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1.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722473

RESUMO

Respiratory viruses are a common cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Viruses like influenza, RSV, and most recently SARS-CoV-2 can rapidly spread through a population, causing acute infection and, in vulnerable populations, severe or chronic disease. Developing effective treatment and prevention strategies often becomes a race against ever-evolving viruses that develop resistance, leaving therapy efficacy either short-lived or relevant for specific viral strains. On June 29 to July 2, 2022, researchers met for the Keystone symposium "Respiratory Viruses: New Frontiers." Researchers presented new insights into viral biology and virus-host interactions to understand the mechanisms of disease and identify novel treatment and prevention approaches that are effective, durable, and broad.

3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7864, 2022 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543789

RESUMO

Contemporary influenza A H3N2 viruses circulating since 2016 have acquired a glycosylation site in the neuraminidase in close proximity to the enzymatic active site. Here, we investigate if this S245N glycosylation site, as a result of antigenic evolution, can impact binding and function of human monoclonal antibodies that target the conserved active site. While we find that a reduction in the inhibitory ability of neuraminidase active site binders is measurable, this class of broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies maintains protective efficacy in vivo.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Neuraminidase , Humanos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico/imunologia , Domínio Catalítico/fisiologia , Glicosilação , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza , Vírus da Influenza A , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Neuraminidase/química , Neuraminidase/imunologia
4.
iScience ; 25(12): 105649, 2022 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439375

RESUMO

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants poses continuous challenges in combating the virus. Here, we describe vaccination strategies to broaden SARS-CoV-2 and sarbecovirus immunity by combining spike proteins based on different viruses or viral strains displayed on two-component protein nanoparticles. First, we combined spike proteins based on ancestral and Beta SARS-CoV-2 strains to broaden SARS-CoV-2 immune responses. Inclusion of Beta spike improved neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 Beta, Gamma, and Omicron BA.1 and BA.4/5. A third vaccination with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 spike also improved cross-neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants, in particular against the Omicron sublineages. Second, we combined SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins to broaden sarbecovirus immune responses. Adding SARS-CoV spike to a SARS-CoV-2 spike vaccine improved neutralizing responses against SARS-CoV and SARS-like bat sarbecoviruses SHC014 and WIV1. These results should inform the development of broadly active SARS-CoV-2 and pan-sarbecovirus vaccines and highlight the versatility of two-component nanoparticles for displaying diverse antigens.

5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7271, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434005

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects approximately 58 million people and causes ~300,000 deaths yearly. The only target for HCV neutralizing antibodies is the highly sequence diverse E1E2 glycoprotein. Eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved cross-neutralizing epitopes is important for an effective HCV vaccine. However, most recombinant HCV glycoprotein vaccines, which usually include only E2, induce only weak neutralizing antibody responses. Here, we describe recombinant soluble E1E2 immunogens that were generated by permutation of the E1 and E2 subunits. We displayed the E2E1 immunogens on two-component nanoparticles and these nanoparticles induce significantly more potent neutralizing antibody responses than E2. Next, we generated mosaic nanoparticles co-displaying six different E2E1 immunogens. These mosaic E2E1 nanoparticles elicit significantly improved neutralization compared to monovalent E2E1 nanoparticles. These results provide a roadmap for the generation of an HCV vaccine that induces potent and broad neutralization.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Nanopartículas , Vacinas , Humanos , Hepacivirus/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Proteínas do Envelope Viral , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C , Glicoproteínas
6.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400021

RESUMO

The Lassa virus is endemic in parts of West Africa, and it causes hemorrhagic fever with high mortality. The development of a recombinant protein vaccine has been hampered by the instability of soluble Lassa virus glycoprotein complex (GPC) trimers, which disassemble into monomeric subunits after expression. Here, we use two-component protein nanoparticles consisting of trimeric and pentameric subunits to stabilize GPC in a trimeric conformation. These GPC nanoparticles present twenty prefusion GPC trimers on the surface of an icosahedral particle. Cryo-EM studies of GPC nanoparticles demonstrated a well-ordered structure and yielded a high-resolution structure of an unliganded GPC. These nanoparticles induced potent humoral immune responses in rabbits and protective immunity against the lethal Lassa virus challenge in guinea pigs. Additionally, we isolated a neutralizing antibody that mapped to the putative receptor-binding site, revealing a previously undefined site of vulnerability. Collectively, these findings offer potential approaches to vaccine and therapeutic design for the Lassa virus.

7.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(11): e1010945, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395347

RESUMO

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have remarkable breadth and potency against most HIV-1 subtypes and are able to prevent HIV-1 infection in animal models. However, bNAbs are extremely difficult to induce by vaccination. Defining the developmental pathways towards neutralization breadth can assist in the design of strategies to elicit protective bNAb responses by vaccination. Here, HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env)-specific IgG+ B cells were isolated at various time points post infection from an HIV-1 infected elite neutralizer to obtain monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Multiple antibody lineages were isolated targeting distinct epitopes on Env, including the gp120-gp41 interface, CD4-binding site, silent face and V3 region. The mAbs each neutralized a diverse set of HIV-1 strains from different clades indicating that the patient's remarkable serum breadth and potency might have been the result of a polyclonal mixture rather than a single bNAb lineage. High-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structures of the neutralizing mAbs (NAbs) in complex with an Env trimer generated from the same individual revealed that the NAbs used multiple strategies to neutralize the virus; blocking the receptor binding site, binding to HIV-1 Env N-linked glycans, and disassembly of the trimer. These results show that diverse NAbs can complement each other to achieve a broad and potent neutralizing serum response in HIV-1 infected individuals. Hence, the induction of combinations of moderately broad NAbs might be a viable vaccine strategy to protect against a wide range of circulating HIV-1 viruses.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Animais , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV
8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202214731, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377708

RESUMO

Viral genomes can be compressed into a near-spherical nanochamber to form infectious particles. In order to mimic the virus morphology and packaging behavior, we invented a programmable icosahedral DNA nanoframe with enhanced rigidity and encapsulated the phiX174 bacteriophage genome. The packaging efficiency could be modulated through specific anchoring strands adjustment, and the trapped phage genome remained accessible for enzymatic operations. Moreover, the packed complex could infect Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells through bacterial uptake to produce plaques. This rigid icosahedral DNA architecture demonstrated a versatile platform to develop virus mimetic particles for convenient functional nucleic acid entrapment, manipulation and delivery.

9.
Science ; 378(6617): 263-269, 2022 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264808

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans and afflicts more than 58 million people worldwide. The HCV envelope E1 and E2 glycoproteins are essential for viral entry and comprise the primary antigenic target for neutralizing antibody responses. The molecular mechanisms of E1E2 assembly, as well as how the E1E2 heterodimer binds broadly neutralizing antibodies, remain elusive. Here, we present the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the membrane-extracted full-length E1E2 heterodimer in complex with three broadly neutralizing antibodies-AR4A, AT1209, and IGH505-at ~3.5-angstrom resolution. We resolve the interface between the E1 and E2 ectodomains and deliver a blueprint for the rational design of vaccine immunogens and antiviral drugs.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Proteínas do Envelope Viral , Humanos , Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Hepacivirus/química , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Multimerização Proteica , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/química , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/imunologia
11.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(10): 100780, 2022 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206752

RESUMO

Protein nanoparticle scaffolds are increasingly used in next-generation vaccine designs, and several have established records of clinical safety and efficacy. Yet the rules for how immune responses specific to nanoparticle scaffolds affect the immunogenicity of displayed antigens have not been established. Here we define relationships between anti-scaffold and antigen-specific antibody responses elicited by protein nanoparticle immunogens. We report that dampening anti-scaffold responses by physical masking does not enhance antigen-specific antibody responses. In a series of immunogens that all use the same nanoparticle scaffold but display four different antigens, only HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is subdominant to the scaffold. However, we also demonstrate that scaffold-specific antibody responses can competitively inhibit antigen-specific responses when the scaffold is provided in excess. Overall, our results suggest that anti-scaffold antibody responses are unlikely to suppress antigen-specific antibody responses for protein nanoparticle immunogens in which the antigen is immunodominant over the scaffold.


Assuntos
HIV-1 , Nanopartículas , Vacinas , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , Formação de Anticorpos , Glicoproteínas
12.
bioRxiv ; 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36263063

RESUMO

The worldwide pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has remained a human medical threat due to the continued evolution of multiple variants that acquire resistance to vaccines and prior infection. Therefore, it is imperative to discover monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize a broad range of SARS-CoV-2 variants for therapeutic and prophylactic use. A stabilized autologous SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein was used to enrich antigen-specific B cells from an individual with a primary Gamma variant infection. Five mAbs selected from those B cells showed considerable neutralizing potency against multiple variants of concern, with COVA309-35 being the most potent against the autologous virus, as well as against Omicron BA.1 and BA.2. When combining the COVA309 mAbs as cocktails or bispecific antibody formats, the breadth and potency was significantly improved against all tested variants. In addition, the mechanism of cross-neutralization of the COVA309 mAbs was elucidated by structural analysis. Altogether these data indicate that a Gamma-infected individual can develop broadly neutralizing antibodies.

13.
Nature ; 609(7929): 998-1004, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131022

RESUMO

Germinal centres are the engines of antibody evolution. Here, using human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Env protein immunogen priming in rhesus monkeys followed by a long period without further immunization, we demonstrate germinal centre B (BGC) cells that last for at least 6 months. A 186-fold increase in BGC cells was present by week 10 compared with conventional immunization. Single-cell transcriptional profiling showed that both light- and dark-zone germinal centre states were sustained. Antibody somatic hypermutation of BGC cells continued to accumulate throughout the 29-week priming period, with evidence of selective pressure. Env-binding BGC cells were still 49-fold above baseline at 29 weeks, which suggests that they could remain active for even longer periods of time. High titres of HIV-neutralizing antibodies were generated after a single booster immunization. Fully glycosylated HIV trimer protein is a complex antigen, posing considerable immunodominance challenges for B cells1,2. Memory B cells generated under these long priming conditions had higher levels of antibody somatic hypermutation, and both memory B cells and antibodies were more likely to recognize non-immunodominant epitopes. Numerous BGC cell lineage phylogenies spanning more than the 6-month germinal centre period were identified, demonstrating continuous germinal centre activity and selection for at least 191 days with no further antigen exposure. A long-prime, slow-delivery (12 days) immunization approach holds promise for difficult vaccine targets and suggests that patience can have great value for tuning of germinal centres to maximize antibody responses.


Assuntos
Afinidade de Anticorpos , Linfócitos B , Movimento Celular , Células Clonais , Centro Germinativo , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , Imunização , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos/genética , Afinidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Células Clonais/citologia , Células Clonais/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Centro Germinativo/citologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/genética , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Macaca mulatta/imunologia , Macaca mulatta/virologia , Células B de Memória/citologia , Células B de Memória/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Hipermutação Somática de Imunoglobulina/genética , Hipermutação Somática de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/administração & dosagem , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5236, 2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068229

RESUMO

SIVmac239 infection of macaques is a favored model of human HIV infection. However, the SIVmac239 envelope (Env) trimer structure, glycan occupancy, and the targets and ability of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to protect against SIVmac239 remain unknown. Here, we report the isolation of SIVmac239 nAbs that recognize a glycan hole and the V1/V4 loop. A high-resolution structure of a SIVmac239 Env trimer-nAb complex shows many similarities to HIV and SIVcpz Envs, but with distinct V4 features and an extended V1 loop. Moreover, SIVmac239 Env has a higher glycan shield density than HIV Env that may contribute to poor or delayed nAb responses in SIVmac239-infected macaques. Passive transfer of a nAb protects macaques from repeated intravenous SIVmac239 challenge at serum titers comparable to those described for protection of humans against HIV infection. Our results provide structural insights for vaccine design and shed light on antibody-mediated protection in the SIV model.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Polissacarídeos
15.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(10): 100751, 2022 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167072

RESUMO

Given the time and resources invested in clinical trials, innovative prediction methods are needed to decrease late-stage failure in vaccine development. We identify combinations of early innate responses that predict neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses induced in HIV-Env SOSIP immunized cynomolgus macaques using various routes of vaccine injection and adjuvants. We analyze blood myeloid cells before and 24 h after each immunization by mass cytometry using a three-step clustering, and we discriminate unique vaccine signatures based on HLA-DR, CD39, CD86, CD11b, CD45, CD64, CD14, CD32, CD11c, CD123, CD4, CD16, and CADM1 surface expression. Various combinations of these markers characterize cell families positively associated with nAb production, whereas CADM1-expressing cells are negatively associated (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate that monitoring immune signatures during early vaccine development could assist in identifying biomarkers that predict vaccine immunogenicity.


Assuntos
HIV-1 , Animais , Macaca , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-3 , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , Anticorpos Neutralizantes
16.
Immunity ; 55(11): 2149-2167.e9, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179689

RESUMO

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to the HIV envelope (Env) V2-apex region are important leads for HIV vaccine design. Most V2-apex bnAbs engage Env with an uncommonly long heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3), suggesting that the rarity of bnAb precursors poses a challenge for vaccine priming. We created precursor sequence definitions for V2-apex HCDR3-dependent bnAbs and searched for related precursors in human antibody heavy-chain ultradeep sequencing data from 14 HIV-unexposed donors. We found potential precursors in a majority of donors for only two long-HCDR3 V2-apex bnAbs, PCT64 and PG9, identifying these bnAbs as priority vaccine targets. We then engineered ApexGT Env trimers that bound inferred germlines for PCT64 and PG9 and had higher affinities for bnAbs, determined cryo-EM structures of ApexGT trimers complexed with inferred-germline and bnAb forms of PCT64 and PG9, and developed an mRNA-encoded cell-surface ApexGT trimer. These methods and immunogens have promise to assist HIV vaccine development.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Humanos , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/genética , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
17.
Immunity ; 55(11): 2168-2186.e6, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179690

RESUMO

Eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is the core of HIV vaccine design. bnAbs specific to the V2-apex region of the HIV envelope acquire breadth and potency with modest somatic hypermutation, making them attractive vaccination targets. To evaluate Apex germline-targeting (ApexGT) vaccine candidates, we engineered knockin (KI) mouse models expressing the germline B cell receptor (BCR) of the bnAb PCT64. We found that high affinity of the ApexGT immunogen for PCT64-germline BCRs was necessary to specifically activate KI B cells at human physiological frequencies, recruit them to germinal centers, and select for mature bnAb mutations. Relative to protein, mRNA-encoded membrane-bound ApexGT immunization significantly increased activation and recruitment of PCT64 precursors to germinal centers and lowered their affinity threshold. We have thus developed additional models for HIV vaccine research, validated ApexGT immunogens for priming V2-apex bnAb precursors, and identified mRNA-LNP as a suitable approach to substantially improve the B cell response.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana
18.
Immunity ; 55(10): 1856-1871.e6, 2022 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987201

RESUMO

Vaccines generate high-affinity antibodies by recruiting antigen-specific B cells to germinal centers (GCs), but the mechanisms governing the recruitment to GCs on secondary challenges remain unclear. Here, using preclinical SARS-CoV and HIV mouse models, we demonstrated that the antibodies elicited during primary humoral responses shaped the naive B cell recruitment to GCs during secondary exposures. The antibodies from primary responses could either enhance or, conversely, restrict the GC participation of naive B cells: broad-binding, low-affinity, and low-titer antibodies enhanced recruitment, whereas, by contrast, the high titers of high-affinity, mono-epitope-specific antibodies attenuated cognate naive B cell recruitment. Thus, the directionality and intensity of that effect was determined by antibody concentration, affinity, and epitope specificity. Circulating antibodies can, therefore, be important determinants of antigen immunogenicity. Future vaccines may need to overcome-or could, alternatively, leverage-the effects of circulating primary antibodies on subsequent naive B cell recruitment.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , Centro Germinativo , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Antígenos , Epitopos , Imunidade Humoral , Camundongos
19.
iScience ; 25(9): 104914, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971553

RESUMO

The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants poses a constant threat of escape from monoclonal antibody and vaccine countermeasures. Mutations in the ACE2 receptor binding site on the surface S protein have been shown to disrupt antibody binding and prevent viral neutralization. Here, we used a directed evolution-based approach to engineer three neutralizing antibodies for enhanced binding to S protein. The engineered antibodies showed increased in vitro functional activity in terms of neutralization potency and/or breadth of neutralization against viral variants. Deep mutational scanning revealed that higher binding affinity reduces the total number of viral escape mutations. Studies in the Syrian hamster model showed two examples where the affinity-matured antibody provided superior protection compared to the parental antibody. These data suggest that monoclonal antibodies for antiviral indications would benefit from affinity maturation to reduce viral escape pathways and appropriate affinity maturation in vaccine immunization could help resist viral variation.

20.
Elife ; 112022 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920807

RESUMO

Otopetrin (OTOP) channels are proton-selective ion channels conserved among vertebrates and invertebrates, with no structural similarity to other ion channels. There are three vertebrate OTOP channels (OTOP1, OTOP2, and OTOP3), of which one (OTOP1) functions as a sour taste receptor. Whether extracellular protons gate OTOP channels, in addition to permeating them, was not known. Here, we compare the functional properties of the three murine OTOP channels using patch-clamp recording and cytosolic pH microfluorimetry. We find that OTOP1 and OTOP3 are both steeply activated by extracellular protons, with thresholds of pHo <6.0 and 5.5, respectively, and kinetics that are pH-dependent. In contrast, OTOP2 channels are broadly active over a large pH range (pH 5 pH 10) and carry outward currents in response to extracellular alkalinization (>pH 9.0). Strikingly, we could change the pH-sensitive gating of OTOP2 and OTOP3 channels by swapping extracellular linkers that connect transmembrane domains. Swaps of extracellular linkers in the N domain, comprising transmembrane domains 1-6, tended to change the relative conductance at alkaline pH of chimeric channels, while swaps within the C domain, containing transmembrane domains 7-12, tended to change the rates of OTOP3 current activation. We conclude that members of the OTOP channel family are proton-gated (acid-sensitive) proton channels and that the gating apparatus is distributed across multiple extracellular regions within both the N and C domains of the channels. In addition to the taste system, OTOP channels are expressed in the vertebrate vestibular and digestive systems. The distinct gating properties we describe may allow them to subserve varying cell-type specific functions in these and other biological systems.


Assuntos
Prótons , Vertebrados , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Invertebrados , Canais Iônicos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Vertebrados/metabolismo
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