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1.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 402(3): 1229-39, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22130720

RESUMO

High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were developed for the quantification of a PEGylated scaffold protein drug in monkey plasma samples. The LC-MS/MS method was based on the extraction of the therapeutic protein with a water-miscible organic solvent and the subsequent trypsin digestion of the extract followed by the detection of a surrogate peptide. The assay was linear over a range of 10-3,000 ng/mL. The ELISA method utilized a therapeutic target-binding format in which the recombinant target antigen was used to capture the drug in the sample, followed by detection with an anti-PEG monoclonal antibody. The assay range was 30-2,000 ng/mL. A correlation study between the two methods was performed by measuring the drug concentrations in plasma samples from a single-dose pharmacokinetic (PK) study in cynomolgus monkeys following a 5-mg/kg subcutaneous administration (n = 4). In the early time points of the PK profile, the drug concentrations obtained by the LC-MS/MS method agreed very well with those obtained by the ELISA method. However, at later time points, the drug concentrations measured by the LC-MS/MS method were consistently higher than those measured by the ELISA method. The PK parameters calculated based on the concentration data showed that the two methods gave equivalent peak exposure (C(max)) at 24-48 h. However, the LC-MS/MS results exhibited about 1.53-fold higher total exposure (AUC(tot)) than the ELISA results. The discrepancy between the LC-MS/MS and ELISA results was investigated by conducting immunogenicity testing, anti-drug antibody (ADA) epitope mapping, and Western blot analysis of the drug concentrations coupled with Protein G separation. The results demonstrated the presence of ADA specific to the engineered antigen-binding region of the scaffold protein drug that interfered with the ability of the drug to bind to the target antigen used in the ELISA method. In the presence of the ADAs, the ELISA method measured only the active circulating drug (target-binding), while the LC-MS/MS method measured the total circulating drug. The work presented here indicates that the bioanalysis of protein drugs may be complicated owing to the presence of drug-binding endogenous components or ADAs in the post-dose (incurred) samples. The clear understanding of the behavior of different bioanalytical techniques vis-à-vis the potentially interfering components found in incurred samples is critical in selecting bioanalytical strategies for measuring protein drugs.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos/sangue , Anticorpos/imunologia , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/análise , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/imunologia , Haplorrinos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/imunologia
2.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 21(23): 7006-12, 2011 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22018461

RESUMO

The synthesis, structure-activity relationships (SAR), and biological results of pyridyl-substituted azaindole based tricyclic inhibitors of IKK2 are described. Compound 4m demonstrated potent in vitro potency, acceptable pharmacokinetic and physicochemical properties, and efficacy when dosed orally in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/química , Descoberta de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/química , Quinase I-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Acetamidas/síntese química , Acetamidas/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/síntese química , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 24(9): 1575-85, 2011 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21728364

RESUMO

It has recently been proposed that plasma levels of 4ß-hydroxycholesterol (4ßHC) may be indicative of cytochrome P450 3A4 (P450 3A) activity and therefore could be used to probe for P450 3A-mediated drug-drug interactions. With this in mind, we describe a highly sensitive and precise liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the measurement of 4ßHC in human plasma with a lower limit of quantification established at 2 ng/mL using 50 µL of plasma. The entire sample preparation scheme including saponification and derivatization of 4ßHC to the corresponding dipicolinyl ester (DPE) was completed in less than 8 h using an automated sample preparation scheme enabling higher-throughput capabilities. Chromatographic resolution of 4ßHC from 4α-hydroxycholesterol and other endogenous isobaric species was achieved in 11-min using an isocratic gradient on a C18 column. Because of endogenous concentrations of 4ßHC in plasma, a stable isotope labeled (SIL) analogue, d7-4ßHC, was used as a surrogate analyte and measured in the standard curve and quality control samples prepared in plasma. A second SIL analogue, d4-4ßHC, was used as the internal standard. The intraday and interday accuracy for the assay was within 6% of nominal concentrations, and the precision for these measurements was less than 5% relative standard deviation. Rigorous stability assessments demonstrated adequate stability of endogenous 4ßHC in plasma and the corresponding DPE derivative for the analysis of clinical study samples. The results from clinical samples following treatment with a potent P450 3A inducer (rifampin) or inhibitor (ketoconazole) are reported and demonstrate the potential future application for this highly precise and robust analytical assay.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Hidroxicolesteróis/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/economia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/economia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
4.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 54(3): 602-6, 2011 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21036503

RESUMO

Pyrazinones bearing an N-1-alkyl chain with a chiral center have been reported as potent antagonists of the corticotropin-releasing factor-1 receptor (CRF1R). Separation of individual enantiomers for preclinical testing was an important aspect of lead optimization. To evaluate the applicability and efficiency of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) for enantiomeric resolution of this class of compounds, enantiomeric pairs of eight pyrazinones with different structural characteristics were tested under an array of SFC conditions. The results showed that pyrazinones with a 1-cyclopropyl-2-methoxyethyl substituent were readily separated with a Chiralpak AD-H or Chiralcel OD-H column with ethanol as the modifier. On the other hand, analogs with a less polar alkyl substituent were not amenable to the general method and required further optimization of the chromatographic conditions. In addition, structural variations on the pyrazinone core and aromatic moiety had an impact on the chiral resolution of this class of compounds. This investigation led to the development of efficient chiral SFC methods for separating all eight pyrazinone enantiomeric pairs encompassing an array of structural variations.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Pirazinas/isolamento & purificação , Receptores de Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/antagonistas & inibidores , Amilose/análogos & derivados , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenilcarbamatos , Pirazinas/análise , Receptores de Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo
5.
Drug Discov Today ; 16(1-2): 58-64, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21093608

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful technology in the discovery and development of protein therapeutics in the biopharmaceutical industry. This review article describes recent developments and future trends in the characterization of protein therapeutics using MS. We discuss top-down MS for the characterization of protein modifications, hydrogen/deuterium exchange MS and ion mobility MS methods for higher order protein structure studies. Quantitative analysis of protein therapeutics (in vivo) by MS as an orthogonal approach to immunoassay for pharmacokinetics studies will also be illustrated.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/uso terapêutico , Descoberta de Drogas/tendências , Previsões , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/tendências , Proteínas/farmacocinética
6.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 21(5): 837-44, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20189823

RESUMO

Introduced in the late 1980s as a reducing reagent, Tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (TCEP) has now become one of the most widely used protein reductants. To date, only a few studies on its side reactions have been published. We report the observation of a side reaction that cleaves protein backbones under mild conditions by fracturing the cysteine residues, thus generating heterogeneous peptides containing different moieties from the fractured cysteine. The peptide products were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Peptides with a primary amine and a carboxylic acid as termini were observed, and others were found to contain amidated or formamidated carboxy termini, or formylated or glyoxylic amino termini. Formamidation of the carboxy terminus and the formation of glyoxylic amino terminus were unexpected reactions since both involve breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in cysteine.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cisteína/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Fosfinas/química , Proteínas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cisteína/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo
7.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 331(2): 349-60, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19652024

RESUMO

We have previously shown that inhibitors of IkappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta), including 4(2'-aminoethyl)amino-1,8-dimethylimidazo(1,2-a)quinoxaline (BMS-345541), are efficacious against experimental arthritis in rodents. In our efforts to identify an analog as a clinical candidate for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, we have discovered the potent and highly selective IKKbeta inhibitor 2-methoxy-N-((6-(1-methyl-4-(methylamino)-1,6-dihydroimidazo[4,5-d]pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-7-yl)pyridin-2-yl)methyl)acetamide (BMS-066). Investigations of its pharmacology in rodent models of experimental arthritis showed that BMS-066 at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg once daily was effective at protecting rats against adjuvant-induced arthritis, despite showing only weak inhibition at 10 mg/kg against a pharmacodymanic model of tumor necrosis factor alpha production in rats challenged with lipopolysaccharide. The duration of exposure in rats indicated that just 6 to 9 h of coverage per day of the concentration necessary to inhibit IKKbeta by 50% in vivo was necessary for protection against arthritis. Similar findings were observed in the mouse collagen-induced arthritis model, with efficacy observed at a dose providing only 6 h of coverage per day of the concentration necessary to inhibit IKKbeta by 50%. This finding probably results from the cumulative effect on multiple cellular mechanisms that contribute to autoimmunity and joint destruction, because BMS-066 was shown to inhibit a broad spectrum of activities such as T cell proliferation, B cell function, cytokine and interleukin secretion from monocytes, T(H)17 cell function and regulation, and osteoclastogenesis. Thus, only partial and transient inhibition of IKKbeta is sufficient to yield dramatic benefit in vivo, and this understanding will be important in the clinical development of IKKbeta inhibitors.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/farmacologia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Quinase I-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetamidas/farmacocinética , Acetamidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Artrite Reumatoide/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacocinética , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Proteínas I-kappa B/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas/biossíntese , Técnicas In Vitro , Articulações/patologia , Células Jurkat , Lipopolissacarídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese
8.
J Med Chem ; 52(7): 1994-2005, 2009 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19267461

RESUMO

The design and synthesis of a novel series of oxazole-, thiazole-, and imidazole-based inhibitors of IkappaB kinase (IKK) are reported. Biological activity was improved compared to the pyrazolopurine lead, and the expedient synthesis of the new tricyclic systems allowed for efficient exploration of structure-activity relationships. This, combined with an iterative rat cassette dosing strategy, was used to identify compounds with improved pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles to advance for in vivo evaluation.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/síntese química , Quinase I-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Imidazóis/síntese química , Oxazóis/síntese química , Tiazóis/síntese química , Animais , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacocinética , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/genética , Imidazóis/farmacocinética , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Oxazóis/farmacocinética , Oxazóis/farmacologia , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/farmacocinética , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese
9.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 48(4): 1120-6, 2008 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18922657

RESUMO

Many 3-substituted-4-arylquinolinones containing an ortho substituent on the aryl ring were known as a class of compounds with maxi-K opening activity. These quinolinones, which contained a stereogenic axis in their structures due to their bulky ortho substituents on the two aryl rings, exhibited atropisomerism. The rotationally hindered atropisomers could have differential biological and pharmacological activity, and it was highly desirable to separate them and test the individual atropisomers in biological assays. To explore the potential of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) to separate the atropisomers of this class of compounds, six 3-substituted-4-arylquinolinones with various hydrophilic and hydrophobic substituents in various positions were screened using three alcoholic modifiers (methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol) with four polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases (Chiralpak AD-H and AS-H, Chiralcel OD-H and OJ-H). Our results showed that all six compounds studied were successfully resolved under multiple SFC conditions regardless of their structural differences and polarity. The majority of the separations were completed within 10 min. The Chiralpak AD-H column appeared to be superior to the other three chiral columns, and methanol and ethanol showed higher successful rate than 2-propanol in separating atropisomers of this class of compounds. These SFC methods were efficient and easily scalable for preparative separation. Thus, SFC was found to be the methodology of choice for resolving the atropisomers of this class of compounds.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/isolamento & purificação , Quinolonas/isolamento & purificação , Álcoois/química , Desenho de Drogas , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/química , Estrutura Molecular , Quinolonas/química , Estereoisomerismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18722827

RESUMO

The stereoselective determination of stereoisomers in biological samples provides vital information on stereospecific metabolism and pharmacokinetic profiles of the drugs. Despite the unique advantage and the great success of normal-phase (NP) HPLC for the separations of drug stereoisomers using polysaccharide-type chiral stationary phases (CSPs), the technique is rarely applied to quantitative HPLC-MS-MS bioanalysis. This is, at least in part, due to the incompatibility between the usual mobile phase (n-hexane or n-heptane) in normal-phase HPLC and the MS ionization sources which poses a potential detonation hazard. An environmentally friendly and nonflammable alternative solvent, ethoxynonafluorobutane (ENFB), was reported previously to potentially provide an ideal solution for combining the powers of stereoselective NP chromatographic separation and MS-MS detection. In this study, a stereoselective NP-HPLC-MS-MS method was developed using ENFB to quantify a pair of Bristol Myers Squibb (BMS) proprietary drug stereoisomers and their ketone metabolite for an in vitro study, which demonstrated, for the first time, the practical applicability and utility of ENFB for bioanalysis in pharmaceutical industry. The effects of different organic modifiers and temperature, as well as the comparison between ENFB and the usual solvent, heptane, for the separation, are discussed. The resolution of the stereoisomers was achieved using 63% of 3:1 mixture of ethanol and methanol with 37% ENFB on a Chiralpak AD-H column at 50 degrees C. High sensitivity was obtained using the MS-MS detection in the positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mode. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for the first stereoisomer and the ketone metabolite was 5 ng/mL, and was 10 ng/mL for the second isomer in the human liver microsome-potassium phosphate buffer matrix. The linear dynamic range of 5-1000 ng/mL for both isomers and 10-1000 ng/mL for the metabolite were demonstrated with R2 > or =0.997. The precision of the analysis was <5% R.S.D. at or above the nominal concentration of 80 ng/mL, and <20% R.S.D. at 8 ng/mL. The mean bias was less than 15%. Extraction recovery and acceptable matrix interference were demonstrated using one isomer and the ketone, and better than 75% recovery and less than 25% ion suppression or interference were found. The method was successfully implemented for an in vitro intrinsic metabolic clearance study.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Butanos/química , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/química , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Propanóis/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estereoisomerismo
11.
Chirality ; 19(9): 683-92, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17487890

RESUMO

This article describes a very useful extension of an unique column switching technique called "Simulated Moving Columns" (SMC) that was previously reported for chiral high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Zhang and McConnell, Journal of Chromatography A 2004;1028:227-238). SMC uses two or three short chiral columns connected in series, and enables the unresolved enantiomers to separate repeatedly and exclusively through each of the columns until sufficient resolution is attained. The technique is significantly enhanced through the use of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The supercritical or near critical carbon dioxide (CO(2)) used in the mobile phase of SFC possesses the properties of a liquid as well as a gas, and usually results in much sharper peaks compared to HPLC. Consequently, by combining SMC with SFC (SMC-SFC), we were able to dramatically increase the number of SMC cycles with significantly less band broadening compared to HPLC. For the first time, an enantioselective SFC separation was demonstrated by increasing the column from the actual 20 cm length to reach a half meter virtual length with remarkably enhanced efficiency. Off-column band broadening resulting from a two-column SMC system was measured, and its impact on the enantioselectivity of SMC-SFC was found to be much less than in SMC-HPLC.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Cromatografia/métodos , Estereoisomerismo , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Difusão , Desenho de Equipamento , Hélio/química , Modelos Químicos , Pressão , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/química
12.
Drug Discov Today ; 10(8): 571-7, 2005 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15837600

RESUMO

Molecular chirality is a fundamental consideration in drug discovery, one necessary to understand and describe biological targets as well as to design effective pharmaceutical agents. Enantioselective chromatography has played an increasing role not only as an analytical tool for chiral analyses, but also as a preparative technique to obtain pure enantiomers from racemates quickly from a wide diversity of chemical structures. Different enantioselective chromatography techniques are reviewed here, with particular emphasis on the most widespread high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the rapidly emerging supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) techniques. This review focuses on the dramatic advances in the chiral stationary phases (CSPs) that have made HPLC and SFC indispensable techniques for drug discovery today. In addition, screening strategies for rapid method development and considerations for laboratory-scale preparative separation are discussed and recent achievements are highlighted.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/tendências , Indústria Farmacêutica/tendências , Estereoisomerismo , Amilose/análogos & derivados , Amilose/química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Química Farmacêutica/tendências , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/tendências , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Indústria Farmacêutica/métodos , Fenilcarbamatos/química
13.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 18(21): 2531-6, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15468103

RESUMO

An automated chiral chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry bioanalytical method for the determination of albuterol in dog plasma was developed. The method employed on-line sample extraction using turbulent flow chromatography coupled to a Chirobiotic T column for chiral separation using a polar organic mobile phase consisting of methanol, 0.02% formic acid, and 0.1% ammonium formate. The analytes were detected by a tandem mass spectrometer operated in positive ion mode. The (S)- and (R)-isomers were resolved chromatographically with retention times of 5.1 and 5.6 min, respectively. The analytical run time was 8 min. The enantiomers did not interconvert either in mobile phase or in dog plasma at room temperature over the course of at least 2 h. The assay has a linear dynamic range from 2.5-2500 nM for both enantiomers. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 2.5 nM for both enantiomers using 50 microL of plasma. The accuracy and precision of intraday validation were determined at five concentration levels of six replicates. The accuracy of the method for the (R)-isomer ranged from 94-103% of nominal concentrations, and the precision (%CV) ranged from 3.6-12%. The accuracy of the method for the (S)-isomer ranged from 94.5-108% of nominal concentrations, and the precision ranged from 3.2-9.3%. Interday accuracy and precision were evaluated for three days at five concentrations for one replicate. The accuracy of the method for the (R)-isomer ranged from 98-110% of nominal concentrations, and the precision ranged from 1.5-10.6%. The accuracy of the method for the (S)-isomer ranged from 96-104% of nominal concentrations, and the precision ranged from 1.5-8.7%. The combination of turbulent flow on-line sample extraction with polar organic mode chiral chromatography provided a specific, rugged, and high-throughput method for the chiral analysis of albuterol in biological fluids.


Assuntos
Albuterol/sangue , Broncodilatadores/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Albuterol/farmacocinética , Animais , Broncodilatadores/farmacocinética , Cães , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estereoisomerismo
14.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 12(1): 45-9, 2002 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11738570

RESUMO

A series of structurally novel small molecule inhibitors of human alpha-thrombin was prepared to elucidate their structure-activity relationships (SARs), selectivity and activity in vivo. BMS-189664 (3) is identified as a potent, selective, and orally active reversible inhibitor of human alpha-thrombin which is efficacious in vivo in a mouse lethality model, and at inhibiting both arterial and venous thrombosis in cynomolgus monkey models.


Assuntos
Dipeptídeos/farmacocinética , Fibrinolíticos/farmacocinética , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética , Trombina/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Dipeptídeos/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Desenho de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/química , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/química , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacocinética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/química , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/prevenção & controle
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