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1.
Theriogenology ; 149: 38-45, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234649

RESUMO

The presence of serum in embryo culture medium has been implicated for increased embryo's sensitivity to cryopreservation, compromised viability, abnormal embryo and fetal development. Hence, designing a serum free culture system is indispensable. The present study aims to compare the efficiency of the serum and granulosa cells monolayer free commercial culture system (SFCS) with the conventional serum supplemented co-culture system (SSCS) and optimized culture system (OCS). Generally, SFCS is designed explicitly for bovine oocyte maturation and embryo culture (SF-IVM and SF-IVC), and SSCS (based on M199, SS-IVM, and SS-IVC) is utilized for buffalo in vitro embryo production. However, OCS is a newly designed culture system in which oocyte maturation is performed in serum supplemented maturation medium, and the subsequent embryos are co-cultured with granulosa cells in serum free culture medium. To evaluate the effect of serum on buffalo embryo production, buffalo oocytes, and their subsequent embryos were cultured in SSCS, SFCS, and OCS, simultaneously. The percentage of cleaved embryos cultured in SSCS and OCS was approximately 4% higher as compared to SFCS. However, OCS significantly showed the maximum proportion of embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage (7d) and hatched (6d) as compared to the SFCS and SSCS. Additionally, OCS promoted the expression of developmentally important genes (BCL2-L1 and VEGF-A), cell number, and cryo-survival ability of blastocysts in comparison with SSCS. Taken together, OCS is more suitable for the oocyte maturation and culture of buffalo embryos. However, to design the serum free culture system, it is recommended to find suitable serum alternatives for in vitro oocyte maturation.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is wide variation in the reported size of ruptured intracranial aneurysms and methods of size estimation. There is widespread belief that small aneurysms < 7 mm do not rupture. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to determine the size of ruptured aneurysms according to aneurysm locations and methods of size estimation. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases using a combination of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. We included articles that reported mean aneurysm size in consecutive series of ruptured intracranial. We excluded studies limited to a specific aneurysm location or type. The random-effects model was used to calculate overall mean size and location-specific mean size. We performed meta-regression to explain observed heterogeneity and variation in reported size. RESULTS: The systematic review included 36 studies and 12,609 ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Overall mean aneurysm size was 7.0 mm (95% confidence interval [CI 6.2-7.4]). Pooled mean size varied with location. Overall mean size of 2145 ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms was 6.0 mm (95% CI 5.6-6.4, residual I2 = 86%). Overall mean size of 743 ruptured posterior circulation aneurysms was 6.2 mm (95% CI 5.3-7.0, residual I2 = 93%). Meta-regression identified aneurysm location and definition of size (i.e., maximum dimension vs. aneurysm height) as significant determinants of aneurysm size reported in the studies. CONCLUSIONS: The mean size of ruptured aneurysms in most studies was approximately 7 mm. The general wisdom that aneurysms of this size do not rupture is incorrect. Location and size definition were significant determinants of aneurysm size.

3.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-10, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coverage of the anterior spinal artery (ASA) ostia is a source of considerable consternation regarding flow diversion (FD) in vertebral artery (VA) aneurysms due to cord supply. The authors sought to assess the association between coverage of the ASA, posterior spinal artery (PSA), or lateral spinal artery (LSA) ostia when placing flow diverters in distal VAs and clinical outcomes, with emphasis on cord infarction. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study of 7 institutions in which VA aneurysms were treated with FD between 2011 and 2019 was performed. The authors evaluated the risk of ASA and PSA/LSA occlusion, associated thromboembolic complication, complications overall, aneurysm occlusion status, and functional outcome. RESULTS: Sixty patients with 63 VA and posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms treated with FD were identified. The median aneurysm diameter was 7 mm and fusiform type was the commonest morphology (42.9%). During a procedure, 1 (61.7%) or 2 (33.3%) flow diverters were placed. Complete occlusion was achieved in 71.9%. Symptomatic thromboembolic complications occurred in 7.4% of cases and intracranial hemorrhage in 10.0% of cases. The ASA and PSA/LSA were identified in 51 (80.9%) and 35 (55.6%) complications and covered by the flow diverter in 29 (56.9%) and 13 (37.1%) of the procedures, respectively. Patency after flow diverter coverage on last follow-up was 89.2% for ASA and 100% for PSA/LSA, not significantly different between covered and noncovered groups (p = 0.5 and p > 0.99, respectively). No complications arose from coverage. CONCLUSIONS: FD aneurysm treatment in the posterior circulation with coverage of ASA or PSA/LSA was not associated with higher rates of occlusion of these branches or any instances of cord infarction.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183390

RESUMO

The molecular mechanism regulating embryo development under reduced oxygen tension remains elusive. This study aimed to identify the molecular mechanism impacting embryo development under low oxygen conditions. Buffalo embryos were cultured under 5% or 20% oxygen and were evaluated according to their morphological parameters related to embryo development. The protein profiles of these embryos were compared using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics. Physiological O2 (5%) significantly promoted blastocyst yield, hatching rate, embryo quality and cell count as compared to atmospheric O2 (20%). The embryos in the 5% O2 group had an improved hatching rate of cryopreserved blastocysts post-warming (p < 0.05). Comparative proteome profiles of hatched blastocysts cultured under 5% vs. 20% O2 levels identified 43 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Functional analysis indicated that DEPs were mainly associated with glycolysis, fatty acid degradation, inositol phosphate metabolism and terpenoid backbone synthesis. Our results suggest that embryos under physiological oxygen had greater developmental potential due to the pronounced Warburg Effect (aerobic glycolysis). Moreover, our proteomic data suggested that higher lipid degradation, an elevated cholesterol level and a higher unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio might be involved in the better cryo-survival ability reported in embryos cultured under low oxygen. These data provide new information on the early embryo protein repertoire and general molecular mechanisms of embryo development under varying oxygen levels.

5.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 191: 105413, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Flow generated via peristaltic waves in naturally occurring physical phenomenon inside human body. Its combination with electric and magnetic forces makes it even more versatile in biomedical engineering applications. The results presented in this article are useful in designing artificial tubes, lab-on-a-chip devices for cell manipulation, drug design, flow amalgamation, micro-scale pumps and micro-bots which can be externally controlled by electric and magnetic sensors. Motivated by the aforesaid facts the current investigation is based on the transportation of a couple stress bio-fluid by peristalsis through a convergent channel under the postulates of creeping phenomena and long wavelength, respectively METHODS: A closed form solution is acquired for the axial velocity profile, volumetric flow rate and streamlines, respectively. The physical influence of involved parameters on the rheological characteristics are argued analytically with the help of Mathematica software 12.0.1 in detail. Additionally, the flow system is considered to take place under the both porosity and electro-magneto-hydrodynamics effects, respectively. The amplitude of axial velocity across one wavelength is strongly affected at the larger values of numerous embedded parameters: Darcy number, Hartmann number, Electro-osmotic velocity parameter and non-Newtonian (couple stress) parameter. RESULTS: We have observed remarkable effects of embedded parameters on velocity distribution, flow rate and trapping phenomena under porous and electro-osmotic (combination of both magnetic and electric) effects. The circulation of boluses and number of streamlines are reduced/enhanced for larger Hartmann number/Darcy number due strong magnetic/porosity effects. This research study additionally tells us how to control the transportation phenomena of biological fluids by appropriate adjusting the porosity effects (the effects of porous media) and electro-osmotic influences. Moreover, in order to enhance the performance of a peristaltic pump at the micro-scale level, we have used complex peristaltic wave scenario in the boundary walls of the convergent micro-channel.

6.
Environ Entomol ; 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198523

RESUMO

Effects of temperature on the development, survival, reproduction, longevity and sex ratio of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, was assessed at five constant temperatures ranging from 20 to 35°C and five fluctuating temperatures ranging from 15 to 40°C under laboratory conditions. Results showed that nymphal development duration, preoviposition period, oviposition period, fecundity, and adult longevity were reduced significantly with increasing temperature until 30°C, but developmental duration of third female nymphal instar and female adult longevity was longer at 35°C than 30°C, and no males could emerge from pupae at the constant temperature 35°C. Fluctuating temperature, in general, significantly accelerated the nymphal developmental duration, prolonged preoviposition period, shortened oviposition period, reduced fecundity, lowered the survival rate of nymphs, and decreased adult longevity of males and females compared to their mean corresponding constant temperature. Overall, it is suggested that one should be prudent when applying the obtained results under constant and fluctuating temperatures under laboratory conditions.

7.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite an increasing focus on endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms, microsurgical clipping remains an integral part of management. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of microsurgical clipping performed by dual-trained neurosurgeons at our institute, which has adopted an endovascular first approach. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiographic data of 412 aneurysms in 375 patients treated with microsurgical clipping. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictive outcome factors. We defined favorable outcome as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2 at last clinical follow-up; unfavorable outcome was an mRS score of 3-6. We compared outcomes in our series with those of seminal aneurysm clipping series. RESULTS: Clipping of 330 of 351 unruptured aneurysms (94.01%) was associated with favorable outcome during the follow-up period (mean, 26.5 months). On univariate analysis, older patient age, intraoperative rupture, and higher baseline mRS scores were associated with unfavorable outcome in the unruptured cohort. On multivariate analysis, older age, higher baseline mRS scores, and posterior circulation aneurysm location were predictive of unfavorable outcome. Clipping of 46 of 61 ruptured aneurysms (75.4%) was associated with favorable outcome during the follow-up period (mean, 23.1 months). On univariate analysis, left-sided aneurysms, intraoperative rupture, and large aneurysm size were associated with unfavorable outcome in the ruptured cohort. On multivariate analysis, female sex was predictive of unfavorable outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our ruptured and unruptured cohort results compared favorably with those in seminal series. Treatment by neurosurgeons adept at both endovascular and microsurgical techniques may improve clinical outcomes.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136775, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040991

RESUMO

Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) could be a promising and better alternative to other techniques for energy recovery from municipal sewage sludge (MSS). However, the nutrients (i.e., N, and P) recovery potential from the byproducts, generated in the HTL of MSS, needs to be studied so that a comprehensive sludge management practice could be adopted. In this study, HTL process temperature (275-400 °C), and reaction time (30-120 min) were first investigated for biocrude yield and release of the nutrients to the aqueous phase liquid (APL) and biochar. The maximum energy recovery (i.e., 59%) and maximum energy return on investment (i.e., 3.5) were obtained at 350 °C and 60 min of holding time. With the increase in HTL reaction time, the concentration of nitrogen in the APL increased (5.1 to 6.8 mg/L) while the concentration of phosphorus decreased (0.89 to 0.22 mg/L); the opposite was observed for the biochar. The nutrient recycling efficiency from the APL using microalgae was found to be strain-specific; nitrogen recycling efficiency by Picochlorum sp. and Chlorella sp. were 95.4 and 58.6%, respectively. The APL, derived from 1 kg MSS, could potentially produce 0.49 kg microalgal biomass. Since the concentrations of various metals in the biochar samples were substantially lower compared to their concentrations in raw MSS, the application of biochar as a soil conditioner could be very promising. Overall, net positive energy could be recovered from MSS using the HTL process, while the nutrients in the APL could be used to cultivate specific microalgae, and biochar could be applied to enhance the soil quality.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Chlorella , Microalgas , Nutrientes , Reciclagem , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A new dual resolution imaging x-ray detector system (Canon Medical Systems Corporation, Tochigi, Japan) has a standard resolution 194 µm pixel conventional flat-panel detector (FPD) mode and a high-resolution 76 µm high-definition (Hi-Def) mode in a single unit. The Hi-Def mode enhances the visualization of the intravascular devices. OBJECTIVE: We report the clinical experience and physician evaluation of this new detector system with Hi-Def mode for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms using a Pipeline embolization device (PED). METHODS: During intervention at our institute, under large field of view (FOV) regular resolution FPD mode imaging, the catheter systems and devices were first guided to the proximity of the treatment area. Final placement and deployment of the PED was performed under Hi-Def mode guidance. A post-procedure 9-question physician survey was conducted to qualitatively assess the impact of Hi-Def mode visualization on physicians' intraoperative decision-making. One-sample t-test was performed on the responses from the survey. Dose values reported by the x-ray unit were also recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-five cases were included in our study. The survey results indicated that, for each of the nine questions, the physicians in all cases indicated that the Hi-Def mode improved visualization compared with the FPD mode. For the 25 cases, the mean cumulative entrance air kerma was 2.35 Gy, the mean dose area product (DAP) was 173.71 Gy.cm2, and the mean x-ray exposure time was 39.30 min. CONCLUSIONS: The Hi-Def mode improves visualization of flow diverters and may help in achieving more accurate placement and deployment of devices.

11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(2): 252-258, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess work-life balance among medical residents at a tertiary hospital. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2016 at a private-sector tertiary care hospital in Karachi, and comprised medical residents working at the facility. A standardised, self-administered questionnaire was developed on the basis of Canadian Mental Health quiz and a study in literature. The questions aimed at assessing satisfaction with work as well as emotional and personal life of residents in various medical and surgical specialties. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the 275 residents, 129(46.9%) were males and 146(53.1%) were females. The overall mean age was 28.19±2.194 years. Of the total, 13(4.7%) participants thought they had work-life balance; 165(60%) felt their job had negatively affected their private lives; 118(42.9%) felt worn out; 109(39.6%) expressed moderate dissatisfaction with work-related factors; 119(43.3%) were dissatisfied with life outside work; and 93(33.8%) were dissatisfied their health. CONCLUSIONS: There was minimal work-life balance among the residents.

12.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A Pipeline embolization device (PED; Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland) can be deployed using either a biaxial or a triaxial catheter delivery system. OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of these two catheter delivery systems for intracranial aneurysm treatment with the PED. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients undergoing PED deployment with biaxial or triaxial catheter systems between 2014 and 2016 was conducted. Experienced neurointerventionalists performed the procedures. Patients who received multiple PEDs or adjunctive coils were excluded. The two groups were compared for PED deployment time, total fluoroscopy time, patient radiation exposure, complications, and cost. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients with 89 intracranial aneurysms were treated with one PED each. In 49 cases, PEDs were deployed using biaxial access; triaxial access was used in 33 cases. Time (min) from guide catheter run to PED deployment was significantly shorter in the biaxial group (24.0±18.7 vs 38.4±31.1, P=0.006) as was fluoroscopy time (28.8±23.0 vs 50.3±27.1, P=0.001). Peak radiation skin exposure (mGy) in the biaxial group was less than in the triaxial group (1243.7±808.2 vs 2074.6±1505.6, P=0.003). No statistically significant differences were observed in transient and permanent complication rates or modified Rankin Scale scores at 30 days. The triaxial access system cost more than the biaxial access system (average $3285 vs $1790, respectively). Occlusion rates at last follow-up (mean 6 months) were similar between the two systems (average 88.1%: biaxial, 89.2%: triaxial). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate near-equivalent safety and effectiveness between biaxial and triaxial approaches. Some reductions in cost and procedure time were noted with the biaxial system.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960246

RESUMO

Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) is widely used in agricultural production as an insecticide and fungicide, which can also lead to tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) in poultry. TD is characterized by leg disorders and growth performance retardation, and no targeted drugs have been found to treat TD until now. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the ameliorative effect of traditional Chinese medicine naringin on thiram-induced TD chickens. A total of 180 one-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broiler chickens were randomly divided into three equal groups (n = 60): control group (standard diet), thiram-induced group (thiram 50 mg/kg from day 3 to day 7), and naringin-treated group (naringin 30 mg/kg from day 8 to day 18). During the 18-day experiment, the growth performance, tibial bone parameters, antioxidant property of liver, serum biochemical changes and clinical symptoms were recorded to evaluate the protective effect of naringin in thiram-induced TD broiler chickens. Additionally, mRNA expressions and protein levels of Ihh and PTHrP genes were determined via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. Administration of naringin showed significant results by alleviating lameness, increased growth performance, recuperated growth plate (GP) width, and improved functions and antioxidant enzyme level of liver in broilers affected by TD. Moreover, naringin treatment restored the development of damaged tibia bone via downregulating Ihh and upregulating PTHrP mRNA and protein expressions. In conclusion, our study determines naringin could be used as an effective medicine to treat TD.

14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 138, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980942

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the concentrations of potential toxic metals (PTMs) in agricultural soil (n = 25) and their bioaccumulation in wheat crop (n = 25) collected from alongside the Kurram River, Pakistan. The highest concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soil samples were 0.16, 19.5, 14.7, 46.5, 13.5, 14.5, 14.0, and 19.7 mg kg-1, respectively. In the edible tissues of cultivated wheat crop, the highest concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 0.15, 10.00, 8.75, 22.25, 11.00, 11.25, 10.50, and 7.50 mg kg-1, respectively. The selected PTM concentrations in soil samples were observed within their respective permissible limits set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) China, while in wheat crops, the Cr and Pb concentrations were above the permissible limits of both FAO and SEPA China. The results showed that the orders of PTMs were Fe > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb > Mn in soil and Fe > Ni > Mn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Zn in wheat. The highest PTM concentrations were reported in the sample collected near dumping sites. The results of different soil pollution indices including geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), and enrichment factor (EF) indicated that the soil of the study area was moderately to severely contaminated. The ADI values of wheat crops were less than 1, while the HQ varied among different PTMs with the highest value of 2.118 for Pb, and the lowest for Zn (0.007). The results indicated that anthropogenic intervention has made a substantial contribution to soil contamination with PTMs and subsequent uptake by wheat, which may exert potential human health risk.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Triticum , Bioacumulação , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Paquistão , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Triticum/química
15.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 204: 111784, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954266

RESUMO

Present work compares the green synthesis of iron oxide nanorodes (NRs) using Withania coagulans and reduction precipitation based chemical method. UV/Vis confirmed the sharp peak of Iron oxide NRs synthesized by biologically and chemically on 294 and 278 nm respectively. XRD and SEM showed highly crystalline nature of NRs with average size 16 ± 2 nm using Withania extract and less crystalline with amorphous Nanostructure of 18 ± 2 nm by chemical method. FTIR analysis revealed the involvement of active bioreducing and stabilizing biomolecules in Withania coagulans extract for synthesis of NRs. Moreover, EDX analysis indicates 34.91% of Iron oxide formation in biological synthesis whereas 25.8% of iron oxide synthesis in chemical method. The degradation of safranin dye in the presence of Withania coagulans based NRs showed 30% more effectively than chemically synthesized Nanorods which were verified by the gradual decrease in the peak intensity at 553 nm and 550 nm respectively under solar irradiation. Furthermore, Withania coagulans based NRs showed effective Antibacterial activity against S.aureus and P. aeuroginosa as compared to NRs by chemical method. Finally, we conclude that green synthesized NRs are more effective and functionally more efficient than chemically prepared NRs. Therefore, our work will help the researchers to boost the synthesis of nanoparticles via biological at commercial level.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Nanotubos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Withania/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Catálise , Química Verde , Nanotubos/toxicidade , Fenazinas/química , Fotólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotólise/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz Solar , Withania/metabolismo
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110126, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918251

RESUMO

Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) is a dithiocarbamate pesticide used for crop protection and storage. But, it's widespread utilization is associated with deleterious growth plate cartilage disorder in broilers termed as avian tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). TD results in non-mineralized and less vascularized proximal tibial growth plate cartilage causing lameness and poor growth performance. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of puerarin against thiram toxicity in TD affected chickens. One-day-old broiler chickens (n = 240) were alienated into three equal groups i.e. control, TD and puerarin (n = 80) and were offered standard feed. Additionally, TD and puerarin groups were offered thiram at 50 mg/kg of feed from 4 to 7 days for TD induction followed by puerarin therapy at 120 mg/kg to puerarin group only from 8 to 18 days for TD treatment. Thiram feeding to TD and puerarin group chickens caused lameness, mortality, and increased the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and growth plate (GP) size and upregulated HIF-1α expression. Besides, the production parameters, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels and the expressions of TIMP-3 and BCL-2 were decreased (p < 0.05). Puerarin alleviated lameness, enhanced angiogenesis and growth performance and serum and antioxidant enzymes, decreased apoptosis and recuperated GP width by significantly downregulating HIF-1α and upregulating the TIMP-3 and BCL-2 mRNA and protein expressions in puerarin group chickens (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the toxic effects associated with thiram can be mitigated using puerarin.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Tiram/toxicidade , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Lâmina de Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-3/metabolismo
17.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 189: 105313, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The swimming mechanism of self-propelling organisms has been imitated by biomedical engineers to design the mechanical micro bots. The interaction of these swimmers with surrounding environment is another important aspect. The present swimming problem integrates Taylor sheet model with couple stress fluid model. The thin passage containing micro-swimmers and mucus is approximated as a rigid (passive) two-dimensional channel. The spermatozoa forms a pack quite similar as a complex wavy sheet. METHODS: Swimming problem with couple stress cervical liquid (at low Reynolds number) leads to a linear sixth order differential equation. The boundary value problem (BVP) is solved analytically with two unknowns i.e. speed of complex wavy sheet and flow rate of couple stress mucus. After utilizing this solution into equilibrium conditions these unknowns can be computed via Newton-Raphson algorithm. Furthermore, the pairs of numerically calculated organism speed and flow rate are utilized in the expression of power dissipation. RESULTS: This work describes that the speed of micro-swimmers can be enhanced by suitable rheology of the surrounding liquid. The usage of couple stress fluid as compared to Newtonian fluid enhances the energy dissipation and reduces the flow rate. On the other hand complex wavy surface also aids the organisms to swim faster.

18.
Anaerobe ; 61: 102115, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711887

RESUMO

Yak (Bos grunniens), a ruminant, has a complex gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem, which is essential for host nutrition and health. However, not much is known about gut microbial communities of yak. This study was conducted to characterize the gut microbial diversity and composition of small intestinal and cecal contents of yaks through high-throughput sequencing targeting V3-V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene. A total of 916,934 high-quality sequences were obtained and 224 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared all samples. The result showed that the microbial community in the small intestine was different from cecum sample. In all samples, the majority of bacterial phyla were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. A large proportion of anaerobes in the families Peptostreptococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Succinivibrionaceae were present in the various intestinal segments. The relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae and Muribaculaceae were significantly higher in cecum than in other segments of intestines. At the genus level, Bacteroides was the most predominant genus in cecum. The results indicated that yak have abundant and diverse gut microbial community. In conclusion, this study characterized the profiles of microbial communities across intestinal segments and provide better insight into microbial population structure and diversity of yak.

19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(2): 104504, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of the frequency of large vessel occlusion (LVO) is important to determine needs for neurointerventionists and thrombectomy-capable stroke facilities. Current estimates vary from 13% to 52%, depending on acute ischemic stroke (AIS) definition and methods for AIS and LVO determination. We sought to estimate LVO prevalence among confirmed and suspected AIS patients at 2 comprehensive US stroke centers using a broad occlusion site definition: internal carotid artery (ICA), first and second segments of the middle cerebral artery (MCA M1,M2), the anterior cerebral artery, vertebral artery, basilar artery, or the proximal posterior cerebral artery. METHODS: We analyzed prospectively maintained stroke databases of patients presenting to the centers between January and December 2017. ICD-10 coding was used to determine the number of patients discharged with an AIS diagnosis. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was reviewed to determine LVO presence and site. Percentages of patients with LVO among the confirmed AIS population were reported. RESULTS: Among 2245 patients with an AIS discharge diagnosis, 418 (18.6%:95% confidence interval [CI] 17.3%-20.0%) had LVO documented on CTA or MRA. Most common occlusion site was M1 (n=139 [33.3%]), followed by M2 (n=114 [27.3%]), ICA (n=69[16.5%]), and tandem ICA-MCA lesions (n=44 [10.5%]). Presentation National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were significantly different for different occlusion sites (P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: The LVO prevalence in our large series of consecutive AIS patients was 18.6% (95% CI 17.3%-20.0%). Despite the use of a broad definition, this estimate is less than that reported in most previous studies.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/epidemiologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Anterior/epidemiologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artéria Cerebral Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Anterior/fisiopatologia , Artéria Basilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Basilar/fisiopatologia , Artéria Carótida Interna/fisiopatologia , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Anterior/fisiopatologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/fisiopatologia
20.
J Neuroimaging ; 30(1): 90-96, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral vasodilatory capacity assessment for risk stratification in patients with extracranial arterial stenosis or occlusion may be useful. We describe a new method that assesses cerebral vasodilatory capacity as part of catheter-based cerebral angiography. METHODS: We prospectively assessed regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in the arterial distribution of interest using a controlled contrast injection in the common carotid or the subclavian arteries. rCBV maps were created using a predefined algorithm based on contrast distribution in the venous phase (voxel size: .466 mm3 ). rCBV maps were acquired again after selective administration of intra-arterial nicardipine (2.0 mg) distal to the stenosis. Two independent observers graded the change in rCBV in 10 predefined anatomical regions within the tributaries of the artery of interest (0 = reduction, 1 = no change, 2 = increase) and total rCBV change scores were summated. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients with internal carotid artery stenosis (n = 18; 0-90% in severity) or extracranial vertebral artery stenosis (n = 7; 0-100% in severity) were assessed. There was an increase in rCBV in a tributary of the artery of interest in 18 of 25 after intra-arterial nicardipine (mean score: 11.98; range 0-19.5). There was no change or decrease in rCBV in 7 of 25 patients. The mean rCBV change score was similar in patients with an assessment of internal carotid artery or vertebral artery distributions (12.2 ± 5.3; 11.4 ± 2.5; P = .68). CONCLUSION: Selective vasodilatory response to intra-arterial nicardipine in the affected arterial distribution during catheter-based cerebral angiography may provide new data for risk stratification.

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