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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5086, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429404

RESUMO

Development of candidate cancer treatments is a resource-intensive process, with the research community continuing to investigate options beyond static genomic characterization. Toward this goal, we have established the genomic landscapes of 536 patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models across 25 cancer types, together with mutation, copy number, fusion, transcriptomic profiles, and NCI-MATCH arms. Compared with human tumors, PDXs typically have higher purity and fit to investigate dynamic driver events and molecular properties via multiple time points from same case PDXs. Here, we report on dynamic genomic landscapes and pharmacogenomic associations, including associations between activating oncogenic events and drugs, correlations between whole-genome duplications and subclone events, and the potential PDX models for NCI-MATCH trials. Lastly, we provide a web portal having comprehensive pan-cancer PDX genomic profiles and source code to facilitate identification of more druggable events and further insights into PDXs' recapitulation of human tumors.


Assuntos
Xenoenxertos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Transcriptoma
2.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 44(9): 443-448, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310349

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a downstream mediator in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway, and plays a central role in cell proliferation, growth, differentiation, migration, and survival. Temsirolimus (CCI-779), a selective inhibitor of the mTOR, is an ester analog of rapamycin (sirolimus) with improved aqueous solubility and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. Preclinical studies have confirmed additive and synergistic antitumor activity in cancer cell lines (breast, prostate cancer) with combinations of taxanes and mTOR inhibitors. We conducted a phase I open-label, dose-escalation study to determine the maximal tolerated dose (MTD) of docetaxel in combination with temsirolimus in patients with refractory solid tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had a diagnosis of a refractory solid malignancy, measurable disease, and adequate organ function. Patients were sequentially enrolled in 4 dose level intravenous combinations of docetaxel and temsirolimus. Temsirolimus was administered weekly with docetaxel administered every 3 weeks. Laboratory data for tumor markers and radiologic imaging were conducted prestudy and then after every 2 cycles of the treatment. Radiologic response was assessed by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. Blood samples for PK and pharmacodynamic analysis were planned to be drawn at MTD. Apart from the traditional 3+3 design, we also implemented Bayesian Optimal Interval design which uses isotonic regression method to select MTD. We proceeded with isotonic regression analysis by using 20% dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) rate as target. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were treated in this study in 4 cohorts and dose levels. Fourteen males and 12 females were enrolled with a median age of 50 years (range of 27 to 72 y) and median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score of 1. Tumor histologies included pancreas (6), colon (5), rectum (3), gallbladder (2), non-small cell lung (2), endometrium (1), neuroendocrine (1), esophagus (1), stomach (1), pharynx (1), small intestine (1), and duodenum (1). Stable disease was observed in 2/4 (50%), 3/7 (43%), 4/10 (40%), and 3/5 (60%) patients in cohorts 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Dose escalation in cohorts 2, 3, and 4 was complicated by DLTs such as grade 4 neutropenia and grade 3 diarrhea and an inability for patients to tolerate treatments during and beyond cycle 1 without dose reductions. Therefore, we could not determine an MTD or recommended phase II dose using the traditional 3+3 study analysis. Blood samples for PK and pharmacodynamic analysis were not collected since MTD was not determined. By using 20% DLT rate closest to the target, isotonic regression analysis showed identical estimated DLT rates in dose -1 (docetaxel 50 mg/m2 and temsirolimus 15 mg/m2) and dose level 1 (docetaxel 60mg/m2 and temsirolimus 15 mg/m2). CONCLUSIONS: Dose escalation of docetaxel and temsirolimus was limited by severe myelosuppressive toxicity in this phase I study. Most of the DLTs occurred after cycle 1 of therapy hence, we were unable to determine MTD or collect blood samples for PK and pharmacodynamic analysis. Our trial did not meet its objectives due to significant DLTs with this chemotherapy combination. Although our novel use of Bayesian Optimal Interval design using isotonic regression method to select MTD showed identical estimated DLT rates in dose levels 1 and -1, clinically our patients were not able to complete 2 cycles of this regimen without dose reductions due to myelosuppressive toxicity in either of these dose levels, and hence, escaped clinical validity. This combination regimen should not be studied further at the dose levels and schedules tested in our study.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Eur J Cancer ; 154: 102-110, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256279

RESUMO

AIM: Aurora kinase A (AURKA) is a pleiotropic serine/threonine kinase that orchestrates mitotic progression. Paclitaxel stabilises microtubules and disrupts mitotic spindle assembly. The combination of AURKA inhibitor (alisertib) plus paclitaxel may be synergistic in rapidly proliferative cancers. We evaluated the safety and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of alisertib in combination with nab-paclitaxel and its preliminary efficacy in patients with refractory high-grade neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). METHOD: This is a two-part, Phase 1 study. In Part A (dose escalation), a standard 3 + 3 design was used to determine MTD. In Part B (dose expansion), patients with predominantly refractory high-grade NETs were enrolled. RESULTS: In total, 31 patients were enrolled and treated (16 in Part A and 15 in Part B). The MTD of alisertib was 40 mg BID on D1-3 per week and nab-paclitaxel 100mg/m2 weekly: 3 weeks, 1 week off. Dose-limiting toxicity was neutropenia, and other common side-effects included fatigue, mucositis, and diarrhoea. In Part A, a patient with small-cell lung cancer with partial response (PR) was treated for more than 2 years, whereas four other patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (one patient), small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (two patients), or high-grade NET (one patient) achieved stable disease (SD). In Part B, 13 of 15 enrolled patients had high-grade NETs. Of these, one had PR, and four had SD for more than 10 months. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of alisertib and nab-paclitaxel has manageable side-effect profile and showed promising preliminary efficacy in high-grade NETs, warranting further testing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01677559.

4.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 20(3): e185-e193, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001462

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Short-course radiation therapy (SCRT) and nonoperative management are emerging paradigms for rectal cancer treatment. This clinical trial is the first to evaluate SCRT followed by chemotherapy as a nonoperative treatment modality. METHODS: Patients with nonmetastatic rectal adenocarcinoma were treated on the single-arm, Nonoperative Radiation Management of Adenocarcinoma of the Lower Rectum study of SCRT followed by chemotherapy. Patients received 25 Gy in 5 fractions to the pelvis followed by FOLFOX ×8 or CAPOX ×5 cycles. Patients with clinical complete response (cCR) underwent nonoperative surveillance. The primary end point was cCR at 1 year. Secondary end points included safety profile and anorectal function. RESULTS: From June 2016 to March 2019, 19 patients were treated (21% stage I, 32% stage II, and 47% stage III disease). At a median follow-up of 27.7 months for living patients, the 1-year cCR rate was 68%. Eighteen of 19 patients are alive without evidence of disease. Patients with cCR versus without had improved 2-year disease-free survival (93% vs 67%; P = .006), distant metastasis-free survival (100% vs 67%; P = .03), and overall survival (100% vs 67%; P = .03). Involved versus uninvolved circumferential resection margin on magnetic resonance imaging was associated with less initial cCR (40% vs 93%; P = .04). Anorectal function by Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal cancer score at 1 year was not different than baseline. There were no severe late effects. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with SCRT and chemotherapy resulted in high cCR rate, intact anorectal function, and no severe late effects. NCT02641691.

5.
Invest New Drugs ; 39(5): 1298-1305, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738668

RESUMO

Background Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) combined with mTOR inhibitors, like everolimus, result in significant responses and prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) among patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) [1]. However, everolimus doses >5 mg are often not tolerated when combined with other TKIs2,3. Vorolanib (X-82), an oral anti-VEGFR/platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)/colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) multitarget TKI, has a short half-life and limited tissue accumulation. We conducted a Phase 1 study of vorolanib with everolimus (10 mg daily) in patients with solid tumors. Methods A 3 + 3 dose escalation design was utilized to determine dose limiting toxicities (DLT) and recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D) of vorolanib/everolimus. Oral vorolanib at 100, 150, 200, 300, or 400 mg was combined with 10 mg oral everolimus daily. The phase 2 portion was terminated after enrolling two patients due to funding. Results Eighteen patients were evaluable for DLT among 22 treated subjects. Observed DLTs were grade 3 fatigue, hypophosphatemia, and mucositis. The RP2D is vorolanib 300 mg with everolimus 10 mg daily. In 15 patients evaluable for response, three had partial response (PR; 2 RCC, 1 neuroendocrine tumor [NET]) and eight had stable disease (SD; 2 RCC, 6 NET). Conclusions Vorolanib can safely be combined with everolimus. Encouraging activity is seen in RCC and NET. Further studies are warranted. Trial Registration Number: NCT01784861.

6.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(3): 421-427, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475684

RESUMO

Importance: Clinical outcomes after curative treatment of resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) remain suboptimal. To assess the potential of early control of systemic disease with multiagent perioperative chemotherapy, we conducted a prospective trial. Objective: To determine 2-year overall survival (OS) using perioperative chemotherapy for resectable PDA. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a randomized phase 2 trial of perioperative chemotherapy with a pick-the-winner design. It was conducted across the National Clinical Trials Network, including academic and community centers all across the US. Eligibility required patients with Zubrod Performance Score of 0 or 1, confirmed tissue diagnosis of PDA, and resectable disease per Intergroup criteria. Interventions: Perioperative (12 weeks preoperative, 12 weeks postoperative) chemotherapy with either fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFIRINOX, arm 1) or gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel (arm 2). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 2-year overall survival (OS), using a pick-the-winner design; for 100 eligible patients, accrual up to 150 patients was planned to account for cases deemed ineligible at central radiology review. Results: From 2015 to 2018, 147 patients were enrolled; 43 patients (29%) had ineligible disease, beyond resectability criteria, at central radiology review. There were 102 eligible and evaluable patients, 55 in arm 1 and 47 in arm 2, of whom the median (range) age was 66 (44-76) and 64 (46-76) years, respectively; 36 patients (65%) in arm 1 and 24 (51%) in arm 2 were men. In arm 1, 34 (62%) had Zubrod Performance Score of 0, while in arm 2, 31 (66%) did; and 44 (80%) in arm 1 and 39 (83%) in arm 2 had head tumors. Of 102 patients, 84% and 85% completed preoperative chemotherapy, 73% and 70% underwent resection, and 49% and 40% completed all treatment. Adverse events were expected hematologic toxic effects, fatigue, and gastrointestinal toxicities. Two-year OS was 47% (95% CI, 31%-61%) for arm 1 and 48% (95% CI, 31%-63%) for arm 2; median OS was 23.2 months (95% CI, 17.6-45.9 months) and 23.6 months (95% CI, 17.8-31.7 months). Neither arm's 2-year OS estimate was significantly higher than the a priori threshold of 40%. Median disease-free survival after resection was 10.9 months in arm 1 and 14.2 months in arm 2. Conclusions and Relevance: This phase 2 randomized clinical trial did not demonstrate an improved OS with perioperative chemotherapy, compared with historical data from adjuvant trials in resectable pancreatic cancer. Two-year OS was 47% with mFOLFIRINOX and 48% with gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel for all eligible patients starting treatment for resectable PDA. The trial also demonstrated adequate safety and high resectability rates with perioperative chemotherapy, and challenges in quality control for resectability criteria. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02562716.

7.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 87(3): 337-347, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159216

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Resistance to treatment with inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is partially mediated by activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We conducted a phase I study to determine the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) of temsirolimus (mTOR inhibitor) combined with erlotinib (EGFR inhibitor) in patients with refractory solid tumors. METHODS: Standard "3 + 3" design was used for dose escalation. An expansion cohort at RP2D included only patients with squamous histology or mutations relevant to PI3K or EGFR pathway activation. Patients started daily erlotinib 7 days prior to starting temsirolimus on cycle 1. Intravenous temsirolimus was then administered weekly. Starting dose levels were 15 mg for temsirolimus and 100 mg for erlotinib. RESULTS: Forty-four patients received treatment on this study (28 in dose escalation and 16 in the expansion cohort). The RP2D was temsirolimus 25 mg IV weekly and erlotinib 100 mg orally daily. Two patients experienced DLTs (G3 dehydration and G4 renal failure). The most common drug-related adverse events (all grades) were rash, mucositis/stomatitis, diarrhea, nausea and fatigue. No complete or partial responses were observed. The median duration on this study was 69 days (range 3-770) for escalation and 88 days (range 25-243) for expansion cohorts. Among 11 response-evaluable patients in the expansion cohort, 9 (82%) had stable disease and 2 (18%) had progressive disease. CONCLUSION: The combination of temsirolimus and erlotinib at the RP2D was well tolerated, and the regimen resulted in prolonged disease stabilization in selected patients (NCT00770263).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(1): 96-106, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intratumorally injected Clostridium novyi-NT (nontoxic; lacking the alpha toxin), an attenuated strain of C. novyi, replicates within hypoxic tumor regions resulting in tumor-confined cell lysis and inflammatory response in animals, which warrants clinical investigation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This first-in-human study (NCT01924689) enrolled patients with injectable, treatment-refractory solid tumors to receive a single intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT across 6 dose cohorts (1 × 104 to 3 × 106 spores, 3+3 dose-escalation design) to determine dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), and the maximum tolerated dose. RESULTS: Among 24 patients, a single intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT led to bacterial spores germination and the resultant lysis of injected tumor masses in 10 patients (42%) across all doses. The cohort 5 dose (1 × 106 spores) was defined as the maximum tolerated dose; DLTs were grade 4 sepsis (n = 2) and grade 4 gas gangrene (n = 1), all occurring in three patients with injected tumors >8 cm. Other treatment-related grade ≥3 toxicities included pathologic fracture (n = 1), limb abscess (n = 1), soft-tissue infection (n = 1), respiratory insufficiency (n = 1), and rash (n = 1), which occurred across four patients. Of 22 evaluable patients, nine (41%) had a decrease in size of the injected tumor and 19 (86%) had stable disease as the best overall response in injected and noninjected lesions combined. C. novyi-NT injection elicited a transient systemic cytokine response and enhanced systemic tumor-specific T-cell responses. CONCLUSIONS: Single intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT is feasible. Toxicities can be significant but manageable. Signals of antitumor activity and the host immune response support additional studies of C. novyi-NT in humans.

9.
Ann Surg ; 272(3): 481-486, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The optimal neoadjuvant therapy for resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and the impact on surgical outcomes remains unclear. METHODS: S1505 (NCT02562716) was a randomized phase II study of perioperative chemotherapy with mFOLFIRINOX (Arm 1) or gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel (Arm 2). Measured parameters included resection rate, margin positivity, pathologic response, and toxicity. RESULTS: Between 2015 and 2018, 147 patients were randomized. Of these, 44 (30%) were deemed ineligible (43 by central review). Of the 103 eligible patients, 77 (76%) completed preoperative therapy and underwent surgery; reasons patients did not undergo surgery included toxicity related to preoperative therapy (n = 9), progression (n = 9), or other (n = 7). Of the 77, 73 (95%) underwent successful resection; 21 (29%) required vascular reconstruction, 62 (85%) had negative (R0) margins, and 24 (33%) had a complete or major pathologic response to therapy. The grade 3-5 postoperative complication rate was 16%. Of the 73 patients completing surgery, 57 (78%) started and 46 (63%) completed postoperative therapy. This study represents the first prospective trial evaluating modern systemic therapy delivered in a neoadjuvant/perioperative format for resectable PDA. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated: (1) Based on the high percentage of enrolled, but ineligible patients, it is clear that adherence to strict definitions of resectable PDA is challenging; (2) Patients can tolerate modern systemic therapy and undergo successful surgical resection without prohibitive perioperative complications; (3) Completion of adjuvant therapy in the perioperative format is difficult; (4) Major pathologic response rate of 33% is encouraging.


Assuntos
Albuminas/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Terapia Combinada , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(19): 5129-5139, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591464

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This phase II study tested granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-allogeneic pancreatic tumor cells (GVAX) and ipilimumab in metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) in the maintenance setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with PDA who were treated with front-line chemotherapy consisting of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) in the metastatic setting and had ongoing response or stable disease after 8-12 doses were eligible. Patients were randomized 1:1 to treatment with GVAX and ipilimumab given every 3 weeks for four doses then every 8 weeks (Arm A) or to FOLFIRINOX continuation (Arm B). The primary objective was to compare overall survival (OS) between the two arms. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients were included in the final analysis (Arm A: 40; Arm B: 42). The study was stopped for futility after interim analysis. Median OS was 9.38 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.0-12.2] for Arm A and 14.7 months (95% CI, 11.6-20.0) for Arm B (HR, 1.75; P = 0.019). Using immune-related response criteria, two partial responses (5.7%) were observed in Arm A and four (13.8%) in Arm B. GVAX + ipilimumab promoted T-cell differentiation into effector memory phenotypes both in the periphery and in the tumor microenvironment and increased M1 macrophages in the tumor. CONCLUSIONS: GVAX and ipilimumab maintenance therapy did not improve OS over continuation of chemotherapy and resulted in a numerically inferior survival in metastatic PDA. However, clinical responses and biological effects on immune cells were observed. Further study of novel combinations in the maintenance treatment of metastatic PDA is feasible.

11.
J Clin Invest ; 130(9): 4771-4790, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573499

RESUMO

NF-κB transcription factors, driven by the IRAK/IKK cascade, confer treatment resistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a cancer characterized by near-universal KRAS mutation. Through reverse-phase protein array and RNA sequencing we discovered that IRAK4 also contributes substantially to MAPK activation in KRAS-mutant PDAC. IRAK4 ablation completely blocked RAS-induced transformation of human and murine cells. Mechanistically, expression of mutant KRAS stimulated an inflammatory, autocrine IL-1ß signaling loop that activated IRAK4 and the MAPK pathway. Downstream of IRAK4, we uncovered TPL2 (also known as MAP3K8 or COT) as the essential kinase that propels both MAPK and NF-κB cascades. Inhibition of TPL2 blocked both MAPK and NF-κB signaling, and suppressed KRAS-mutant cell growth. To counter chemotherapy-induced genotoxic stress, PDAC cells upregulated TLR9, which activated prosurvival IRAK4/TPL2 signaling. Accordingly, a TPL2 inhibitor synergized with chemotherapy to curb PDAC growth in vivo. Finally, from TCGA we characterized 2 MAP3K8 point mutations that hyperactivate MAPK and NF-κB cascades by impeding TPL2 protein degradation. Cancer cell lines naturally harboring these MAP3K8 mutations are strikingly sensitive to TPL2 inhibition, underscoring the need to identify these potentially targetable mutations in patients. Overall, our study establishes TPL2 as a promising therapeutic target in RAS- and MAP3K8-mutant cancers and strongly prompts development of TPL2 inhibitors for preclinical and clinical studies.


Assuntos
MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/imunologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Mutação Puntual , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/imunologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
12.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1231-1240, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469386

RESUMO

Importance: Standard first-line regimens for patients with metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas have an approximate 40% objective response rate (ORR). The combination of leucovorin, fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) has been efficacious as first-line therapy for other gastrointestinal cancers, such as pancreatic and colon cancers. Objective: To evaluate the clinical activity and safety of FOLFIRINOX as first-line treatment for patients with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is an open-label, single-arm phase 2 study of first-line FOLFIRINOX in patients with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma. Estimated sample size included 41 patients with ERBB2-negative disease with 90% power to detect an ORR of 60% or greater with α of .10. No enrollment goal was planned for ERBB2-positive patients, but they were allowed to receive trastuzumab in combination with FOLFIRINOX. Interventions: Starting doses were fluorouracil, 400 mg/m2 bolus, followed by 2400 mg/m2 over 46 hours; leucovorin, 400 mg/m2; irinotecan, 180 mg/m2; and oxaliplatin, 85 mg/m2. Trastuzumab was administered as a 6 mg/kg loading dose, followed by 4 mg/kg every 14 days in patients with ERBB2-positive disease. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was ORR by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. Secondary end points included safety profile, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and duration of response. Results: From November 2013 to May 2018, 67 patients were enrolled (median [range] age, 59.0 [34-78] years; including 56 [84%] men), and 26 of 67 (39%) had ERBB2-positive disease. Median follow-up was 17.4 months. The ORR was 61%(95% CI, 44.5%-75.8%) (25 of 41) in the ERBB2-negative group and 85% (95% CI, 65.1%-95.6%) (22 of 26) in the ERBB2-positive group, including 1 patient with complete response. For ERBB2-negative patients, median PFS was 8.4 months and median OS was 15.5 months; for ERBB2-positive patients, median PFS was 13.8 months and median OS was 19.6 months. Fifty-six patients (84%) had dose modifications or treatment delays. The most common toxic effects were neutropenia (91%, n = 61), diarrhea (63%, n = 42), peripheral sensory neuropathy (61%, n = 41), and nausea (48%, n = 32), with no unexpected toxic effects. Conclusions and Relevance: The FOLFIRINOX regimen with or without trastuzumab was associated with improved ORR and PFS in patients with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma in the first-line setting. This regimen may be a reasonable therapeutic option for patients with preserved performance status. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01928290.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 11(1): 61-67, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175106

RESUMO

Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy with limited therapeutic options. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the aminopeptidase inhibitor tosedostat with capecitabine in advanced PDAC. Methods: We conducted a phase Ib/II trial of tosedostat with capecitabine as second-line therapy for advanced PDAC. Planned enrollment was 36 patients. Eligible patients were treated with capecitabine 1,000 mg/m2 oral twice-daily days 1-14 and oral tosedostat in a dose de-escalation design on days 1-21 of each 21-day cycle. Primary endpoints were the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Sixteen patients were enrolled. Tosedostat 120 mg oral twice daily with capecitabine 1,000 mg/m2 oral twice daily was the RP2D. There was one dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) (grade 3 acute coronary syndrome) during phase Ib. The most common treatment-related adverse events were gastrointestinal (nausea, diarrhea), cardiac [QTc prolongation, decreased ejection fraction (EF)], and fatigue. The median PFS was 7.1 months, and the median treatment failure free survival was 3 months. Eight patients experienced stable disease for greater than 3 months. The study was closed early due to lack of drug availability. Conclusions: Tosedostat with capecitabine displayed tolerable toxicity, and prolonged disease control in a subset of patients. These data encourage further exploration of aminopeptidase inhibitors in pancreatic cancer.

14.
J Pancreat Cancer ; 6(1): 21-31, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219196

RESUMO

Purpose: This was an open-label phase 1a study assessing the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and tolerability of CXCR4 peptide antagonist, LY2510924, administered in combination with durvalumab in patients with advanced refractory solid tumors. Methods: Patients received LY2510924 at 20, 30, or 40 mg subcutaneous (SC) once daily in combination with durvalumab at 1500 mg intravenously (IV) on day 1 of each 28-day cycle. The primary objective was to assess the MTD and safety of LY2510924 SC daily in combination with durvalumab in patients with advanced (metastatic and/or unresectable) solid tumors. Secondary objectives included pharmacokinetics (PK) and the antitumor activity of LY2510924 in combination with durvalumab. Exploratory objectives were biomarker analysis, including pharmacodynamic markers, relevant to LY2510924 and durvalumab, including immune functioning, drug targets, cancer-related pathways, and the disease state. Results: Nine patients (three each at 20, 30, and 40 mg) were enrolled in the study (eight patients with pancreatic cancer and one patient with rectal cancer). The majority of patients completed one or two cycles (100.0% ≥ 1 cycle; 88.9% ≥ 2 cycles) of LY2510924 and durvalumab. No dose limiting toxicities were reported. Most common (>10%) treatment-emergent adverse events were injection-site reaction (44.4%), fatigue (33.3%), and increased white blood cell count (33.3%). PK parameters for combination were similar to those reported in previous studies when given as monotherapy. Best overall response of stable disease was observed in four (44.4%) patients and one patient had unconfirmed partial response. Conclusion: The recommended phase 2 dose is 40 mg SC once-daily LY2510924 in combination with durvalumab 1500 mg IV and showed acceptable safety and tolerability in patients with advanced refractory tumors.

15.
Pancreas ; 49(1): 62-75, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The NAnoliPOsomaL Irinotecan (NAPOLI-1) study (NCT01494506) was the largest global phase 3 study in a post-gemcitabine metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (mPAC) population (N = 417). The subanalyses reported here investigated the prognostic effect of tumor characteristics and disease stage, prior treatment characteristics, baseline patient characteristics on survival outcomes in NAPOLI-1, and whether liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) + 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV) benefited patients with mPAC across subgroups. METHODS: Post hoc analyses were performed in the NAPOLI-1 population (4 across tumor characteristics and disease stage, 6 across prior treatment characteristics, and 4 across patient baseline characteristics). Survival outcomes were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and patient safety data were evaluated. RESULTS: Mortality and morbidity risk was lower on nal-IRI+5-FU/LV treatment across subgroups. Exceptions were patients who had received prior nonliposomal irinotecan and those who had undergone prior Whipple procedure (overall survival hazard ratio = 1.25 and 1.23, respectively). Decreased appetite, liver metastases, and number of measurable metastatic lesions seemed to be prognostic of survival in this population. Subgroup safety data were generally comparable with those in the overall NAPOLI-1 safety population. CONCLUSIONS: A diverse population of patients with mPAC that progressed on gemcitabine-based therapy benefited from nal-IRI+5-FU/LV versus 5-FU/LV, potentially helping guide treatment decisions for challenging cases.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Irinotecano/administração & dosagem , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Cancer Med ; 8(11): 5148-5157, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347292

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Notch signaling dysregulation is implicated in the development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Tarextumab is a fully human IgG2 antibody that inhibits Notch2/3 receptors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Aphase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial evaluated the activity of tarextumab in combination with nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine in patients with metastatic PDAC. Patients were stratified based on ECOG performance score and Ca 19-9 level and randomized 1:1 to nab-paclitaxel, gemcitabine with either tarextumab or placebo. Based on preclinical and phase Ib results suggesting a positive correlation between Notch3 gene expression and tarextumab anti-tumor activity, patients were also divided into subgroups of low, intermediate, and high Notch3 gene expression. Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) in all and in patients with the three Notch3 gene expression subgroups (≥25th, ≥50% and ≥75% percentiles); secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), 12-month OS, overall response rate (ORR), and safety and biomarker investigation. RESULTS: Median OS was 6.4 months in the tarextumab group vs 7.9 months in the placebo group (HR = 1.34 [95% CI = 0.95, 1.89], P = .0985). No difference observed in OS in the Notch3 gene expression subgroups. PFS in the tarextumab-treated group (3.7 months) was significantly shorter compared with the placebo group (5.5 months) (hazard ratio was 1.43 [95% CI = 1.01, 2.01]; P = .04). Grade 3 diarrhea and thrombocytopenia were more common in the tarextumab group. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of tarextumab to nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine did not improve OS, PFS, or ORR in first-line metastatic PDAC, and PFS was specifically statistically worse in the tarextumab-treated patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NO: NCT01647828.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Receptor Notch2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Notch3/antagonistas & inibidores , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 10(3): 412-420, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183190

RESUMO

Background: Despite the clinical success of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blockade in metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRC), resistance to anti-angiogenic drugs invariably develops. IL-8 and other cytokines have been implicated in development of resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy. Levocetirizine is a second generation H1 antihistamine with anti-inflammatory and IL-8 suppression properties. We conducted a phase II trial combining levocetirizine with capecitabine and bevacizumab to potentially overcome anti-angiogenic therapy resistance in patients with refractory mCRC. Methods: This was a single-center open-label prospective trial in refractory mCRC patients. Treatment consisted of oral capecitabine 850 mg/m2 twice daily administered as 7 days on and 7 days off, intravenous (IV) bevacizumab 5 mg/kg every 14 days and oral levocetirizine 5 mg daily. The primary end point was progression free survival (PFS) and secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR) and tolerability. An exploratory endpoint included correlation of PFS with cytokine levels. A sample size of 36 evaluable patients could identify a median PFS of 3.4 months at a 0.05 significance level. To examine cytokine changes related to levocetirizine treatment, patients were randomized to Arm A where levocetirizine was started 7 days after starting chemotherapy and to Arm B where levocetirizine was started 7 days prior to chemotherapy. Cytokine levels were measured at baseline and with each cycle of chemotherapy (up to three cycles). Results: Forty-seven patients were enrolled in the trial to have 36 evaluable patients. Arm A enrolled 23 patients and Arm B enrolled 24 patients. Fifty percent of patients had progressive disease and 62% of patients had stable disease in each arm as best response. There was no demonstrable difference in PFS between the two arms (log-rank test P=0.83). Median time to progression was 3.4 months in Arm A and 3.5 months in Arm B. Conclusions: Median PFS in the trial was comparable to and appeared to be better than other regimens used in the refractory setting (e.g., median PFS of 1.9 months for regorafenib). Cytokine measurement with IL-8 levels did not show any correlation with progression free survival but patients with stable disease showed overall lower levels of IL-8 as compared to patients with progressive disease in the cytokine analysis.

18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(18): 5493-5502, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126960

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited options exist for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer progressing after 1 or more lines of therapy. A phase II study in patients with previously treated metastatic pancreatic cancer showed that combining GVAX pancreas (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting allogeneic pancreatic tumor cells) with cyclophosphamide (Cy) and CRS-207 (live, attenuated Listeria monocytogenes expressing mesothelin) resulted in median overall survival (OS) of 6.1 months, which compares favorably with historical OS achieved with chemotherapy. In the current study, we compared Cy/GVAX + CRS-207, CRS-207 alone, and standard chemotherapy in a three-arm, randomized, controlled phase IIb trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with previously treated metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were randomized 1:1:1 to receive Cy/GVAX + CRS-207 (arm A), CRS-207 (arm B), or physician's choice of single-agent chemotherapy (arm C). The primary cohort included patients who had failed ≥2 prior lines of therapy, including gemcitabine. The primary objective compared OS between arms A and C in the primary cohort. The second-line cohort included patients who had received 1 prior line of therapy. Additional objectives included OS between all treatment arms, safety, and tumor responses. RESULTS: The study did not meet its primary efficacy endpoint. At the final study analysis, median OS [95% confidence interval (CI)] in the primary cohort (N = 213) was 3.7 (2.9-5.3), 5.4 (4.2-6.4), and 4.6 (4.2-5.7) months in arms A, B, and C, respectively, showing no significant difference between arm A and arm C [P = not significant (NS), HR = 1.17; 95% CI, 0.84-1.64]. The most frequently reported adverse events in all treatment groups were chills, pyrexia, fatigue, and nausea. No treatment-related deaths occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of Cy/GVAX + CRS-207 did not improve survival over chemotherapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02004262)See related commentary by Salas-Benito et al., p. 5435.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Ciclofosfamida , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos , Humanos
19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(8): 782-794, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FOLFIRINOX is a standard treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. The effectiveness of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) remains debated. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and patient-level meta-analysis on neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in patients with BRPC. Studies with BRPC patients who received FOLFIRINOX as first-line neoadjuvant treatment were included. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, resection rate, R0 resection rate, and grade III-IV adverse events. Patient-level survival outcomes were obtained from authors of the included studies and analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: We included 24 studies (8 prospective, 16 retrospective), comprising 313 (38.1%) BRPC patients treated with FOLFIRINOX. Most studies (n = 20) presented intention-to-treat results. The median number of administered neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX cycles ranged from 4 to 9. The resection rate was 67.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 60.1% to 74.6%), and the R0-resection rate was 83.9% (95% CI = 76.8% to 89.1%). The median OS varied from 11.0 to 34.2 months across studies. Patient-level survival data were obtained for 20 studies representing 283 BRPC patients. The patient-level median OS was 22.2 months (95% CI = 18.8 to 25.6 months), and patient-level median progression-free survival was 18.0 months (95% CI = 14.5 to 21.5 months). Pooled event rates for grade III-IV adverse events were highest for neutropenia (17.5 per 100 patients, 95% CI = 10.3% to 28.3%), diarrhea (11.1 per 100 patients, 95% CI = 8.6 to 14.3), and fatigue (10.8 per 100 patients, 95% CI = 8.1 to 14.2). No deaths were attributed to FOLFIRINOX. CONCLUSIONS: This patient-level meta-analysis of BRPC patients treated with neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX showed a favorable median OS, resection rate, and R0-resection rate. These results need to be assessed in a randomized trial.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/classificação , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Resultado do Tratamento
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