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1.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118357, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653583

RESUMO

Electric and magnetic fields characterized by high efficiency, low consumption and environment-friendly performance have recently generated interest as a possible measure to enhance the performance of the biological treatment process used to remove refractory organics. Few studies have been carried out to-date regarding the simultaneous application of electric and magnetic fields on biofilm process to degrade diclofenac. In this study, 3DEM-BAF was designed to evaluate the electrio-magnetic superposition effect on diclofenac removal performance, kinetics, community structure and synergistic mechanism. The results show that 3DEM-BAF could significantly increase the average removal rate of diclofenac by 65.30 %, 57.46 %, 9.48 % as compared with that of BAF, 3DM-BAF, 3DE-BAF, respectively. The diclofenac degradation kinetic constants and dehydrogenase activity of 3DEM-BAF were almost 6.72 and 2.53 times higher than those of BAF. Microorganisms of 3DEM-BAF in the Methylophilus and Methyloversatilis genera were distinctively enriched, which was attributed to the screening function of electric field and propagation effect of magnetic field. Moreover, three processes were found to contribute to diclofenac degradation, namely electro-magnetic-adsorption, electro-chemical oxidation and electro-magnetic-biodegradation. Thus, the simultaneous application of electric and magnetic fields on biofilm process was demonstrated to be a promising technique as well as a viable alternative in diclofenac degradation enhancement.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 702971, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531856

RESUMO

Polyploidy and subsequent diploidization provide genomic opportunities for evolutionary innovations and adaptation. The researches on duplicated gene evolutionary fates in recurrent polyploids have seriously lagged behind that in paleopolyploids with diploidized genomes. Moreover, the antiviral mechanisms of Viperin remain largely unclear in fish. Here, we elaborate the distinct antiviral mechanisms of two viperin homeologs (Cgviperin-A and Cgviperin-B) in auto-allo-hexaploid gibel carp (Carassius gibelio). First, Cgviperin-A and Cgviperin-B showed differential and biased expression patterns in gibel carp adult tissues. Subsequently, using co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) screening analysis, both CgViperin-A and CgViperin-B were found to interact with crucian carp (C. auratus) herpesvirus (CaHV) open reading frame 46 right (ORF46R) protein, a negative herpesvirus regulator of host interferon (IFN) production, and to promote the proteasomal degradation of ORF46R via decreasing K63-linked ubiquitination. Additionally, CgViperin-B also mediated ORF46R degradation through autophagosome pathway, which was absent in CgViperin-A. Moreover, we found that the N-terminal α-helix domain was necessary for the localization of CgViperin-A and CgViperin-B at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the C-terminal domain of CgViperin-A and CgViperin-B was indispensable for the interaction with degradation of ORF46R. Therefore, the current findings clarify the divergent antiviral mechanisms of the duplicated viperin homeologs in a recurrent polyploid fish, which will shed light on the evolution of teleost duplicated genes.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and the main semen parameter values, the number of qualified sperm donors, and to provide some sensible guidance for sperm donors. METHODS: Healthy men screened as potential sperm donors were recruited in the Hunan Province Human Sperm Bank of China from March 2019 to December 2019. Participants were invited to complete interviewer-assisted questionnaires on eleven items of information. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to analyze which lifestyle factors collected by the questionnaire had an impact on the eligibility and main semen parameters of sperm donors. RESULTS: The eligibility of men as sperm donors was strongly influenced by the duration of abstinence (P = 0.002). The rate of eligibility sperm donors increased significantly with the number of days of abstinence. In addition, semen volume increased with abstinence time (P = 0.000). Exercise frequency (P = 0.025) and abstinence time (P = 0.000) were positively correlated with sperm concentration, and masturbation frequency was negatively correlated with sperm concentration (P = 0.013). Progressive sperm motility was significantly affected by abstinence time (P = 0.000) and bedtime (P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Abstinence time was highly associated with semen parameters and donor qualification. Increase the abstinence time before donation may be meaningful in improving the proportion of eligible sperm donors.

4.
PLoS Genet ; 17(9): e1009760, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491994

RESUMO

Unisexual taxa are commonly considered short-lived as the absence of meiotic recombination is supposed to accumulate deleterious mutations and hinder the creation of genetic diversity. However, the gynogenetic gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) with high genetic diversity and wide ecological distribution has outlived its predicted extinction time of a strict unisexual reproduction population. Unlike other unisexual vertebrates, males associated with supernumerary microchromosomes have been observed in gibel carp, which provides a unique system to explore the rationales underlying male occurrence in unisexual lineage and evolution of unisexual reproduction. Here, we identified a massively expanded satellite DNA cluster on microchromosomes of hexaploid gibel carp via comparing with the ancestral tetraploid crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Based on the satellite cluster, we developed a method for single chromosomal fluorescence microdissection and isolated three male-specific microchromosomes in a male metaphase cell. Genomic anatomy revealed that these male-specific microchromosomes contained homologous sequences of autosomes and abundant repetitive elements. Significantly, several potential male-specific genes with transcriptional activity were identified, among which four and five genes displayed male-specific and male-biased expression in gonads, respectively, during the developmental period of sex determination. Therefore, the male-specific microchromosomes resembling common features of sex chromosomes may be the main driving force for male occurrence in gynogenetic gibel carp, which sheds new light on the evolution of unisexual reproduction.

5.
Life Sci ; 282: 119817, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273374

RESUMO

R-spondins 2 (RSPO2) protein is a member of RSPO family which plays an essential role in stem cell survival, development and tumorigenicity. There has several evidence suggested that RSPO2 involved in breast, gastric, liver and colorectal cancer. However, the specific function and mechanism of RSPO2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unknown. In the present study, we first observed that RSPO2 expression was elevated in NPC cell lines SUNE-6-10B, SUNE-5-8F, and CNE-1 compared with the normal laryngeal epithelia cell line NP69. Knockdown of RSPO2 significantly inhibits SUNE-6-10B and CNE-1 cell survival and proliferation by using CCK-8 assay and Edu assay, respectively. Further studies verified that RSPO2 silence suppressed migration and invasion of SUNE-6-10B and CNE-1 cells. Further studies suggested that RSPO2 silence suppressed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related protein E-cadherin expression and promoted Vimentin and N-cadherin expression both in SUNE-6-10B and CNE-1 cells. Molecular mechanism explorations showed that RSPO2 deletion increased ZNRF3 expression and inhibited Gli1 expression. Additionally, knockdown ZNRF3 expression or overexpression Gli1 both reversed the effects of RSPO2 silence on NPC growth and metastasis. Finally, RSPO2 depletion was impaired NPC tumor growth in vivo animal experiments. In conclusion, the present study confirmed that RSPO2 silence inhibits the tumorigenesis of NPC via ZNRF3/Hedgehog-Gli1 signal pathway.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/biossíntese , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/genética
6.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(13): 907-914, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100844

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of clinical and radiological parameters. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of transpedicular impaction bone grafting (TIBG) with long segmental posterior instrumentation for the treatment of stage III Kümmell disease. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The optimal treatment for stage III Kümmell disease remains controversial and unclear. Theoretically, transpedicular bone grafting can reconstruct anterior column support and reduce the failure of internal fixation, which is an intuitive method for the treatment of Kümmell disease. However, the use of this technique has rarely been reported for the treatment of this disease. This study reported the clinical and radiological results of TIBG with long segmental posterior instrumentation for the treatment of stage III Kümmell disease. METHODS: Between August 2011 and December 2017, we retrospectively analyzed 24 patients with stage III Kümmell disease who underwent TIBG with long segmental posterior instrumentation. Anterior vertebral heights, kyphotic Cobb angle, visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale were used to evaluate the effects of surgery. RESULTS: The mean time to follow-up was 38.1 ±â€Š10.2 months. The average operative duration was 136 ±â€Š16.5 minutes, and the average intraoperative blood loss was 293 ±â€Š41.3 mL. The VAS, ODI, anterior vertebral heights, and kyphotic Cobb angles were improved significantly at 1 week after surgery compared the preoperative examinations, and were well maintained at the final follow-up evaluation. Fourteen patients (58%) had mild neurological impairments before surgery, with neurological function returning to normal at the final follow-up evaluation. There was no instance of instrumentation failure. CONCLUSION: TIBG combined with long segmental posterior instrumentation is a safe and effective surgical option for stage III Kümmell disease.Level of Evidence: 4.


Assuntos
Transplante Ósseo , Osteonecrose/cirurgia , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 463, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The amino acid/auxin permease (AAAP) family represents a class of proteins that transport amino acids across cell membranes. Members of this family are widely distributed in different organisms and participate in processes such as growth and development and the stress response in plants. However, a systematic comprehensive analysis of AAAP genes of the pepper (Capsicum annuum) genome has not been reported. RESULTS: In this study, we performed systematic bioinformatics analyses to identify AAAP family genes in the C. annuum 'Zunla-1' genome to determine gene number, distribution, structure, duplications and expression patterns in different tissues and stress. A total of 53 CaAAAP genes were identified in the 'Zunla-1' pepper genome and could be divided into eight subgroups. Significant differences in gene structure and protein conserved domains were observed among the subgroups. In addition to CaGAT1, CaATL4, and CaVAAT1, the remaining CaAAAP genes were unevenly distributed on 11 of 12 chromosomes. In total, 33.96% (18/53) of the CaAAAP genes were a result of duplication events, including three pairs of genes due to segmental duplication and 12 tandem duplication events. Analyses of evolutionary patterns showed that segmental duplication of AAAPs in pepper occurred before tandem duplication. The expression profiling of the CaAAAP by transcriptomic data analysis showed distinct expression patterns in various tissues and response to different stress treatment, which further suggest that the function of CaAAAP genes has been differentiated. CONCLUSIONS: This study of CaAAAP genes provides a theoretical basis for exploring the roles of AAAP family members in C. annuum.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 328, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty liver has become a main problem that causes huge economic losses in many aquaculture modes. It is a common physiological or pathological phenomenon in aquaculture, but the causes and occurring mechanism are remaining enigmatic. METHODS: Each three liver samples from the control group of allogynogenetic gibel carp with normal liver and the overfeeding group with fatty liver were collected randomly for the detailed comparison of histological structure, lipid accumulation, transcriptomic profile, latent pathway identification analysis (LPIA), marker gene expression, and hepatocyte mitochondria analyses. RESULTS: Compared to normal liver, larger hepatocytes and more lipid accumulation were observed in fatty liver. Transcriptomic analysis between fatty liver and normal liver showed a totally different transcriptional trajectory. GO terms and KEGG pathways analyses revealed several enriched pathways in fatty liver, such as lipid biosynthesis, degradation accumulation, peroxidation, or metabolism and redox balance activities. LPIA identified an activated ferroptosis pathway in the fatty liver. qPCR analysis confirmed that gpx4, a negative regulator of ferroptosis, was significantly downregulated while the other three positively regulated marker genes, such as acsl4, tfr1 and gcl, were upregulated in fatty liver. Moreover, the hepatocytes of fatty liver had more condensed mitochondria and some of their outer membranes were almost ruptured. CONCLUSIONS: We reveal an association between ferroptosis and fish fatty liver for the first time, suggesting that ferroptosis might be activated in liver fatty. Therefore, the current study provides a clue for future studies on fish fatty liver problems.


Assuntos
Carpas , Fígado Gorduroso , Ferroptose , Animais , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Transcriptoma
9.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(1): 26-34, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707983

RESUMO

We investigated whether single or combined methods of pre-cooling could affect high-intensity exercise performance in a hot environment. Seven male athletes were subjected to four experimental conditions for 30 min in a randomised order. The four experimental conditions were: 1) wearing a vest cooled to a temperature of 4 ℃ (Vest), 2) consuming a beverage cooled to a temperature of 4 ℃ (Beverage), 3) simultaneous usage of vest and consumption of beverage (Mix), and 4) the control trial without pre-cooling (CON). Following those experimental conditions, they exercised at a speed of 80% VO2max until exhaustion in the heat (38.1 ± 0.6 ℃, 55.3 ± 0.3% RH). Heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (Tcore), skin temperature (Tskin), sweat loss (SL), urine specific gravity (USG), levels of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS), and levels of blood lactic acid ([Bla]) were monitored. Performance was improved using the mixed pre-cooling strategy (648.43 ± 77.53 s, p = 0.016) compared to CON (509.14 ± 54.57 s). Tcore after pre-cooling was not different (Mix: 37.01 ± 0.27 ℃, Vest: 37.19 ± 0.33 ℃, Beverage: 37.03 ± 0.35 ℃) in all cooling conditions compared to those of CON (37.31 ±0.29 ℃). A similar Tcore values was achieved at exhaustion in all trials (from 38.10 ℃ to 39.00 ℃). No difference in the level of USG was observed between the conditions. Our findings suggest that pre-cooling with a combination of cold vest usage and cold fluid intake can improve performance in the heat.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Crioterapia/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Corrida/fisiologia , Bebidas , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Potássio/urina , Distribuição Aleatória , Reto/fisiologia , Sensação , Temperatura Cutânea/fisiologia , Sódio/urina , Gravidade Específica , Sudorese/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Urina/química , Adulto Jovem
10.
Environ Pollut ; 280: 116889, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774542

RESUMO

Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) is an inflammatory-inducing factor that is considered to be related to many adverse respiratory problems, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to examine whether pre-exercise training could prevent pulmonary injury induced by urban PM2.5 in aging rats and investigate its relationship with inflammatory pathways. Male Wistar rats (aged 16 months) were randomly divided into four groups: sedentary, exercise, sedentary + PM2.5 exposure, and exercise + PM2.5 exposure. All rats in exercise-related groups were treadmill-trained for 8 weeks (65%-75% VO2max for 30 min every other day). Sedentary groups' rats lived freely in cages without exercise intervention. Rats in the PM-related groups were exposed to ambient PM2.5 (4 h day-1) for 2 weeks after an 8-week exercise intervention or sedentary treatment. Finally, all rats' pulmonary function, lung morphology, degree of inflammation, and relevant protein and mRNA transcript expression levels were examined. The results indicated that PM2.5 exposure induced lung injury in the sedentary + PM2.5 exposure group, as evidenced by the deterioration of pulmonary function, histopathological characteristics, and inflammatory changes. Aerobic exercise alleviated PM2.5-induced airway obstruction, deterioration of pulmonary function, bronchial mucosal exfoliation, and inflammatory responses in aging rats. These effects in exercise groups were associated with the increased expression of intracellular 70 kDa heat shock protein (iHSP70) and the suppression of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, as confirmed by increased expression of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκBα) and a reduction in phospho-IKBα (p-IκBα), which is regulated by inhibiting kappa B kinase beta (IKKß). Taken together, aerobic pre-exercise had protective effects on lung injury and reduced vulnerability to inflammation induced by PM2.5 exposure, possibly through the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF-κB signaling pathways mediated by the extracellular-to-intracellular HSP70 ratio. Pre-exercise training may be an effective way to protect against PM2.5-induced lung toxicity in aging individuals.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar , Material Particulado , Envelhecimento , Animais , Pulmão , Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Masculino , NF-kappa B , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 21(5): 1715-1731, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590960

RESUMO

The study of sex determination and sex chromosome organization in nonmodel species has long been technically challenging, but new sequencing methodologies now enable precise and high-throughput identification of sex-specific genomic sequences. In particular, restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) is being extensively applied to explore sex determination systems in many plant and animal species. However, software specifically designed to search for and visualize sex-biased markers using RAD-Seq data is lacking. Here, we present RADSex, a computational analysis workflow designed to study the genetic basis of sex determination using RAD-Seq data. RADSex is simple to use, requires few computational resources, makes no prior assumptions about the type of sex-determination system or structure of the sex locus, and offers convenient visualization through a dedicated R package. To demonstrate the functionality of RADSex, we re-analysed a published data set of Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes, where we uncovered a previously unknown Y chromosome polymorphism. We then used RADSex to analyse new RAD-Seq data sets from 15 fish species spanning multiple taxonomic orders. We identified the sex determination system and sex-specific markers in six of these species, five of which had no known sex-markers prior to this study. We show that RADSex greatly facilitates the study of sex determination systems in nonmodel species thanks to its speed of analyses, low resource usage, ease of application and visualization options. Furthermore, our analysis of new data sets from 15 species provides new insights on sex determination in fish.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Peixes/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais , Análise para Determinação do Sexo , Animais , DNA , Feminino , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Software , Fluxo de Trabalho
12.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(5): 1995-2013, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432361

RESUMO

Evolutionary fates of duplicated genes have been widely investigated in many polyploid plants and animals, but research is scarce in recurrent polyploids. In this study, we focused on foxl2, a central player in ovary, and elaborated the functional divergence in gibel carp (Carassius gibelio), a recurrent auto-allo-hexaploid fish. First, we identified three divergent foxl2 homeologs (Cgfoxl2a-B, Cgfoxl2b-A, and Cgfoxl2b-B), each of them possessing three highly conserved alleles and revealed their biased retention/loss. Then, their abundant sexual dimorphism and biased expression were uncovered in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Significantly, granulosa cells and three subpopulations of thecal cells were distinguished by cellular localization of CgFoxl2a and CgFoxl2b, and the functional roles and the involved process were traced in folliculogenesis. Finally, we successfully edited multiple foxl2 homeologs and/or alleles by using CRISPR/Cas9. Cgfoxl2a-B deficiency led to ovary development arrest or complete sex reversal, whereas complete disruption of Cgfoxl2b-A and Cgfoxl2b-B resulted in the depletion of germ cells. Taken together, the detailed cellular localization and functional differences indicate that Cgfoxl2a and Cgfoxl2b have subfunctionalized and cooperated to regulate folliculogenesis and gonad differentiation, and Cgfoxl2b has evolved a new function in oogenesis. Therefore, the current study provides a typical case of homeolog/allele diversification, retention/loss, biased expression, and sub-/neofunctionalization in the evolution of duplicated genes driven by polyploidy and subsequent diploidization from the recurrent polyploid fish.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Proteína Forkhead Box L2/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Carpa Dourada/genética , Poliploidia , Animais , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box L2/metabolismo , Carpa Dourada/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpa Dourada/metabolismo , Masculino , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oócitos/metabolismo , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/metabolismo
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(10): 4288-4297, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The moromi fermentation of high-salt liquid-state fermentation (HLF) soy sauce is usually performed in high-brine solution (17-20%, w/w), which decreases the metabolic activity of aroma-producing yeast. To enhance the soy sauce flavors, increasing the salt tolerance of aroma-producing yeasts is very important for HLF soy sauce fermentation. RESULTS: In the present study, atmospheric and room-temperature plasma (ARTP) was first used to mutate the aroma-producing yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and the salt tolerant strains were obtained by selection of synthetic medium with a sodium chloride concentration of 18% (w/w). Furthermore, adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was used to improve the salt tolerance of the mutant strains. The results obtained indicated that the combination use of ARTP and ALE markedly increased the NaCl tolerance of the yeast by increasing the cellular accumulation of K+ and removal of cytosolic Na+ , in addition to promoting the production of glycerin and strengthening the integrity of the cell membrane and cell wall. In soy sauce fermentation, the engineered strains improved the physicochemical parameters of HLF soy sauce compared to those produced by the wild-type strain, and the engineered strains also increased the alcohol, acid and aldehyde production, and enriched the types of esters in the soy sauce. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicated that the combination of ARTP mutagenesis and ALE significantly improved the salt tolerance of the aroma-producing yeast, and also enhanced the production of volatiles of HLF soy sauce. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Saccharomycetales/genética , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Soja/microbiologia , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Engenharia Genética , Mutagênese , Odorantes/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo
14.
Sci China Life Sci ; 64(1): 77-87, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529288

RESUMO

Polyploids in vertebrates are generally associated with unisexual reproduction, but the direct consequences of polyploidy on sex determination system and reproduction mode remain unknown. Here, we synthesized a group of artificial octoploids between unisexual gynogenetic hexaploid Carassius gibelio and sexual tetraploid Carassius auratus. The synthetic octoploids were revealed to have more than 200 chromosomes, in which 50 chromosomes including the X/Y sex determination system were identified to transfer from sexual tetraploid C. auratus into the unisexual gynogenetic hexaploid C. gibelio. Significantly, a few synthetic octoploid males were found to be fertile, and one octoploid male was confirmed to regain sexual reproduction ability, which exhibits characteristics that are the same to sexual reproduction tetraploid males, such as 1:1 sex ratio occurrence, meiosis completion and euploid sperm formation in spermatogenesis, as well as normal embryo development and gene expression pattern during embryogenesis. Therefore, the current finding provides a unique case to explore the effect of sex determination system incorporation on reproduction mode transition from unisexual gynogenesis to sexual reproduction along with genome synthesis of recurrent polyploidy in vertebrates.

15.
Clin Chim Acta ; 512: 100-105, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian epithelial cancer is the leading cause of deaths associated with gynecologic malignancies. Genistein represents a major type of phytoestrogens widely found in foods and herbal medicines. Although multiple epidemiological studies indicated that the consumption of genistein or other isoflavones is associated with a decreased ovarian cancer risk, the cellular effects and underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study focuses on the effect of genistein on the proliferation and cell cycle regulation of ovarian cancer cells. METHODS: Ovarian cancer OVCAR-5 cells were treated with genistein in an estrogen-free condition. Cell counting and MTS assays were performed to determine the cell proliferation alterations. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were conducted to examine the expression changes in key cell cycle regulators. RESULTS: Genistein significantly promoted the proliferation and the viability of OVCAR-5 cells. Upon genistein treatment, cellular mRNA and protein expression levels of PCNA, Cyclin D1 and CDK4 were increased, but those of p21 and p27 were decreased. CONCLUSION: In contrary to results of many previous studies, we observed that genistein was able to upregulate the proliferation and G1-S transition of ovarian cancer OVCAR-5 cells. The discrepancy could be caused by diverged experimental conditions and/or different ER expression patterns of cell lines. The findings may provide basic information for in-depth analysis on the role(s) and mechanisms by which genistein confers its effect on ovarian cancer progression.


Assuntos
Ciclina D1 , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Ciclina D1/genética , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina , Feminino , Genisteína/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Nanotoxicology ; 15(1): 114-130, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206573

RESUMO

Understanding the roles of the properties of nanomaterials in biological interactions is a key issue in their safe applications, but the surface atomic arrangement, as an important property of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), remains largely unknown. Herein, the interfacial interactions (affinity sites and intensity) between monolayer MoS2 and zebrafish embryos mediated by 1 T phase surface atomic arrangement (octahedral coordination) and the 2H phase surface atomic arrangement (triangular prism coordination) MoS2 nanosheets were studied. 1 T-MoS2 first bound to phosphate and then proteins on the chorion, while the adhesion of 2H-MoS2 occurred in the opposite order. The binding affinity of 2H-MoS2 with embryos was higher than that of 1 T-MoS2, and the former material changed the protein structure from ß-sheets to turns and bends and random coils. Compared to 1 T-MoS2, 2H-MoS2 more readily entered embryos, which was facilitated by caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and caused higher developmental toxicity. Furthermore, metabolic pathways related to amino acid and protein biosynthesis and energy metabolism were affected by the nanomaterial surface atomic arrangements. The above results provide insights into the designs, applications and risk assessments of nanomaterials by the surface atomic arrangement regulation.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Molibdênio/toxicidade , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Animais , Córion/efeitos dos fármacos , Dissulfetos/química , Endocitose , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Molibdênio/química , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Cancer Manag Res ; 12: 8833-8845, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061579

RESUMO

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) function as a class of significant mediators in prostate cancer (PCa), and this study mainly discussed the molecular mechanism of lncRNA growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) in PCa progression and radiosensitivity. Materials and Methods: GAS5 and microRNA-320a (miR-320a) levels were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cell viability and migration were severally examined through 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and transwell assays. PCa cells were treated with X-ray irradiation. Cell survival and apoptosis rate were assayed using colony formation assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The apoptosis-related protein and Rab GTPase 21 (RAB21) protein levels were measured by Western blot. The relation between miR-320a and GAS5 or RAB21 was assessed via the dual-luciferase reporter assay. The effect of GAS5 on radiosensitivity of PCa in vivo was evaluated by xenotransplantation assay. Results: GAS5 was down-regulated in PCa tissues and cells. GAS5 overexpression suppressed cell viability and migration while facilitated radiosensitivity of PCa cells. GAS5 was a molecular sponge of miR-320a. The effects of GAS5 up-regulation on PCa cells were accomplished by sponging miR-320a. MiR-320a targeted RAB21 and GAS5 up-regulated RAB21 expression via targeting miR-320a. RAB21 knockdown reversed the effects of miR-320a inhibition on PCa cells. GAS5 promoted the radiosensitivity of PCa by the miR-320a/RAB21 axis in vivo. Conclusion: Collectively, GAS5 restrained tumor development and expedited the radiosensitivity in PCa by the miR-320a/RAB21 axis, which provided a molecular regulatory mechanism of GAS5/miR-320a/RAB21 in PCa development and radioresistance.

18.
J Org Chem ; 85(20): 13029-13036, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954735

RESUMO

An intramolecular decarboxylative coupling reaction for the construction of 2-(1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)aniline derivatives was developed from readily available isatins and hydrazides by virtue of electrochemistry. In this reaction, isatins were employed as amino-attached C1 sources, providing a variety of 2-(1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)aniline derivatives with moderate to good yields.

19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 381, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chloroplasts play an important role in plant growth and development. The chloroplast genome contains approximately twenty group II introns that are spliced due to proteins encoded by nuclear genes. CAF2 is one of these splicing factors that has been shown to splice group IIB introns in maize and Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the research of the OsCAF2 gene in rice is very little, and the effects of OsCAF2 genes on chloroplasts development are not well characterized. RESULTS: In this study, oscaf2 mutants were obtained by editing the OsCAF2 gene in the Nipponbare variety of rice. Phenotypic analysis showed that mutations to OsCAF2 led to albino leaves at the seeding stage that eventually caused plant death, and oscaf2 mutant plants had fewer chloroplasts and damaged chloroplast structure. We speculated that OsCAF2 might participate in the splicing of group IIA and IIB introns, which differs from its orthologs in A. thaliana and maize. Through yeast two-hybrid experiments, we found that the C-terminal region of OsCAF2 interacted with OsCRS2 and formed an OsCAF2-OsCRS2 complex. In addition, the N-terminal region of OsCAF2 interacted with itself to form homodimers. CONCLUSION: Taken together, this study improved our understanding of the OsCAF2 protein, and revealed additional information about the molecular mechanism of OsCAF2 in regulating of chloroplast development in rice.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Oryza/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/fisiologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Íntrons , Mutação , Biogênese de Organelas , Oryza/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/química , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11520, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661254

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore a valid test protocol for measuring VO2max in healthy untrained male Wistar rats of different ages and quantifying the exercise intensity (%VO2max) of running under different treadmill grades and speeds. The test protocols and %VO2max will provide a reference for the design of exercise intensity. We tested male Wistar rats aged 4 weeks, 10 weeks, 10 months and 16 months old with three test protocols (Procedure 1 [P1], 2 [P2] and 3 [P3]) for each age group to quantify VO2max. We analysed VO2max, respiratory exchange ratio and test duration to determine an optimal test protocol of VO2max for different age groups. We used the optimal test protocol to explore the changes in age-related VO2max. Finally, %VO2max of running under different treadmill speeds and grades was quantified. VO2max of Wistar rats decreased significantly after the age of 4 weeks (p < 0.05). The optimum VO2max can be induced by personalised protocols for different ages. In 4-week-old Wistar rats, the highest VO2max values were attained by P1 (104.4 ± 6.9 mL · kg-1 · min-1, p = 0.032). The highest VO2max value (84.7 ± 3.7 mL · kg-1 · min-1, p = 0.037) of 8-week-old Wistar rats was attained in P2. In 10-month-old Wistar rats, the highest VO2max value was obtained in P3 (63.3 ± 1.7 mL · kg-1 · min-1). This work could be used as a reference for assessing aerobic capacity in studies on exercise intervention with untrained male Wistar rats. However, the %VO2max measurements at various treadmill speeds and grades only apply to untrained male Wistar rats.


Assuntos
Consumo de Oxigênio , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Corrida/fisiologia , Animais , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Humanos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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