in two-electrode configuration, a low overpotential of just 1.54 V is required at a benchmark current density of 10 mA cm-2 . Furthermore, it is demonstrated that electrolysis of the water device can be drived by a self-powered system through integrating a triboelectric nanogenerator and battery, showing a promising way to realize self-powered electrochemical systems.

13.
Chem Rev ; 119(15): 9303-9359, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364835

RESUMO

With the fast development of nanoscience and nanotechnology in the last 30 years, semiconductor nanowires have been widely investigated in the areas of both electronics and optoelectronics. Among them, representatives of third generation semiconductors, such as ZnO and GaN, have relatively large spontaneous polarization along their longitudinal direction of the nanowires due to the asymmetric structure in their c-axis direction. Two-way or multiway couplings of piezoelectric, photoexcitation, and semiconductor properties have generated new research areas, such as piezotronics and piezo-phototronics. In this review, an in-depth discussion of the mechanisms and applications of nanowire-based piezotronics and piezo-phototronics is presented. Research on piezotronics and piezo-phototronics has drawn much attention since the effective manipulation of carrier transport, photoelectric properties, etc. through the application of simple mechanical stimuli and, conversely, since the design of new strain sensors based on the strain-induced change in semiconductor properties.

14.
Adv Mater ; : e1902793, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414526

RESUMO

A liquid-solid contact triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) film, a copper electrode, and a glass substrate for harvesting energy in oil/water multiphases is reported. There are two distinctive signals being generated, one is from the contact electrification and electrostatic induction between the liquid (water/oil) and the PTFE film (VTENG and ITENG ); and the other is from the electrostatic induction in the copper electrode by the oil/water interfacial charges (ΔVinterface and Iinterface ), which is generated only when the liquid-solid contact TENG is inserted across the oil/water interface. The two signals show interesting opposite changing trends that the VTENG and ITENG decrease while the oil/water interfacial signals of ΔVinterface and Iinterface increase after coating a layer of polydopamine on the surfaces of PTFE and glass via self-polymerization. As an application of the observed phenomena, both the values of ITENG and Iinterface have a good linear relationship versus the natural logarithm of the concentration of the dopamine. Based on this, the first self-powered dual-signal detection of dopamine using TENG is demonstrated.

15.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endocrine therapy is the preferred treatment for patients with hormone receptor -positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). While visceral metastasis is a negative prognostic factor, few studies have distinguished between the prognoses of patients with metastases at different visceral sites. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 398 patients receiving fulvestrant 500 mg at a single center over a 6-year period were analyzed. Logistic regression models were used to identify the prognostic factors associated with progression-free survival (PFS). Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare the PFS of patients with lung and liver metastases. RESULTS: Baseline visceral metastases were present in 233 patients, including 138 with lungw/o liver metastases (lung metastases without liver involvement), 51 with liverw/o lung metastases (liver metastases without lung involvement) and 41 with lung and liver metastases. The median PFS was 6.8 months (5.6 and 9.2 months for visceral and nonvisceral metastases, respectively, P = .028). PFS was longer in patients with lungw/o liver metastases than in those with liverw/o lung metastases or lung and liver metastases (9.6, 3.7 and 3.2 months, respectively, P < .001; liverw/o lung vs. lungw/o liver hazard ratio (HR) 1.70; lung and liver vs. lungw/o liver HR 2.85). Patients with liver metastases experienced significantly worse PFS than those without liver involvement (3.7 vs. 9.2 months, P < .001). PFS benefits were observed in patients with longer disease-free intervals, no liver metastases, and no previous chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Fulvestrant treatment benefited patients with lungw/o liver or nonvisceral metastases. When treating hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative MBC patients with endocrine therapy, it is important to differentiate patients with lung metastases from those with liver metastases.

17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11150, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371772

RESUMO

Colored-leaf plants are increasingly popular and have been attracting more and more attentions. However, the molecular mechanism of leaf coloration in plants has not been fully understood. In this study, a colored-leaf cultivar of Populus deltoides (Caihong poplar, CHP) and green-leaf cultivar of Populus deltoides L2025 were used to explore the mechanism of leaf coloration through physiological and the whole genome resequencing analysis. The content of anthocyanins, total Chl, and carotenoids in the leaves of CHP and L2025 were evaluated. The ratio of anthocyanins to total Chl in CHP was 25.0 times higher than that in L2025; this could be attributed to the red leaf color of CHP. Based on the whole genome resequencing analysis, 951,421 polymorphic SNPs and 221,907 indels were screened between CHP and L2025. Using qRT-PCR analysis, three structural genes (flavonol synthase 1 family protein, UDP-glucose flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase 3' and flavonoid 3-O-galactosyl transferase family protein) and six transcription factors (MYB-related protein Myb4, transcription factor GAMYB, PtrMYB179, transcription factor bHLH53, transcription factor bHLH3, VARICOSE family protein) may be involved in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway, which could be used as candidate genes to explore the molecular regulation mechanism of leaf coloration in Populus deltoids, and could be used in molecular breeding in the future.

18.
ACS Nano ; 13(8): 8936-8945, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260619

RESUMO

The viable application of soft electronics/robotics relies on the development of power devices which are desired to be flexible, deformable, or even self-healable. We report here a shape-adaptive, self-healable triboelectric nanogenerator (SS-TENG) for harvesting biomechanical energies. The use of a viscoelastic polymer, normally known as Silly Putty, as the electrification material and as the matrix of a carbon-nanotube-filled composite (CNT-putty) electrode endows the SS-TENG the capability of adapting to arbitrary irregular surfaces and instantaneous healing from mechanical damage (almost completely recovered in 3 min without extra stimuli). Furthermore, the output performances of the SS-TENG have also been significantly improved because (i) the ideal soft contact is achieved at the solid-solid interfaces for more effective contact electrification and (ii) the introduced cation dopants make the putty even more tribo-negative than polytetrafluoroethylene. The SS-TENG can be adhered to any curvy surface, tailored, and reshaped into arbitrary configurations and utilized as a power supply for small electronics, suggesting promising applications in soft electronics/robotics in the future.

19.
Adv Mater ; 31(36): e1902831, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276258

RESUMO

Ferroelectric materials use both the pyroelectric effect and piezoelectric effect for energy conversion. A ferroelectric BaTiO3 -based pyro-piezoelectric sensor system is demonstrated to detect temperature and pressure simultaneously. The voltage signal of the device is found to enhance with increasing temperature difference with a sensitivity of about 0.048 V °C-1 and with applied pressure with a sensitivity of about 0.044 V kPa-1 . Moreover, no interference appears in the output voltage signals when piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity are conjuncted in the device. A novel 4 × 4 array sensor system is developed to sense real-time temperature and pressure variations induced by a finger. This system has potential applications in machine intelligence and man-machine interaction.

20.
J Hazard Mater ; 381: 120835, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352150

RESUMO

Free nitrous acid (FNA) has only been studied as the pretreatment of waste activated sludge (WAS). Integrated fermentation and nitrogen removal using FNA as a primary means of treatment are seldom investigated. WAS fermentation was characterized under various FNA concentration. The production of COD, protein, and carbohydrate increased with FNA concentration (in the range of 0.197-1.97 mg/L) before the denitrification process. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) were only produced after complete denitrification. Potential FNA impact on fermentation step found FNA facilitated both solubilization and hydrolysis but inhibited acidification, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis processes. The types of fermentation were determined using threedimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Protein-like substances and Tyrosine/Tryptophan were the most dominant dissolved organic matters (DOMs). The cell decay rate increased from 0.044 to 0.102/d based on the nonlinear fitting for the FNA concentration of 0.197-1.97 mg/L. The microbial biomass mortality reached 92.7% when the FNA in tight extracellular polymeric substances (T-EPS) exceeded 0.04 mg/L. In addition, the microbial diversity and microbial structure were substantially reduced by FNA during long-term operation, while the bacterial abundance associated with hydrolysis and acidification increased significantly.

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