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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-35, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651563

RESUMO

AbstractA COVID-19 vaccine with capability to induce early protection is needed to efficiently eliminate viral spread. Here, we demonstrate the development of a nanoparticle vaccine candidate, REVC-128, in which multiple trimeric spike ectodomain with glycine (G) at position 614 were multimerized onto a nanoparticle. In-vitro characterization of this vaccine confirms its structural and antigenic integrity. In-vivo immunogenicity evaluation in mice indicates that a single dose of this vaccine induces potent serum neutralizing antibody titer at two weeks post immunization, which is significantly higher than titer induced by trimeric spike protein without nanoparticle presentation. The comparison of serum binding to spike subunits between animals immunized by spike with and without nanoparticle presentation indicates that nanoparticle prefers the display of spike RBD (Receptor-Binding Domain) over S2 subunit, likely resulting in a more neutralizing but less cross-reactive antibody response. Moreover, a Syrian golden hamster in-vivo model for SARS-CoV-2 virus challenge was implemented at two weeks post a single dose of REVC-128 immunization. The results showed that vaccination protects hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 virus challenge with evidence of steady body weight, suppressed viral loads and alleviation of tissue damage for protected animals, compared with ∼10% weight loss, high viral loads and tissue damage in unprotected animals. Furthermore, the data showed that vaccine REVC-128 is thermostable at up to 37°C for at least 4 weeks. These findings, along with history of safety for protein vaccines, suggest that the REVC-128 is a safe, stable and efficacious single-shot vaccine candidate to induce the earliest protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

3.
JCI Insight ; 6(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437301

RESUMO

Avian H7N9 influenza viruses cause sporadic outbreaks of human infections and threaten to cause a major pandemic. The breadth of B cell responses to natural infection and the dominant antigenic sites recognized during first exposure to H7 HA following infection are incompletely understood. Here, we studied the B cell response to H7 HA of 2 individuals who had recovered from natural H7N9 virus infection. We used competition binding, hydrogen-deuterium mass spectrometry, and single-particle negative stain electron microscopy to identify the patterns of molecular recognition of the antibody responses to H7 HA. We found that circulating H7-reactive B cells recognized a diverse antigenic landscape on the HA molecule, including HA head domain epitopes in antigenic sites A and B and in the trimer interface-II region and epitopes in the stem region. Most H7 antibodies exhibited little heterosubtypic breadth, but many recognized a wide diversity of unrelated H7 strains. We tested the antibodies for functional activity and identified clones with diverse patterns of inhibition, including neutralizing, hemagglutination- or egress-inhibiting, or HA trimer-disrupting activities. Thus, the human B cell response to primary H7 natural infection is diverse, highly functional, and broad for recognition of diverse H7 strains.

4.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(8): e1009736, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432859

RESUMO

The development of an effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) vaccine is a high global health priority. Soluble native-like HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers (Env), including those based on the SOSIP design, have shown promise as vaccine candidates by inducing neutralizing antibody responses against the autologous virus in animal models. However, to overcome HIV-1's extreme diversity a vaccine needs to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Such bNAbs can protect non-human primates (NHPs) and humans from infection. The prototypic BG505 SOSIP.664 immunogen is based on the BG505 env sequence isolated from an HIV-1-infected infant from Kenya who developed a bNAb response. Studying bNAb development during natural HIV-1 infection can inform vaccine design, however, it is unclear to what extent vaccine-induced antibody responses to Env are comparable to those induced by natural infection. Here, we compared Env antibody responses in BG505 SOSIP-immunized NHPs with those in BG505 SHIV-infected NHPs, by analyzing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We observed three major differences between BG505 SOSIP immunization and BG505 SHIV infection. First, SHIV infection resulted in more clonal expansion and less antibody diversity compared to SOSIP immunization, likely because of higher and/or prolonged antigenic stimulation and increased antigen diversity during infection. Second, while we retrieved comparatively fewer neutralizing mAbs (NAbs) from SOSIP-immunized animals, these NAbs targeted more diverse epitopes compared to NAbs from SHIV-infected animals. However, none of the NAbs, either elicited by vaccination or infection, showed any breadth. Finally, SOSIP immunization elicited antibodies against the base of the trimer, while infection did not, consistent with the base being placed onto the virus membrane in the latter setting. Together these data provide new insights into the antibody response against BG505 Env during infection and immunization and limitations that need to be overcome to induce better responses after vaccination.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4817, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376662

RESUMO

Engineered ectodomain trimer immunogens based on BG505 envelope glycoprotein are widely utilized as components of HIV vaccine development platforms. In this study, we used rhesus macaques to evaluate the immunogenicity of several stabilized BG505 SOSIP constructs both as free trimers and presented on a nanoparticle. We applied a cryoEM-based method for high-resolution mapping of polyclonal antibody responses elicited in immunized animals (cryoEMPEM). Mutational analysis coupled with neutralization assays were used to probe the neutralization potential at each epitope. We demonstrate that cryoEMPEM data can be used for rapid, high-resolution analysis of polyclonal antibody responses without the need for monoclonal antibody isolation. This approach allowed to resolve structurally distinct classes of antibodies that bind overlapping sites. In addition to comprehensive mapping of commonly targeted neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes in BG505 SOSIP immunogens, our analysis revealed that epitopes comprising engineered stabilizing mutations and of partially occupied glycosylation sites can be immunogenic.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/ultraestrutura , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Epitopos/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/química , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/ultraestrutura , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/ultraestrutura
6.
mBio ; 12(4): e0100221, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311574

RESUMO

After first emerging in late 2019 in China, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has since caused a pandemic leading to millions of infections and deaths worldwide. Vaccines have been developed and authorized, but the supply of these vaccines is currently limited. With new variants of the virus now emerging and spreading globally, it is essential to develop therapeutics that are broadly protective and bind conserved epitopes in the receptor binding domain (RBD) or the full-length spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we generated mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against different epitopes on the RBD and assessed binding and neutralization of authentic SARS-CoV-2. We demonstrate that antibodies with neutralizing activity, but not nonneutralizing antibodies, lower viral titers in the lungs when administered in a prophylactic setting in vivo in a mouse challenge model. In addition, most of the MAbs cross-neutralize the B.1.351 as well as the B.1.1.7 variant in vitro. IMPORTANCE Cross-neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants by RBD-targeting antibodies is still not well understood, and very little is known about the potential protective effect of nonneutralizing antibodies in vivo. Using a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies, we investigate both of these points.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Neutralização , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Células Vero , Carga Viral
7.
Sci Adv ; 7(31)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321200

RESUMO

Rationally designed protein subunit vaccines are being developed for a variety of viruses including influenza, RSV, SARS-CoV-2, and HIV. These vaccines are based on stabilized versions of the primary targets of neutralizing antibodies on the viral surface, namely, viral fusion glycoproteins. While these immunogens display the epitopes of potent neutralizing antibodies, they also present epitopes recognized by non-neutralizing or weakly neutralizing ("off-target") antibodies. Using our recently developed electron microscopy polyclonal epitope mapping approach, we have uncovered a phenomenon wherein off-target antibodies elicited by HIV trimer subunit vaccines cause the otherwise highly stabilized trimeric proteins to degrade into cognate protomers. Further, we show that these protomers expose an expanded suite of off-target epitopes, normally occluded inside the prefusion conformation of trimer, that subsequently elicit further off-target antibody responses. Our study provides critical insights for further improvement of HIV subunit trimer vaccines for future rounds of the iterative vaccine design process.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/química , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/química , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química , Vacinas contra a AIDS/química , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Coelhos , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia
8.
Cell Rep ; 36(2): 109353, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237283

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is one of three coronaviruses that have crossed the animal-to-human barrier and caused widespread disease in the past two decades. The development of a universal human coronavirus vaccine could prevent future pandemics. We characterize 198 antibodies isolated from four COVID-19+ subjects and identify 14 SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. One targets the N-terminal domain (NTD), one recognizes an epitope in S2, and 11 bind the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Three anti-RBD neutralizing antibodies cross-neutralize SARS-CoV-1 by effectively blocking binding of both the SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 RBDs to the ACE2 receptor. Using the K18-hACE transgenic mouse model, we demonstrate that the neutralization potency and antibody epitope specificity regulates the in vivo protective potential of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. All four cross-neutralizing antibodies neutralize the B.1.351 mutant strain. Thus, our study reveals that epitopes in S2 can serve as blueprints for the design of immunogens capable of eliciting cross-neutralizing coronavirus antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Neutralização , Ligação Proteica/imunologia , Domínios Proteicos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química
9.
J Clin Invest ; 131(15)2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156974

RESUMO

Broadly reactive antibodies targeting the influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) head domain are thought to be rare and to require extensive somatic mutations or unusual structural features to achieve breadth against divergent HA subtypes. Here we describe common genetic and structural features of protective human antibodies from several individuals recognizing the trimer interface (TI) of the influenza A HA head, a recently identified site of vulnerability. We examined the sequence of TI-reactive antibodies, determined crystal structures for TI antibody-antigen complexes, and analyzed the contact residues of the antibodies on HA to discover common genetic and structural features of TI antibodies. Our data reveal that many TI antibodies are encoded by a light chain variable gene segment incorporating a shared somatic mutation. In addition, these antibodies have a shared acidic residue in the heavy chain despite originating from diverse heavy chain variable gene segments. These studies show that the TI region of influenza A HA is a major antigenic site with conserved structural features that are recognized by a common human B cell public clonotype. The canonical nature of this antibody-antigen interaction suggests that the TI epitope might serve as an important target for structure-based vaccine design.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/química , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/química , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia
10.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(596)2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078743

RESUMO

Broadly neutralizing antibodies are critical for protection against both drifted and shifted influenza viruses. Here, we reveal that first exposure to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus recalls memory B cells that are specific to the conserved receptor-binding site (RBS) or lateral patch epitopes of the hemagglutinin (HA) head domain. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated against these epitopes are broadly neutralizing against H1N1 viruses spanning 40 years of viral evolution and provide potent protection in vivo. Lateral patch-targeting antibodies demonstrated near universal binding to H1 viruses, and RBS-binding antibodies commonly cross-reacted with H3N2 viruses and influenza B viruses. Lateral patch-targeting mAbs were restricted to expressing the variable heavy-chain gene VH3-23 with or without the variable kappa-chain gene VK1-33 and often had a Y-x-R motif within the heavy-chain complementarity determining region 3 to make key contacts with HA. Moreover, lateral patch antibodies that used both VH3-23 and VK1-33 maintained neutralizing capability with recent pH1N1 strains that acquired mutations near the lateral patch. RBS-binding mAbs used a diverse repertoire but targeted the RBS epitope similarly and made extensive contacts with the major antigenic site Sb. Together, our data indicate that RBS- and lateral patch-targeting clones are abundant within the human memory B cell pool, and universal vaccine strategies should aim to drive antibodies against both conserved head and stalk epitopes.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Epitopos , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza , Hemaglutininas , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2
11.
mBio ; 12(3): e0042921, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156262

RESUMO

The immunogenicity of gp41-stabilized HIV-1 BG505 envelope (Env) trimers and nanoparticles (NPs) was recently assessed in mice and rabbits. Here, we combined Env-specific B-cell sorting and repertoire sequencing to identify neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) from immunized animals. A panel of mouse NAbs was isolated from mice immunized with a 60-meric I3-01 NP presenting 20 stabilized trimers. Three mouse NAbs potently neutralized BG505.T332N by recognizing a glycan epitope centered in the C3/V4 region on BG505 Env, as revealed by electron microscopy (EM), X-ray crystallography, and epitope mapping. A set of rabbit NAbs was isolated from rabbits immunized with a soluble trimer and a 24-meric ferritin NP presenting 8 trimers. Neutralization assays against BG505.T332N variants confirmed that potent rabbit NAbs targeted previously described glycan holes on BG505 Env and accounted for a significant portion of the autologous NAb response in both the trimer and ferritin NP groups. Last, we examined NAb responses that were induced by non-BG505 Env immunogens. We determined a 3.4-Å-resolution crystal structure for the clade C transmitted/founder (T/F) Du172.17 Env with a redesigned heptad repeat 1 (HR1) bend in gp41. This clade C Env, in a soluble trimer form and in a multivalent form with 8 trimers attached to ferritin NP, and the gp41-stabilized clade A Q482-d12 Env trimer elicited distinct NAb responses in rabbits, with notable differences in neutralization breadth. Although eliciting a broad NAb response remains a major challenge, our study provides valuable information on an HIV-1 vaccine design strategy that combines gp41 stabilization and NP display. IMPORTANCE Self-assembling protein nanoparticles (NPs) presenting BG505 envelope (Env) trimers can elicit tier 2 HIV-1-neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses more effectively than soluble trimers. In the present study, monoclonal NAbs were isolated from previously immunized mice and rabbits for structural and functional analyses, which revealed that potent mouse NAbs recognize the C3/V4 region and small NP-elicited rabbit NAbs primarily target known glycan holes on BG505 Env. This study validates the gp41 stabilization strategy for HIV-1 Env vaccine design and highlights the challenge in eliciting a broad NAb response.

12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2633, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976149

RESUMO

Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) can be recognized by neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and is the main target for vaccine design. Here, we first investigate the contribution of the stalk and heptad repeat 1-C (HR1C) regions to GP metastability. Specific stalk and HR1C modifications in a mucin-deleted form (GPΔmuc) increase trimer yield, whereas alterations of HR1C exert a more complex effect on thermostability. Crystal structures are determined to validate two rationally designed GPΔmuc trimers in their unliganded state. We then display a modified GPΔmuc trimer on reengineered protein nanoparticles that encapsulate a layer of locking domains (LD) and a cluster of helper T-cell epitopes. In mice and rabbits, GP trimers and nanoparticles elicit cross-ebolavirus NAbs, as well as non-NAbs that enhance pseudovirus infection. Repertoire sequencing reveals quantitative profiles of vaccine-induced B-cell responses. This study demonstrates a promising vaccine strategy for filoviruses, such as EBOV, based on GP stabilization and nanoparticle display.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Ebola/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteínas/administração & dosagem , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Proteínas Virais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/administração & dosagem , Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/ultraestrutura , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vacinas contra Ebola/genética , Vacinas contra Ebola/imunologia , Ebolavirus/genética , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/administração & dosagem , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/ultraestrutura , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/sangue , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , Engenharia de Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica/genética , Multimerização Proteica/imunologia , Estabilidade Proteica , Coelhos , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Subunidades/genética , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/ultraestrutura
13.
Cell Rep ; 35(8): 109167, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038720

RESUMO

HIV monoclonal antibodies for viral reservoir eradication strategies will likely need to recognize reactivated infected cells and potently drive Fc-mediated innate effector cell activity. We systematically characterize a library of 185 HIV-envelope-specific antibodies derived from 15 spontaneous HIV controllers (HCs) that selectively exhibit robust serum Fc functionality and compared them to broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in clinical development. Within the 10 antibodies with the broadest cell-recognition capability, seven originated from HCs and three were bNAbs. V3-loop-targeting antibodies are enriched among the top cell binders, suggesting the V3-loop may be selectively exposed and accessible on the cell surface. Fc functionality is more variable across antibodies, which is likely influenced by distinct binding topology and corresponding Fc accessibility, highlighting not only the importance of target-cell recognition but also the need to optimize for Fc-mediated elimination. Ultimately, our results demonstrate that this comprehensive selection process can identify monoclonal antibodies poised to eliminate infected cells.

14.
Science ; 373(6556): 818-823, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016740

RESUMO

Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) elicited against the receptor binding site (RBS) of the spike protein of wild-type severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are generally less effective against recent variants of concern. RBS residues Glu484, Lys417, and Asn501 are mutated in variants first described in South Africa (B.1.351) and Brazil (P.1). We analyzed their effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 binding, as well as the effects of two of these mutations (K417N and E484K) on nAbs isolated from COVID-19 patients. Binding and neutralization of the two most frequently elicited antibody families (IGHV3-53/3-66 and IGHV1-2), which can both bind the RBS in alternative binding modes, are abrogated by K417N, E484K, or both. These effects can be structurally explained by their extensive interactions with RBS nAbs. However, nAbs to the more conserved, cross-neutralizing CR3022 and S309 sites were largely unaffected. The results have implications for next-generation vaccines and antibody therapies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Variação Antigênica , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Sítios de Ligação de Anticorpos , COVID-19/virologia , Epitopos , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores de Coronavírus/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2938, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011939

RESUMO

Pre-existing immunity to seasonal endemic coronaviruses could have profound consequences for antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2, induced from natural infection or vaccination. A first step to establish whether pre-existing responses can impact SARS-CoV-2 infection is to understand the nature and extent of cross-reactivity in humans to coronaviruses. Here we compare serum antibody and memory B cell responses to coronavirus spike proteins from pre-pandemic and SARS-CoV-2 convalescent donors using binding and functional assays. We show weak evidence of pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive serum antibodies in pre-pandemic donors. However, we find evidence of pre-existing cross-reactive memory B cells that are activated during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Monoclonal antibodies show varying degrees of cross-reactivity with betacoronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-1 and endemic coronaviruses. We identify one cross-reactive neutralizing antibody specific to the S2 subunit of the S protein. Our results suggest that pre-existing immunity to endemic coronaviruses should be considered in evaluating antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Proteção Cruzada/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Masculino
16.
Cell Rep ; 35(1): 108933, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826885

RESUMO

Artificial glycan holes on recombinant Env-based vaccines occur when a potential N-linked glycosylation site (PNGS) is under-occupied, but not on their viral counterparts. Native-like SOSIP trimers, including clinical candidates, contain such holes in the glycan shield that induce strain-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) or non-NAbs. To eliminate glycan holes and mimic the glycosylation of native BG505 Env, we replace all 12 NxS sequons on BG505 SOSIP with NxT. All PNGS, except N133 and N160, are nearly fully occupied. Occupancy of the N133 site is increased by changing N133 to NxS, whereas occupancy of the N160 site is restored by reverting the nearby N156 sequon to NxS. Hence, PNGS in close proximity, such as in the N133-N137 and N156-N160 pairs, affect each other's occupancy. We further apply this approach to improve the occupancy of several Env strains. Increasing glycan occupancy should reduce off-target immune responses to vaccine antigens.

17.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791692

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is one of three coronaviruses that have crossed the animal-to-human barrier in the past two decades. The development of a universal human coronavirus vaccine could prevent future pandemics. We characterized 198 antibodies isolated from four COVID19+ subjects and identified 14 SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. One targeted the NTD, one recognized an epitope in S2 and twelve bound the RBD. Three anti-RBD neutralizing antibodies cross-neutralized SARS-CoV-1 by effectively blocking binding of both the SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 RBDs to the ACE2 receptor. Using the K18-hACE transgenic mouse model, we demonstrate that the neutralization potency rather than the antibody epitope specificity regulates the in vivo protective potential of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The anti-S2 antibody also neutralized SARS-CoV-1 and all four cross-neutralizing antibodies neutralized the B.1.351 mutant strain. Thus, our study reveals that epitopes in S2 can serve as blueprints for the design of immunogens capable of eliciting cross-neutralizing coronavirus antibodies.

18.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(4): e1008977, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826683

RESUMO

Evaluating the structure-function relationship of viral envelope (Env) evolution and the development of broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) in natural infection can inform rational immunogen design. In the present study, we examined the magnitude and specificity of autologous neutralizing antibodies induced in rabbits by a novel HIV-1 clade C Env protein (1PGE-THIVC) vis-à-vis those developed in an elite neutralizer from whom the env sequence was obtained that was used to prepare the soluble Env protein. The novel 1PGE-THIVC Env trimer displayed a native like pre-fusion closed conformation in solution as determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and negative stain electron microscopy (EM). This closed spike conformation of 1PGE-THIVC Env trimers was correlated with weak or undetectable binding of non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) compared to neutralizing mAbs. Furthermore, 1PGE-THIVC SOSIP induced potent neutralizing antibodies in rabbits to autologous virus variants. The autologous neutralizing antibody specificity induced in rabbits by 1PGE-THIVC was mapped to the C3/V4 region (T362/P401) of viral Env. This observation agreed with electron microscopy polyclonal epitope mapping (EMPEM) of the Env trimer complexed with IgG Fab prepared from the immunized rabbit sera. Our study demonstrated neutralization of sequence matched and unmatched autologous viruses by serum antibodies induced in rabbits by 1PGE-THIVC and also highlighted a comparable specificity for the 1PGE-THIVC SOSIP trimer with that seen with polyclonal antibodies elicited in the elite neutralizer by negative-stain electron microscopy polyclonal epitope (ns-EMPEM) mapping.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , HIV-1/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Coelhos , Vacinação/métodos , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia
19.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821267

RESUMO

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants that threaten the efficacy of existing vaccines and therapeutic antibodies underscores the urgent need for new antibody-based tools that potently neutralize variants by targeting multiple sites of the spike protein. We isolated 216 monoclonal antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 from plasmablasts and memory B cells of COVID-19 patients. The three most potent antibodies targeted distinct regions of the RBD, and all three neutralized the SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. The crystal structure of the most potent antibody, CV503, revealed that it binds to the ridge region of SARS-CoV-2 RBD, competes with the ACE2 receptor, and has limited contact with key variant residues K417, E484 and N501. We designed bispecific antibodies by combining non-overlapping specificities and identified five ultrapotent bispecific antibodies that inhibit authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection at concentrations of <1 ng/mL. Through a novel mode of action three bispecific antibodies cross-linked adjacent spike proteins using dual NTD/RBD specificities. One bispecific antibody was >100-fold more potent than a cocktail of its parent monoclonals in vitro and prevented clinical disease in a hamster model at a 2.5 mg/kg dose. Notably, six of nine bispecific antibodies neutralized B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and the wild-type virus with comparable potency, despite partial or complete loss of activity of at least one parent monoclonal antibody against B.1.351. Furthermore, a bispecific antibody that neutralized B.1.351 protected against SARS-CoV-2 expressing the crucial E484K mutation in the hamster model. Thus, bispecific antibodies represent a promising next-generation countermeasure against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.

20.
Cell Rep ; 35(2): 108984, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852862

RESUMO

Antibodies that target the glycan cap epitope on the ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) are common in the adaptive response of survivors. A subset is known to be broadly neutralizing, but the details of their epitopes and basis for neutralization are not well understood. Here, we present cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of diverse glycan cap antibodies that variably synergize with GP base-binding antibodies. These structures describe a conserved site of vulnerability that anchors the mucin-like domains (MLDs) to the glycan cap, which we call the MLD anchor and cradle. Antibodies that bind to the MLD cradle share common features, including use of IGHV1-69 and IGHJ6 germline genes, which exploit hydrophobic residues and form ß-hairpin structures to mimic the MLD anchor, disrupt MLD attachment, destabilize GP quaternary structure, and block cleavage events required for receptor binding. Our results provide a molecular basis for ebolavirus neutralization by broadly reactive glycan cap antibodies.

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