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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249465, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fishing communities in many Sub-Saharan African countries are a high-risk population group disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. In Uganda, literature on HIV in fishing communities has grown extensively since the first country's documented case of HIV in a fishing community in 1985. The current study describes the status of the HIV burden, prevention, and treatment in Ugandan fishing communities. METHOD: This scoping review was conducted based on the York Framework outlined by Arksey and O'Malley. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases to identify relevant quantitative and qualitative studies on HIV incidence, HIV prevalence, HIV-related risk factors, HIV testing, antiretroviral therapy coverage and adherence, and interventions to improve treatment outcomes and reduce HIV risk factors. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: We identified 52 papers and 2 reports. Thirty-four were quantitative, 17 qualitative, and 3 had a mixed-methods design. Eleven studies reported on the prevalence of HIV and 8 on HIV incidence; 9 studies documented factors associated with HIV incidence or HIV positive status; 10 studies reported on HIV testing coverage and/or associated factors; 7 reported on antiretroviral therapy coverage/adherence/outcomes; and 1 study reported on the impact of combination HIV interventions in fishing communities. This scoping review revealed a significant lack of evidence in terms of what works in HIV prevention and for improving adherence to ART, in contrast to the relatively large amount of evidence from observational quantitative and qualitative studies on HIV prevalence, incidence and related risk factors in Ugandan fishing communities. Intervention studies are urgently needed to fill the current evidence gaps in HIV prevention and ART adherence.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 708, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distribution of HIV self-test kits by trained lay people in the community has resulted in increased uptake of HIV testing services among the targeted populations. However, little data exists on the experiences and challenges faced by trained lay people while distributing the kits. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in Kasensero fishing community, Rakai, Uganda, in September 2019. We purposely selected 18 out of 34 peer-leaders that participated in a peer-led HIV self-testing intervention to participate in a post-intervention qualitative evaluation. The main intervention included identification and training of lay people in the community ('peer-leaders') to distribute HIV self-test kits to pre-selected members of their social network. Data for this study were collected at the end of the intervention. Data were collected on peer-leaders' experiences in distributing the kits, challenges experienced during distribution and suggestions on how to improve peer-led HIV self-testing in typical fishing communities in the future. Data were analyzed manually following a thematic framework approach. RESULTS: Of the 18 peer-leaders, eleven (61.1%) were aged 20-24 years while thirteen (72.2%) had secondary education. Most (n = 15) of the peer-leaders reported that they found it easier to distribute the kits to their social network members, with most of them distributing the kits at the social network members' homes or at their own homes. HIV self-test kits were distributed at varying times (e.g. in the afternoon) depending on the agreement reached between the peer-leader and their social network member. A few peer-leaders reported that some of their social network members initially hesitated to accept the kits while other peer-leaders reported that they spent a 'lot of time' explaining the HIV self-testing procedures to some of their illiterate members. Peer-leaders argued for supervised HIV self-testing for illiterate people and the need to continuously follow-up social network members to check if they tested for HIV. CONCLUSION: A majority of the peer-leaders successfully distributed the kits to their social network members save for a few who experienced challenges. These findings suggest that lay people can be trained as effective HIV self-test kits distributors to improve the distribution of kits in the community.

3.
Implement Sci ; 16(1): 41, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safer conception counseling (SCC) to promote the use of safer conception methods (SCM) is not yet part of routine family planning or HIV care. Guidelines for the use of SCM have been published, but to date there are no published controlled evaluations of SCC. Furthermore, it is unknown whether standard methods commonly used in resource constrained settings to integrate new services would be sufficient, or if enhanced training and supervision would result in a more efficacious approach to implementing SCC. METHODS: In a hybrid, cluster randomized controlled trial, six HIV clinics were randomly assigned to implement the SCC intervention Our Choice using either a high (SCC1) or low intensity (SCC2) approach (differentiated by amount of training and supervision), or existing family planning services (usual care). Three hundred eighty-nine HIV clients considering childbearing with an HIV-negative partner enrolled. The primary outcome was self-reported use of appropriate reproductive method (SCM if trying to conceive; modern contraceptives if not) over 12 months or until pregnancy. RESULTS: The combined intervention groups used appropriate reproductive methods more than usual care [20.8% vs. 6.9%; adjusted OR (95% CI)=10.63 (2.79, 40.49)], and SCC1 reported a higher rate than SCC2 [27.1% vs. 14.6%; OR (95% CI)=4.50 (1.44, 14.01)]. Among those trying to conceive, the intervention arms reported greater accurate use of SCM compared to usual care [24.1% vs. 0%; OR (95% CI)=91.84 (4.94, 1709.0)], and SCC1 performed better than SCC2 [34.6% vs. 11.5%; OR (95% CI)=6.43 (1.90, 21.73)]. The arms did not vary on modern contraception use among those not trying to conceive. A cost of $631 per person was estimated to obtain accurate use of SCM in SCC1, compared to $1014 in SCC2. CONCLUSIONS: More intensive provider training and more frequent supervision leads to greater adoption of complex SCM behaviors and is more cost-effective than the standard low intensity implementation approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03167879 ; date registered May 23, 2017.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 467, 2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic. Many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda inclusive, implemented lockdowns, curfew, banning of both private and public transport systems, and mass gatherings to minimize spread. Social control measures for COVID-19 are reported to increase violence and discrimination globally, including in Uganda as some may be difficult to implement resulting in the heavy deployment of law enforcement. Media reports indicated that cases of violence and discrimination had increased in Uganda's communities following the lockdown. We estimated the incidence and factors associated with experiencing violence and discrimination among Ugandans during the COVID-19 lockdown to inform control and prevention measures. METHODS: In April 2020, we conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data under the International Citizen Project (ICP) to assess adherence to public health measures and their impact on the COVID-19 outbreak in Uganda. We analyzed data on violence and discrimination from the ICP study. We performed descriptive statistics for all the participants' characteristics and created a binary outcome variable called experiencing violence and/or discrimination. We performed logistic regression analysis to identify the factors associated with experiencing violence and discrimination. RESULTS: Of the 1726 ICP study participants, 1051 (58.8%) were males, 841 (48.7%) were currently living with a spouse or partner, and 376 (21.8%) had physically attended work for more than 3 days in the past week. Overall, 145 (8.4%) experienced any form of violence and/or discrimination by any perpetrator, and 46 (31.7%) of the 145 reported that it was perpetrated by a law enforcement officer. Factors associated with experiencing violence or discrimination were: being male (AOR = 1.60 CI:1.10-2.33), having attended work physically for more than 3 days in the past week (AOR = 1.52 CI:1.03-2.23), and inability to access social or essential health services since the epidemic started (AOR = 3.10 CI:2.14-4.50). CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of Ugandan residents experienced violence and/or discrimination during the COVID-19 lockdown, mostly perpetrated by law enforcement officers. We recommend mitigation of the collateral impact of lockdowns with interventions that focus on improving policing quality, ensuring continuity of essential services, and strengthening support systems for vulnerable groups including males.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Preconceito/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J STD AIDS ; : 956462420983935, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554745

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding and following HIV self-testing (HIVST) instructions is a critical step in the use of HIVST kits. We analyzed data on pregnant women and their partners' self-assessment on the usability of kits delivered by their pregnant women. METHODS: Quantitative data were collected on 399 pregnant women and 238 male partners enrolled in the intervention arm of a large cluster-randomized HIVST trial. Each pregnant woman received HIVST demonstrations, detailed pictorial instructions on how to use OraQuick HIVST kits, and two kits; for herself and her male partner. Follow-up was at one month (baseline for male partners) and 3 months. Descriptive statistics were conducted to compare understanding and following of HIVST instructions by age and education level. RESULTS: The proportion of those who understood HIVST instructions was almost the same (98%) for women and their partners, although partners (26.5%) were nearly twice as likely than women (16.0%) to report needing pretest counseling (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.27-2.79). Partners' understanding of the HIVST instructions did not vary by education level, but 4.4% of women with primary education reported difficulty in understanding HIVST instructions compared with 0.5% and 0% of those with secondary and university education, respectively (p = 0.05). However, 5.6% of women aged 30-68 years and 3.3% of partners aged 20-24 years found it more difficult to understand the HIVST instructions. CONCLUSION: Both pregnant women and their male partners were correctly able to perform an HIVST without or (with minimal) support suggesting that this mode of delivery will help the national program reach more men. Because more male partners than women required HIVST pretest counseling support, male-targeted HIVST promotional messages may be needed to increase men's self-efficacy to perform HIVST unsupported.

6.
J Community Health ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481156

RESUMO

There is growing evidence of the challenges with adherence to COVID-19 prevention measures and the effect of the prevention measures on the health of populations in various parts of the world but with limited documentation in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed COVID-19 awareness, adoption of COVID-19 prevention measures, and the effects of COVID-19 lockdown on the mental health status, socio-economic disruptions and engagement in unhealthy behaviours among 2500 in- and out-of-school adolescent boys and young men (ABYM) aged 10-24 years in Kampala, Uganda. 74.8% (n = 1869) were in-school; nearly half (47.3%, n = 1182) were aged 15-19 years. Although > 80% were aware of at least two COVID-19 prevention measures, only 22.2% (n = 555) reported that they always wore a face mask while in a public place; 40.9% (n = 1023) always washed their hands with soap and running water while 17.6% (n = 440) always avoided gatherings of more than five people. COVID-19 lockdown led to: (a) increased mental health challenges (e.g. 1.2% [n = 31] contemplated committing suicide); (b) limited ability to meet basic needs (e.g. 62.0% [n = 1549] found it difficult to afford a diverse/balanced diet); (c) socio-economic disruptions (e.g. 30.3% [n = 756] experienced a reduction in income) and (d) engagement in unhealthy behaviours (e.g. 62% [n = 1554] reported a sedentary life style such as excessive watching of TV). These effects were more pronounced among older adolescent boys (15-19 years) and young men (20-24 years) and out-of-school compared to in-school ABYM. Our findings suggest a need for appropriate health promotion, mental health and socio-economic interventions targeting ABYM in Kampala, Uganda.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 156, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468072

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Among people living with HIV in Uganda, desires to have a child and unplanned pregnancies are both common, while utilization of safer conception methods (SCM) and modern contraceptives are low. METHODS: Three hundred eighty-nine HIV clients who reported considering childbearing with their uninfected partner enrolled in a safer conception counseling intervention trial in Uganda. Multiple regression analysis and baseline data were used to examine correlates of reproductive intentions and behaviors, including use of safer conception methods and contraception. RESULTS: Most (n = 313; 80.5%) reported that both they and their partner wanted to have a child now, which was associated with being married, in a longer relationship, not having a child with partner, greater SCM knowledge, lower internalized childbearing stigma, and higher perceived community stigma of childbearing. However, just 117 reported trying to conceive in the prior 6 months, which was associated with being female, not having a child with their partner, less decision-making control within the relationship, and greater perceived cultural acceptability of SCM. Among those who had tried to conceive in the past 6 months, 14 (11.9%) used SCM, which was associated with greater control in decision making. Of the 268 who were not trying to conceive, 69 (25.7%) were using a modern contraceptive, which was associated with being in a shorter relationship, less control over decision-making, more positive attitudes towards contraception and lower depression. CONCLUSION: Methods to promote reproductive goals are underused by HIV serodiscordant couples, and relationships characteristics and childbearing-related stigma appear to be most influential and thus targets for intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03167879 ; date registered May 23, 2017.

8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 932, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trans-women sex workers bear the greatest brunt of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Trans-women are 49 times more at risk of HIV infections compared to the general population. However, they remain underserved and continue to grapple with access to and utilisation of HIV/STI prevention services. This study explored barriers to access and utilisation of HIV/STI prevention services and associated coping mechanisms. METHODS: This exploratory qualitative study was conducted among trans-women sex workers in the Greater Kampala Metropolitan area, Uganda. A total of 22 in-depth interviews, 6 key informant interviews and 9 focus group discussions were conducted to obtain data on barriers to access and utilisation of HIV and other STI prevention and care services, and coping strategies of trans-women sex workers. Data were analysed through thematic analysis using a hybrid of inductive and deductive approaches. RESULTS: Individual level barriers to access and utilisation of HIV/STI prevention and care services included internalised stigma and low socio-economic status. Healthcare system barriers included social exclusion and lack of recognition by other key population groups; stigmatisation by some healthcare providers; breach of confidentiality by some healthcare providers; limited hours of operation of some key population-friendly healthcare facilities; discrimination by straight patients and healthcare providers; stockout of STI drugs; inadequate access to well-equipped treatment centres and high cost of drugs. At community level, transphobia hindered access and utilisation of HIV/STI prevention and care services. The coping strategies included use of substitutes such as lotions, avocado or yoghurt to cope with a lack of lubricants. Herbs were used as substitutes for STI drugs, while psychoactive substances were used to cope with stigma and discrimination, and changing the dress code to hide their preferred gender identity. CONCLUSIONS: Individual, community and healthcare system barriers hindered access and utilisation of HIV/STI prevention and care services among the trans-women sex workers. There is a need to create an enabling environment in order to enhance access to and utilisation of HIV/STI prevention and care services for trans-women sex workers through sensitisation of healthcare providers, other key population groups and the community at large on the transgender identity.

9.
Implement Sci ; 15(1): 106, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In low- and middle-income countries, there is an increasing attention towards community approaches to deal with the growing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, few studies have explored the implementation processes of such interventions to inform their scale up and sustainability. Using the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR), we examined the barriers and facilitators influencing the implementation of a community CVD programme led by community health workers (CHWs) in Mukono and Buikwe districts in Uganda. METHODS: This qualitative study is a process evaluation of an ongoing type II hybrid stepped wedge cluster trial guided by the CFIR. Data for this analysis were collected through regular meetings and focus group discussions (FGDs) conducted during the first cycle (6 months) of intervention implementation. A total of 20 CHWs participated in the implementation programme in 20 villages during the first cycle. Meeting reports and FGD transcripts were analysed following inductive thematic analysis with the aid of Nvivo 12.6 to generate emerging themes and sub-themes and thereafter deductive analysis was used to map themes and sub-themes onto the CFIR domains and constructs. RESULTS: The barriers to intervention implementation were the complexity of the intervention (complexity), compatibility with community culture (culture), the lack of an enabling environment for behaviour change (patient needs and resources) and mistrust of CHWs by community members (relative priority). In addition, the low community awareness of CVD (tension for change), competing demands (other personal attributes) and unfavourable policies (external policy and incentives) impeded intervention implementation. On the other hand, facilitators of intervention implementation were availability of inputs and protective equipment (design quality and packaging), training of CHWs (Available resources), working with community structures including leaders and groups (process-opinion leaders), frequent support supervision and engagements (process-formally appointed internal implementation leaders) and access to quality health services (process-champions). CONCLUSION: Using the CFIR, we identified drivers of implementation success or failure for a community CVD prevention programme in a low-income context. These findings are key to inform the design of impactful, scalable and sustainable CHW programmes for non-communicable diseases prevention and control.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260900

RESUMO

We conducted an online survey in the first two months of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in Uganda to assess the level and determinants of adherence to and satisfaction with the COVID-19 preventive measures recommended by the government. We generated Likert scales for adherence and satisfaction outcome variables and measured them with four preventive measures, including handwashing, wearing face masks, physical distancing, and coughing/sneezing hygiene. Of 1726 respondents (mean age: 36 years; range: 12-72), 59% were males, 495 (29%) were adherent to, and 545 (32%) were extremely satisfied with all four preventive measures. Adherence to all four measures was associated with living in Kampala City Centre (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6) and receiving COVID-19 information from health workers (AOR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.01-1.5) or village leaders (AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.02-1.9). Persons who lived with younger siblings had reduced odds of adherence to all four measures (AOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-0.93). Extreme satisfaction with all four measures was associated with being female (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) and health worker (AOR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.5). Experiencing violence at home (AOR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.09-0.67) was associated with lower satisfaction. Following reported poor adherence and satisfaction with preventive measures, behavior change programs using health workers should be expanded throughout, with emphasis on men.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1642, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of family planning (FP) is a key determinant of contraceptive use which ultimately plays a role in attainment of good health and in conduct of clinical research. People living in fishing communities (FCs) have limited access to health services including FP and are targeted for future clinical research but their knowledge of FP and its correlates are scantily known. We determined correlates of knowledge of FP among people living in FCs of L. victoria in Uganda to inform future FP education programs in FCs. METHODS: We conducted a comparative cross-sectional survey among participants aged 15-49 years from Kigungu and Nsazi. Participants were asked if they were aware of any FP method. All those who responded in the affirmative were further asked to mention what FP methods they had heard of or knew. Those who reported knowledge of at least one FP method were asked a series of questions about FP methods and their side effects. Knowledge was categorized into good or poor knowledge based on their mean total score. Poor knowledge constituted a score below the mean while good knowledge constituted a score of more than or equal to the mean total score. To further explore attitudes and perceptions of FP, ten in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted. RESULTS: Of the 1410 screened participants, 94.5% were aware of at least one FP method. Pills and injectable hormonal methods were the most commonly known methods. Slightly over a third (38%) had good knowledge of FP. Correlates of knowledge of FP were; being female (aOR: 1.92 95% CI: 1.39-2.67), residing in Kigungu (aOR: 4.01 95% CI: 2.77-5.81), being married (aOR: 1.59 95% CI: 1.11-2.28) and currently being in a sexual relationship (aOR: 1.75 95% CI: 1.18-2.60). Concerns about safety and effectiveness of some modern FP methods exist. Misconceptions on effects of FP like sterility, cancers and foetal abnormalities were common. CONCLUSION: FP awareness among people living in FCs of L. Victoria in Uganda is high. However, good knowledge about specific methods tends to be low. Correlates of knowledge of FP include gender, residence, marital status and sexual engagement.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1582, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite efforts to improve HIV testing and linkage to HIV care among adolescents, young people and adult men, uptake rates remain below global targets. We conducted formative research to generate data necessary to inform the design of a peer-led HIV self-testing (HIVST) intervention intended to improve HIV testing uptake and linkage to HIV care in Kasensero fishing community in rural Uganda. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in three study communities in Kasensero fishing community in Rakai district, Uganda, in May 2019. Six single-sex focus group discussions (FGDs) comprising 7-8 participants were conducted with adolescents and young people (15-24 years) and adult men (25+ years). We collected data on people's perceptions about peer-led HIVST; potential acceptability of a peer-led HIVST intervention and suggestions on how to improve linkage to HIV care after a positive HIVST result. Peer-led HIVST was defined as an approach where trained lay people distribute HIVST kits to other people in the community. FGDs were audio-recorded with permission from the participants, transcribed verbatim and analysed manually following a thematic framework approach. RESULTS: Forty-seven participants (31 men and 16 women) participated in the FGDs. Across communities and age-groups, most participants mentioned that peer-led HIVST would be generally acceptable to people in the fishing community but people will need support in performing the test due to fear of performing the test wrongly or failing to cope with HIV-positive results. Most participants felt that peer-led HIVST would bring HIV testing services closer to the community "because [the peer-leader] could be my immediate neighbour", making it easier for people to obtain the kits at any time of their convenience. To improve linkage to HIV care, participants felt that the use of peer-leaders to deliver the initial ART dose to self-tested HIV-positive individuals would be more preferable to the use of community-based ART groups or home-based ART initiation. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that peer-led HIVST is potentially acceptable in the fishing community. These findings suggest that this approach can improve uptake of HIV testing and linkage to HIV care services among populations that are usually missed through conventional HIV testing services.

13.
Lancet HIV ; 7(12): e817-e824, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stigma is a formidable social structural barrier to HIV testing, and yet the effect of stigma on HIV testing is rarely examined at the community level. We aimed to examine the geospatial relationships of perceived HIV stigma and HIV testing among men and women living in rural Uganda. METHODS: Women and men (aged ≥18 years or emancipated minor) residing in rural areas of Uganda who self-identified as HIV negative completed interviews that included measures of HIV testing history and how participants perceived HIV stigma. We used geospatial cluster analyses to identify areas of higher perceived stigma and lower perceived stigma and the geographical dispersion of these areas. We used Poisson regression models stratified by gender to test individual-level and community-level perceived stigma in relation to frequency of HIV testing in the previous 2 years. FINDINGS: Between Nov 25, 2015, and May 26, 2017, we interviewed 9740 participants (4359 [45%] men and 5381 [55%] women]), among whom 940 (9%) had never been tested for HIV, and among those who had been tested, 1131 (12%) had not been tested in the previous 2 years. Men (3134 [72%] of 4359) were less likely to have been tested in the past 2 years than women (4535 [84%] of 5381) were (p<0·001). We used Poisson regression models, reporting B coefficients, to test study hypotheses regarding the effects of individual-level and community-level stigma on HIV testing frequency counts. Multilevel modelling showed that women showed significant individual-level (B=-0·173, p<0·001) and community-level (B=-0·223, p<0·001) associations between lower stigma predicting higher rates of HIV testing. For men, lower individual-level perceived stigma was also associated with higher testing frequency (B=-0·030, p=0·018), whereas higher community-level perceived stigma was associated with higher testing frequency (B=0·077, p=0·008). INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that perceived HIV stigma at the community level exerts a differential influence on testing for women and men. HIV testing campaigns that are targeted to men and women in rural Uganda will require gender tailoring to fit local contexts. FUNDING: US National Institute of Mental Health.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel interventions are needed to reach young people and adult men with HIV services given the low HIV testing rates in these population sub-groups. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-led oral HIV self-testing (HIVST) intervention in Kasensero, a hyperendemic fishing community (HIV prevalence: 37-41%) in Rakai, Uganda. METHODS: This study was conducted among young people (15-24 years) and adult men (25+ years) between May and August 2019. The study entailed distribution of HIVST kits by trained "peer-leaders," who were selected from existing social networks and trained in HIVST distribution processes. Peer-leaders received up to 10 kits to distribute to eligible social network members (i.e. aged 15-24 years if young people or 25+ years if adult man, not tested in the past 3 months, and HIV-negative or of unknown HIV status at enrolment). The intervention was evaluated against the feasibility benchmark of 70% of peer-leaders distributing up to 70% of the kits that they received; and the acceptability benchmark of >80% of the respondents self-testing for HIV. RESULTS: Of 298 enrolled into the study at baseline, 56.4% (n = 168) were young people (15-24 years) and 43.6% (n = 130) were adult males (25+ years). Peer-leaders received 298 kits and distributed 296 (99.3%) kits to their social network members. Of the 282 interviewed at follow-up, 98.2% (n = 277) reported that they used the HIVST kits. HIV prevalence was 7.4% (n = 21). Of the 57.1% (n = 12) first-time HIV-positives, 100% sought confirmatory HIV testing and nine of the ten (90%) respondents who were confirmed as HIV-positive were linked to HIV care within 1 week of HIV diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that a social network-based, peer-led HIVST intervention in a hyperendemic fishing community is highly feasible and acceptable, and achieves high linkage to HIV care among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Infuência dos Pares , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Endêmicas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Seguimentos , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Masculinidade , Programas de Rastreamento/instrumentação , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Mucosa Bucal/imunologia , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/instrumentação , Autocuidado/métodos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237402, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite overall increase in HIV testing, more men than women remain untested. In 2018, 92% of Ugandan women but only 67% of men had tested for HIV. Understanding men's needs and concerns for testing could guide delivery of HIV testing services (HTS) to them. We assessed the prevalence of testing, associated factors and men's perspectives on HIV testing in urban and peri-urban communities in Central Uganda. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a parallel-convergent mixed-methods study among men in Kampala and Mpigi districts from August to September 2018. Using two-stage sampling, we selected 1340 men from Mpigi. We administered a structured questionnaire to collect data on HIV testing history, socio-demographics, self-reported HIV risk-related behaviors, barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. We also conducted 10 focus-groups with men from both districts to learn their perspectives on HIV testing. We used modified Poisson regression to assess factors associated with HIV testing and inductive thematic analysis to identify barriers and facilitators. Though 84.0% of men reported having tested for HIV, only 65.7% had tested in the past 12-months despite nearly all (96.7%) engaging in at least one HIV risk-related behavior. Men were more likely to have tested if aged 25-49 years, Catholic, with secondary or higher education and circumcised. Being married was associated with ever-testing while being widowed or divorced was associated with testing in past 12-months. Men who engaged in HIV risk-related behavior were less likely to have tested in the past 12-months. Qualitative findings showed that men varied in their perspectives about the need for testing, access to HTS and were uncertain of HIV testing and its outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Recent HIV testing among men remains low. Modifying testing strategies to attract men in all age groups could improve testing uptake, reduce gender disparity and initiate risk reduction interventions.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617414

RESUMO

In the early months of the pandemic, most reported cases and deaths due to COVID-19 occurred in high-income countries. However, insufficient testing could have led to an underestimation of true infections in many low- and middle-income countries. As confirmed cases increase, the ultimate impact of the pandemic on individuals and communities in low- and middle-income countries is uncertain. We therefore propose research in three broad areas as urgently needed to inform responses in low- and middle-income countries: transmission patterns of SARS-CoV-2, the clinical characteristics of the disease, and the impact of pandemic prevention and response measures. Answering these questions will require a multidisciplinary approach led by local investigators and in some cases additional resources. Targeted research activities should be done to help mitigate the potential burden of COVID-19 in low- and middle-income countries without diverting the limited human resources, funding, or medical supplies from response activities.

17.
J Infect ; 81(3): e1-e5, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682733

RESUMO

In new guidelines published on June 5th 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that in areas with ongoing COVID-19 community transmission, governments should encourage the general public to wear face masks in specific situations and settings as part of a comprehensive approach to suppress COVID-19 transmission. Recent online surveys in 206,729 persons residing in nine low- and middle-income countries showed that 32.7%-99.7% of respondents used face masks with significant differences across age groups and sexes. Targeted health promotion strategies and government support are required to increase mask use by the general population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Máscaras
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1151, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the growing epidemic of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa, behavioural change interventions are critical in supporting populations to achieve better cardiovascular health. Population knowledge regarding CVD is an important first step for any such interventions. This study examined CVD prevention knowledge and associated factors among adults in Mukono and Buikwe districts in Uganda. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional in design conducted among adults aged 25 to 70 years as part of the baseline assessment by the Scaling-up Packages of Interventions for Cardiovascular disease prevention in selected sites in Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa (SPICES) - project. Data were collected using pretested semi-structured questionnaires, and respondents categorized as knowledgeable if they scored at least five out of six in the knowledge questions. Data were exported into STATA version 15.0 statistical software for analysis conducted using mixed-effects Poisson regression with fixed and random effects and robust standard errors. RESULTS: Among the 4372 study respondents, only 776 (17.7%) were knowledgeable on CVD prevention. Most respondents were knowledgeable about foods high in calories 2981 (68.2%), 2892 (66.1%) low fruit and vegetable intake and high salt consumption 2752 (62.9%) as CVD risk factors. However, majority 3325 (76.1%) thought the recommended weekly moderate physical activity was 30 min and half 2262 (51.7%) disagreed or did not know that it was possible to have hypertension without any symptoms. Factors associated with high CVD knowledge were: post-primary education [APR = 1.55 (95% CI: 1.18-2.02), p = 0.002], formal employment [APR = 1.69 (95% CI: 1.40-2.06), p < 0.001] and high socio-economic index [APR = 1.35 (95% CI: 1.09-1.67), p = 0.004]. Other factors were: household ownership of a mobile phone [APR = 1.35 (95% CI: 1.07-1.70), p = 0.012] and ever receiving advice on healthy lifestyles [APR = 1.38 (95% CI: 1.15-1.67), p = 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: This study found very low CVD knowledge with major gaps around recommended physical activity duration, diet and whether hypertension is asymptomatic. Observed knowledge gaps should inform suitable interventions and strategies to equip and empower communities with sufficient information for CVD prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN15848572 , January 2019, retrospectively registered.

19.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 284, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is experiencing an increasing burden of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs). Modifiable risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, central obesity, sedentary behaviours, smoking, poor diet (characterised by inadequate vegetable and fruit consumption), and psychosocial stress are attributable to the growing burden of CVDs. Small geographical area mapping and analysis of these risk factors for CVD is lacking in most of sub-Saharan Africa and yet such data has the potential to inform monitoring and exploration of patterns of morbidity, health-care use, and mortality, as well as the epidemiology of risk factors. In the current study, we map and describe the distribution of the CVD risk factors in 20 parishes in two neighbouring districts in Uganda. METHODS: A baseline survey benchmarking a type-2 hybrid stepped wedge cluster randomised trial design was conducted in December 2018 and January 2019. A sample of 4372 adults aged 25-70 years was drawn from 3689 randomly selected households across 80 villages in 20 parishes in Mukono and Buikwe districts in Uganda. Descriptive statistics and generalized linear modelling controlled for clustering were conducted for this analysis in Stata 13.0, and a visual map showing risk factor distribution developed in QGIS. RESULTS: Mapping the prevalence of selected CVD risk factors indicated substantial gender and small area geographic heterogeneity which was masked on aggregate analysis. Patterns and clustering were observed for hypertension, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol consumption and risk factor combination. Prevalence of unhealthy diet was very high across all parishes with no significant observable differences across areas. CONCLUSION: Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are common in this low-income context. Moreover, across small area geographic setting, it appears significant differences in distribution of risk factors exist. These differences suggest that underlying drivers such as sociocultural, environmental and economic determinants may be promoting or inhibiting the observed risk factor prevalences which should be further explored. In addition, the differences emphasize the value of small geographical area mapping and analysis to inform more targeted risk reduction interventions.

20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234174, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study attempted to determine the incidence of HIV among pregnant women in Kabarole District, Uganda, and to identify socio-demographic and behavioral risk factors for seroconversion during pregnancy. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective cohort study among women for whom a documented HIV-negative test result from the first pregnancy trimester could be confirmed using available records, and who were HIV-retested in the third trimester or during delivery. In total, 1610 pregnant women from three different healthcare settings took part in the study. We captured the results of repeated HIV tests and conducted semi-structured interviews to explore participants' socio-demographic characteristics and sexual risk behavior. For HIV incidence rates, we calculated the number of seroconversions per 100 person-years. We used Fisher's exact test to test for potential associations. Penalized maximum likelihood logistic regression and Poisson regression were applied to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: The overall HIV incidence rate among participants was 2.9/100 women-years. Among socio-demographic characteristics, the multivariable analysis showed a significant association of marital status with HIV incidence in pregnancy (IRR 8.78, 95%CI [1.13-68.33]). Risky sexual behaviors including higher number of sexual partners in pregnancy (IRR 2.78 [1.30-5.94]), unprotected sex with unknown persons (IRR 14.25 [4.52-44.93]), alcohol abuse (IRR 12.08 [4.18-34.90]) and sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol (IRR 6.33 [1.36-29.49]) were significantly associated with seroconversion in pregnancy (similar results in logistic regression). CONCLUSIONS: HIV incidence was three times higher among our pregnant study population compared to the general female population in Uganda. This underlines the importance of HIV prevention and repeat testing during pregnancy. Identified risk groups should be considered for pre-exposure prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Incidência , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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